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IMPROVED INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES
Modular Instruction
          Modules as instructional materials responds well the
 principles of individual differences, allowing each student to
 proceed at his/her own pace.

        While modules have been widely used      as    a desirable
 pedagogical practice, its actual utilization     in    classroom
 instruction leaves much to be desired.

  Dr. Torralba as reiterated by Acero, et. al (2000) adopted two
 definitions of modules, the first given by Darrel Murray and the
 second by the workshop on Educational Technology
 sponsored by DECS-UNESCO.

 First Definition: A module is a self-contained and independent
 unit of instruction with a primary focus on a few well-defined
 objectives. The substance of a module consists of materials
 and instructions needed to accomplish these objectives.”
Second Definition: A module is a set of
learning opportunities systematically organized
around a well defined topic which contains the
elements of instruction- specific objectives,
teaching-learning activities, and evaluation using
criterion-referenced measure. Good in 1973
described it as a teaching process using a set of
modules suited to each student who is given a
chance to advance at his/her own rate,
bypassing       unnecessary      instruction  and
satisfying his/her particular needs and learn in a
considerably shorter time.
Components of a Module

•   Title. It should be brief, comprehensive and
    interesting.
•   Target Population. This specifies the level
    and the kind of students to which the module is
    directed.
•   Overview: A bird’s eye view of the topic to be
    covered by the module. This is needed to
    prepare the mental set-up and to motivate the
    students.
•   Objectives: These would guide the students
    what exactly are expected of them in going
    through the modules in terms of learning
    objectives.
5. Instructions to the learners. Instructions
  should be worded with clarity, brevity, simplicity
  and specificity to enable the students to carry
  out the suggested activities, to answer specific
  questions, to accomplish sheet assignment, and
  other related activities by themselves.

6. Entry behavior and prerequisite skills. The
  entry behavior and prerequisite skills are needed
  to make the learners use the module
  successfully. It provides them preliminary
  assessment whether the module is within their
  capabilities or not. If they feel they do not have
  the prerequisite skills, they may skip the module
  and instead concentrate on the development of
  such requirements before they try it.
7. Pre-test. The pretest is given to determine how
  much the learners already know about the topic.
  If the results show that they have considerably
  mastered it, they may be given the next module.

8. Pre-test feedback and evaluation. A key to
  correction must be provided within the module
  for the students to determine whether their
  answers to every item in the pre-test is correct.
  The total number of correct items must be given
  an equivalent grade to find out whether the
  learners pass or fail the test given. Such
  equivalent grade is contained in the pre-test
  evaluation.
11. Post test feedback and evaluation. The post
  test feedback serves as the key to correction
  while the post test evaluation provides the grade
  equivalents of the different scores obtained by
  the students.

12. Teacher’s manual or guide. To assure
  effective use of the manual , the teacher needs
  the necessary pointers, helpful alternatives, and
  necessary background to strengthen mastery of
  topic. It is necessary that the teacher’s manual
  or guide can clarify things, provide cautions in
  the use of the manual, call the attention of the
  teacher to emphasize salient points, and
  suggest enrichment activities in order to
  maximize students’ learning.
9. Learning Activities. This is the heart of the
  module which specifies the different activities
  that the students must undertake in order to
  achieve the specific learning objectives. Such
  activities include the various lessons, study
  sheet assignments, tests, and even suggested
  projects.

10. Post test. The post test is taken after all the
  students have done all the learning activities
  suggested in the module. This is to find out how
  far have they learned from the module. The pre-
  test may be given as post test in the absence of
  other equally well-prepared post test.
Discovery Approach

     This refers to an inductive method of guiding
 students to discuss and organize ideas and
 processes themselves. It helps them use ideas
 already acquired as a means of discovering
 ideas.
       It is the process by which the students are
 directed subtly to go through the logical process
 of observation, comparison, and abstraction,
 generalization, and application. Self-discovery
 sets up learning situations whereby the learners
 are encouraged to explore a process or discover
 rules.
Types of Discovery Approach

• Guided Discovery. The teacher draws
    out from his/her students certain bits of
    information through properly organized
    questions and explanations leading them
    to the eventual discovery of particular
    concepts or principles.
•   Pure Discovery.         The students are
    expected to arrive at certain concepts and
    principles completely by themselves.
Guidelines in the Use of the Discovery
   Approach

