Modules as instructional materials responds well the
principles of individual differences, allowing each student to
proceed at his/her own pace.
While modules have been widely used as a desirable
pedagogical practice, its actual utilization in classroom
instruction leaves much to be desired.
Dr. Torralba as reiterated by Acero, et. al (2000) adopted two
definitions of modules, the first given by Darrel Murray and the
second by the workshop on Educational Technology
sponsored by DECS-UNESCO.
First Definition: A module is a self-contained and independent
unit of instruction with a primary focus on a few well-defined
objectives. The substance of a module consists of materials
and instructions needed to accomplish these objectives.”
Second Definition: A module is a set of
learning opportunities systematically organized
around a well defined topic which contains the
elements of instruction- specific objectives,
teaching-learning activities, and evaluation using
criterion-referenced measure. Good in 1973
described it as a teaching process using a set of
modules suited to each student who is given a
chance to advance at his/her own rate,
bypassing unnecessary instruction and
satisfying his/her particular needs and learn in a
considerably shorter time.
Components of a Module
• Title. It should be brief, comprehensive and
• Target Population. This specifies the level
and the kind of students to which the module is
• Overview: A bird’s eye view of the topic to be
covered by the module. This is needed to
prepare the mental set-up and to motivate the
• Objectives: These would guide the students
what exactly are expected of them in going
through the modules in terms of learning
5. Instructions to the learners. Instructions
should be worded with clarity, brevity, simplicity
and specificity to enable the students to carry
out the suggested activities, to answer specific
questions, to accomplish sheet assignment, and
other related activities by themselves.
6. Entry behavior and prerequisite skills. The
entry behavior and prerequisite skills are needed
to make the learners use the module
successfully. It provides them preliminary
assessment whether the module is within their
capabilities or not. If they feel they do not have
the prerequisite skills, they may skip the module
and instead concentrate on the development of
such requirements before they try it.
7. Pre-test. The pretest is given to determine how
much the learners already know about the topic.
If the results show that they have considerably
mastered it, they may be given the next module.
8. Pre-test feedback and evaluation. A key to
correction must be provided within the module
for the students to determine whether their
answers to every item in the pre-test is correct.
The total number of correct items must be given
an equivalent grade to find out whether the
learners pass or fail the test given. Such
equivalent grade is contained in the pre-test
11. Post test feedback and evaluation. The post
test feedback serves as the key to correction
while the post test evaluation provides the grade
equivalents of the different scores obtained by
12. Teacher’s manual or guide. To assure
effective use of the manual , the teacher needs
the necessary pointers, helpful alternatives, and
necessary background to strengthen mastery of
topic. It is necessary that the teacher’s manual
or guide can clarify things, provide cautions in
the use of the manual, call the attention of the
teacher to emphasize salient points, and
suggest enrichment activities in order to
maximize students’ learning.
9. Learning Activities. This is the heart of the
module which specifies the different activities
that the students must undertake in order to
achieve the specific learning objectives. Such
activities include the various lessons, study
sheet assignments, tests, and even suggested
10. Post test. The post test is taken after all the
students have done all the learning activities
suggested in the module. This is to find out how
far have they learned from the module. The pre-
test may be given as post test in the absence of
other equally well-prepared post test.
This refers to an inductive method of guiding
students to discuss and organize ideas and
processes themselves. It helps them use ideas
already acquired as a means of discovering
It is the process by which the students are
directed subtly to go through the logical process
of observation, comparison, and abstraction,
generalization, and application. Self-discovery
sets up learning situations whereby the learners
are encouraged to explore a process or discover
Types of Discovery Approach
• Guided Discovery. The teacher draws
out from his/her students certain bits of
information through properly organized
questions and explanations leading them
to the eventual discovery of particular
concepts or principles.
• Pure Discovery. The students are
expected to arrive at certain concepts and
principles completely by themselves.
Guidelines in the Use of the Discovery
3. There should be a well-planned structured
instructional strategy. The students must
understand the problem very well. Data must
be arranged systematically.
4. Teacher must not answer questions, although
s/he can give clues and hints.
5. The teacher must not expect the students to
find out for themselves all concepts, ideas, and
generalizations of the course.