3. There should be a well-planned structured
   instructional strategy. The students must
   understand the problem very well. Data must
   be arranged systematically.
4. Teacher must not answer questions, although
   s/he can give clues and hints.
5. The teacher must not expect the students to
   find out for themselves all concepts, ideas, and
   generalizations of the course.
Conceptual Approach
      The conceptual approach is choosing and
 defining the content of a certain discipline to be
 taught through the use of big or pervasive ideas
 as against the traditional practice of determining
 content by isolated topics.
      The emphasis is not the content per se,but
 in the big ideas that pervade the subject. It is
 using the content as a means of leading the
 students to discover the laws and principles or
 generalization that govern a particular subject or
 discipline (Soriano, as reiterated by Acero, et.al).
The conceptual approach, like discovery,
stresses cognitive learning: the learning of
content or the acquisition of knowledge.
However, the conceptual approach requires the
categorization of content from simple to complex
level while discovery is generally concerned with
the conscious effort of the learners to find out
mere relationships between two given variables.
        The conceptual approach involves more
data collection usually through research while
the discovery approach actively involves
students to undertake experimental and
investigative work.
Conceptual Scheme
     Principle
   Generalization
      Concept
       Fact

Hierarchy of Cognition
Process Approach

     In the process approach, the students
 are actively engaged in the activities so
 the competencies needed in the subject
 could eventually be acquired by them. For
 instance, if they are to learn cooking, they
 should actually cook rather that devote a
 great deal of their time on the theoretical
 aspects of the cooking.
Three major points to consider in the process
   approach:

3. A corresponding de-emphasis on the subject
   content. The concern is how to learn and not
   what to learn.
4. What is taught to the students must be
   functional and not theoretical. ( If you learn
   math, do what mathematicians do, if you learn
   science, do what scientists do, and if you learn
   music, do what musicians do.)
5. It must consider human intellectual
   development.
Inquiry Approach
     It is the search for truth, information or
  knowledge. It pertains to research and
  investigation and to seeking for information by
  asking questions (Kilkman, 1970).
      It is also the search for the solution to a
  problem through an exploration and evaluation
  of alternatives (Suchman, 1964).
       The inquiry approach can either be inductive
  or deductive. Deductive, if the teacher in the
  beginning provides the students with
  background information which will serve as the
  subject of the inquiry. It can be done soon after
the students have learned through discovery.
The generalization formed by the students are
subjected to a closer scrutiny during the inquiry
session to lead the students toward in depth
understanding of the generalization.
     It becomes inductive when through a set of
questions presented, the students are able to
come up with certain ideas of their own which
are open for further investigation.
Other Teaching Methodologies

C. Whole Group Instruction is the most traditional
   form of classroom organization (Ornstein,
   1982).
        Behavior Modeling – Acting out a
   particular behavior the right way.

        Case Study – A problematic situation
   written or described in narrative form ranging
   from a paragraph to several paragraphs.
Cross-Impact Analysis - With the occurrence
of one or more separate situations, the learners
estimate possible linkages or casual relationship
between or among these events and come up
with action plan to deal with likely events.
Delphi Procedure - A method for obtaining the
consensus of opinion of a group of experts
through questionnaires with controlled opinion
feedback.
Demonstration - Showing the learner how to
perform a task/activity or how to operate
equipment.
Devil’s Advocate – A method of dealing
 with a complex problem or conflicting
 situation in the context of opposition.
 Conflicting views may stem from different
 goals, perspectives, and role requirement.
 The “devil” serves as a critic-attacking
 idea presented and defended by learners.

Exercises -     Drill, board work, writing
 exercises that require learners’ application
 of the acquired knowledge and skills.
Micro simulations – Short informal practice
  sessions whereby learners perform a new
  task/activity under artificial conditions to help
  them develop a matrix of solutions and effects to
  help the learners generate new ideas to deal
  with future problems before they occur.
Role Play – A dramatic enactment between two or
  more people intended to represent a situation.
Scenario Analysis -           Building hypothetical
  sequence of events; answers the questions, “If
  then, etc.” to determine the future effects pf a
  problem, issue, or trend.
Simulations and Games – A lengthy role play
  involving several participants intended to
  represent a work, a problem situation, or a real
  life situation.
Team World-Webbing/Mind mapping – Students
  write simultaneously on a paper drawing to
  bridge the main concepts with their components,
  supporting elements in order to show multiple
  relations among ideas, or to differentiate
  concepts presented.

Think-Pair-Share - Each student finds a pair to
  work on the topic provided by the teacher. They
  generate a concept, a conclusion through
  inductive-deductive    reasoning,    and     an
  application of the concept developed. In the
  end, the pair shares their thoughts with the
  entire class.
Trips – Visits to museums, historical spots,
  congress,etc.

B. Small-Group Instruction – Small groups
  provide an opportunity for students to become
  more actively engaged in learning and for
  teachers to monitor students’ progress better.
  Between 5 to 8 students ensure successful
  small-group activity.

 Ability Grouping – Grouping learners according
 to their ability and mental preparedness reduce
 the problems of heterogeneity in the classroom.

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IMPROVED INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS

  • 2. Modular Instruction Modules as instructional materials responds well the principles of individual differences, allowing each student to proceed at his/her own pace. While modules have been widely used as a desirable pedagogical practice, its actual utilization in classroom instruction leaves much to be desired. Dr. Torralba as reiterated by Acero, et. al (2000) adopted two definitions of modules, the first given by Darrel Murray and the second by the workshop on Educational Technology sponsored by DECS-UNESCO. First Definition: A module is a self-contained and independent unit of instruction with a primary focus on a few well-defined objectives. The substance of a module consists of materials and instructions needed to accomplish these objectives.”
  • 3. Second Definition: A module is a set of learning opportunities systematically organized around a well defined topic which contains the elements of instruction- specific objectives, teaching-learning activities, and evaluation using criterion-referenced measure. Good in 1973 described it as a teaching process using a set of modules suited to each student who is given a chance to advance at his/her own rate, bypassing unnecessary instruction and satisfying his/her particular needs and learn in a considerably shorter time.
  • 4. Components of a Module • Title. It should be brief, comprehensive and interesting. • Target Population. This specifies the level and the kind of students to which the module is directed. • Overview: A bird’s eye view of the topic to be covered by the module. This is needed to prepare the mental set-up and to motivate the students. • Objectives: These would guide the students what exactly are expected of them in going through the modules in terms of learning objectives.
  • 5. 5. Instructions to the learners. Instructions should be worded with clarity, brevity, simplicity and specificity to enable the students to carry out the suggested activities, to answer specific questions, to accomplish sheet assignment, and other related activities by themselves. 6. Entry behavior and prerequisite skills. The entry behavior and prerequisite skills are needed to make the learners use the module successfully. It provides them preliminary assessment whether the module is within their capabilities or not. If they feel they do not have the prerequisite skills, they may skip the module and instead concentrate on the development of such requirements before they try it.
  • 6. 7. Pre-test. The pretest is given to determine how much the learners already know about the topic. If the results show that they have considerably mastered it, they may be given the next module. 8. Pre-test feedback and evaluation. A key to correction must be provided within the module for the students to determine whether their answers to every item in the pre-test is correct. The total number of correct items must be given an equivalent grade to find out whether the learners pass or fail the test given. Such equivalent grade is contained in the pre-test evaluation.
  • 7. 11. Post test feedback and evaluation. The post test feedback serves as the key to correction while the post test evaluation provides the grade equivalents of the different scores obtained by the students. 12. Teacher’s manual or guide. To assure effective use of the manual , the teacher needs the necessary pointers, helpful alternatives, and necessary background to strengthen mastery of topic. It is necessary that the teacher’s manual or guide can clarify things, provide cautions in the use of the manual, call the attention of the teacher to emphasize salient points, and suggest enrichment activities in order to maximize students’ learning.
  • 8. 9. Learning Activities. This is the heart of the module which specifies the different activities that the students must undertake in order to achieve the specific learning objectives. Such activities include the various lessons, study sheet assignments, tests, and even suggested projects. 10. Post test. The post test is taken after all the students have done all the learning activities suggested in the module. This is to find out how far have they learned from the module. The pre- test may be given as post test in the absence of other equally well-prepared post test.
  • 9. Discovery Approach This refers to an inductive method of guiding students to discuss and organize ideas and processes themselves. It helps them use ideas already acquired as a means of discovering ideas. It is the process by which the students are directed subtly to go through the logical process of observation, comparison, and abstraction, generalization, and application. Self-discovery sets up learning situations whereby the learners are encouraged to explore a process or discover rules.
  • 10. Types of Discovery Approach • Guided Discovery. The teacher draws out from his/her students certain bits of information through properly organized questions and explanations leading them to the eventual discovery of particular concepts or principles. • Pure Discovery. The students are expected to arrive at certain concepts and principles completely by themselves.
  • 11. Guidelines in the Use of the Discovery Approach 3. There should be a well-planned structured instructional strategy. The students must understand the problem very well. Data must be arranged systematically. 4. Teacher must not answer questions, although s/he can give clues and hints. 5. The teacher must not expect the students to find out for themselves all concepts, ideas, and generalizations of the course.