The conceptual approach is choosing and
defining the content of a certain discipline to be
taught through the use of big or pervasive ideas
as against the traditional practice of determining
content by isolated topics.
The emphasis is not the content per se,but
in the big ideas that pervade the subject. It is
using the content as a means of leading the
students to discover the laws and principles or
generalization that govern a particular subject or
discipline (Soriano, as reiterated by Acero, et.al).
The conceptual approach, like discovery,
stresses cognitive learning: the learning of
content or the acquisition of knowledge.
However, the conceptual approach requires the
categorization of content from simple to complex
level while discovery is generally concerned with
the conscious effort of the learners to find out
mere relationships between two given variables.
The conceptual approach involves more
data collection usually through research while
the discovery approach actively involves
students to undertake experimental and
Hierarchy of Cognition
In the process approach, the students
are actively engaged in the activities so
the competencies needed in the subject
could eventually be acquired by them. For
instance, if they are to learn cooking, they
should actually cook rather that devote a
great deal of their time on the theoretical
aspects of the cooking.
Three major points to consider in the process
3. A corresponding de-emphasis on the subject
content. The concern is how to learn and not
what to learn.
4. What is taught to the students must be
functional and not theoretical. ( If you learn
math, do what mathematicians do, if you learn
science, do what scientists do, and if you learn
music, do what musicians do.)
5. It must consider human intellectual
It is the search for truth, information or
knowledge. It pertains to research and
investigation and to seeking for information by
asking questions (Kilkman, 1970).
It is also the search for the solution to a
problem through an exploration and evaluation
of alternatives (Suchman, 1964).
The inquiry approach can either be inductive
or deductive. Deductive, if the teacher in the
beginning provides the students with
background information which will serve as the
subject of the inquiry. It can be done soon after
the students have learned through discovery.
The generalization formed by the students are
subjected to a closer scrutiny during the inquiry
session to lead the students toward in depth
understanding of the generalization.
It becomes inductive when through a set of
questions presented, the students are able to
come up with certain ideas of their own which
are open for further investigation.
Other Teaching Methodologies
C. Whole Group Instruction is the most traditional
form of classroom organization (Ornstein,
Behavior Modeling – Acting out a
particular behavior the right way.
Case Study – A problematic situation
written or described in narrative form ranging
from a paragraph to several paragraphs.
Cross-Impact Analysis - With the occurrence
of one or more separate situations, the learners
estimate possible linkages or casual relationship
between or among these events and come up
with action plan to deal with likely events.
Delphi Procedure - A method for obtaining the
consensus of opinion of a group of experts
through questionnaires with controlled opinion
Demonstration - Showing the learner how to
perform a task/activity or how to operate
Devil’s Advocate – A method of dealing
with a complex problem or conflicting
situation in the context of opposition.
Conflicting views may stem from different
goals, perspectives, and role requirement.
The “devil” serves as a critic-attacking
idea presented and defended by learners.
Exercises - Drill, board work, writing
exercises that require learners’ application
of the acquired knowledge and skills.
Micro simulations – Short informal practice
sessions whereby learners perform a new
task/activity under artificial conditions to help
them develop a matrix of solutions and effects to
help the learners generate new ideas to deal
with future problems before they occur.
Role Play – A dramatic enactment between two or
more people intended to represent a situation.
Scenario Analysis - Building hypothetical
sequence of events; answers the questions, “If
then, etc.” to determine the future effects pf a
problem, issue, or trend.
Simulations and Games – A lengthy role play
involving several participants intended to
represent a work, a problem situation, or a real
Team World-Webbing/Mind mapping – Students
write simultaneously on a paper drawing to
bridge the main concepts with their components,
supporting elements in order to show multiple
relations among ideas, or to differentiate
Think-Pair-Share - Each student finds a pair to
work on the topic provided by the teacher. They
generate a concept, a conclusion through
inductive-deductive reasoning, and an
application of the concept developed. In the
end, the pair shares their thoughts with the
Trips – Visits to museums, historical spots,
B. Small-Group Instruction – Small groups
provide an opportunity for students to become
more actively engaged in learning and for
teachers to monitor students’ progress better.
Between 5 to 8 students ensure successful
Ability Grouping – Grouping learners according
to their ability and mental preparedness reduce
the problems of heterogeneity in the classroom.
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