  • 12. Conceptual Approach The conceptual approach is choosing and defining the content of a certain discipline to be taught through the use of big or pervasive ideas as against the traditional practice of determining content by isolated topics. The emphasis is not the content per se,but in the big ideas that pervade the subject. It is using the content as a means of leading the students to discover the laws and principles or generalization that govern a particular subject or discipline (Soriano, as reiterated by Acero, et.al).
  • 13. The conceptual approach, like discovery, stresses cognitive learning: the learning of content or the acquisition of knowledge. However, the conceptual approach requires the categorization of content from simple to complex level while discovery is generally concerned with the conscious effort of the learners to find out mere relationships between two given variables. The conceptual approach involves more data collection usually through research while the discovery approach actively involves students to undertake experimental and investigative work.
  • 14. Conceptual Scheme Principle Generalization Concept Fact Hierarchy of Cognition
  • 15. Process Approach In the process approach, the students are actively engaged in the activities so the competencies needed in the subject could eventually be acquired by them. For instance, if they are to learn cooking, they should actually cook rather that devote a great deal of their time on the theoretical aspects of the cooking.
  • 16. Three major points to consider in the process approach: 3. A corresponding de-emphasis on the subject content. The concern is how to learn and not what to learn. 4. What is taught to the students must be functional and not theoretical. ( If you learn math, do what mathematicians do, if you learn science, do what scientists do, and if you learn music, do what musicians do.) 5. It must consider human intellectual development.
  • 17. Inquiry Approach It is the search for truth, information or knowledge. It pertains to research and investigation and to seeking for information by asking questions (Kilkman, 1970). It is also the search for the solution to a problem through an exploration and evaluation of alternatives (Suchman, 1964). The inquiry approach can either be inductive or deductive. Deductive, if the teacher in the beginning provides the students with background information which will serve as the subject of the inquiry. It can be done soon after
  • 18. the students have learned through discovery. The generalization formed by the students are subjected to a closer scrutiny during the inquiry session to lead the students toward in depth understanding of the generalization. It becomes inductive when through a set of questions presented, the students are able to come up with certain ideas of their own which are open for further investigation.
  • 19. Other Teaching Methodologies C. Whole Group Instruction is the most traditional form of classroom organization (Ornstein, 1982). Behavior Modeling – Acting out a particular behavior the right way. Case Study – A problematic situation written or described in narrative form ranging from a paragraph to several paragraphs.
  • 20. Cross-Impact Analysis - With the occurrence of one or more separate situations, the learners estimate possible linkages or casual relationship between or among these events and come up with action plan to deal with likely events. Delphi Procedure - A method for obtaining the consensus of opinion of a group of experts through questionnaires with controlled opinion feedback. Demonstration - Showing the learner how to perform a task/activity or how to operate equipment.
  • 21. Devil’s Advocate – A method of dealing with a complex problem or conflicting situation in the context of opposition. Conflicting views may stem from different goals, perspectives, and role requirement. The “devil” serves as a critic-attacking idea presented and defended by learners. Exercises - Drill, board work, writing exercises that require learners’ application of the acquired knowledge and skills.
  • 22. Micro simulations – Short informal practice sessions whereby learners perform a new task/activity under artificial conditions to help them develop a matrix of solutions and effects to help the learners generate new ideas to deal with future problems before they occur. Role Play – A dramatic enactment between two or more people intended to represent a situation. Scenario Analysis - Building hypothetical sequence of events; answers the questions, “If then, etc.” to determine the future effects pf a problem, issue, or trend. Simulations and Games – A lengthy role play involving several participants intended to represent a work, a problem situation, or a real life situation.
  • 23. Team World-Webbing/Mind mapping – Students write simultaneously on a paper drawing to bridge the main concepts with their components, supporting elements in order to show multiple relations among ideas, or to differentiate concepts presented. Think-Pair-Share - Each student finds a pair to work on the topic provided by the teacher. They generate a concept, a conclusion through inductive-deductive reasoning, and an application of the concept developed. In the end, the pair shares their thoughts with the entire class.
  • 24. Trips – Visits to museums, historical spots, congress,etc. B. Small-Group Instruction – Small groups provide an opportunity for students to become more actively engaged in learning and for teachers to monitor students’ progress better. Between 5 to 8 students ensure successful small-group activity. Ability Grouping – Grouping learners according to their ability and mental preparedness reduce the problems of heterogeneity in the classroom.