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Curriculum  Models
A Definition of Curriculum (Daniel Tanner, 1980) “ The planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence.”
SUBJECT-CENTERED Design Model
Subject-Centered Curriculum This model focuses on the content of the curriculum.  The subject centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook written for the specific subject .
Subject-Centered Curriculum ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Subject-Centered Curriculum ,[object Object]
 
In the Philippines, our curricula in any level is also divided in different subjects or courses. Most of the schools using this kind of structure aim for excellence in the subject matter content.  Subject-Centered Curriculum
Examples of Subject-centered curriculum: 1.  Subject Design   The drawback of his design is that sometimes learning is so compartmentalized.  It stresses so much the content that it forgets about students’ natural tendencies, interest and experiences.   2.  Discipline Design  Discipline refers to specific knowledge and through a method which the scholars use to study a specific content of their fields.
This comes from a core, correlated curriculum design that links separate subject designs in order to reduce fragmentation. Subjects are related to one another but each subject a maintains its identify.   3.  Correlation Design Examples of subject-centered curriculum: 4.  Broad field design/interdisciplinary  This design was made to prevent the compartmentalization of subjects and integrate the contents that are related to each other.
 
Students in history should learn the subject matter like historians, students in biology should learn how biologist learn, and so with students in mathematics should learn how mathematicians learn.   The discipline design model of curriculum is often  used in college   Discipline becomes the degree program. Examples of Subject-centered curriculum:
Reflection: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Learner-Centered Curriculum ,[object Object],[object Object]
Learner-Centered Curriculum ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Learner-Centered Curriculum 2.  Experience-Centered design  Experiences of the learners become the starting point of the curriculum. Thus the school environment is left open and free. Learners are made to choose from various activities that the teacher provides.  The learners are empowered to shape their own learning from the different opportunities given by the teacher.
Learner-Centered Curriculum ,[object Object],[object Object],The development of self is the ultimate objective of leaning. It stresses the whole person and the integration of thinking, feeling and doing. It considers the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains to be interconnected and must be addressed in the curriculum. It stresses the development of positive self-concept and interpersonal skills.
Advantages: ,[object Object],[object Object]
Advantages: ,[object Object],[object Object]
Disadvantages: ,[object Object],[object Object]
Disadvantages: ,[object Object]
Alternative Methods for a  Learner-Centered Curriculum ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Alternative Methods for a  Learner-Centered Curriculum ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Reflection: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Problem-Centered Curriculum ,[object Object]
[object Object],Problem-Centered Curriculum
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Problem-Centered Curriculum
Problem-Centered Curriculum 1.  Life-situations design It uses the past and present experiences of learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of living.  As a starting point, the pressing immediate problems of the society and the student’s existing concerns are utilized.  Based on Herbert Spencer’s curriculum writing, his emphases were activities that sustain life, enhance life, and in rearing children, maintain the individual’s social and political relations and enhance leisure, tasks and feelings.  The connection of subject matter to real situations increases the relevance of the curriculum.
 
 
Problem-Centered Curriculum 2.  Core design It centers on general education and the problems are based on common human activities.  The central focus of the core design includes common needs, problems, concerns, of the learners.
 
Reflection: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Curriculum Development Models These are based on a body of theory about teaching and learning. These are targeted to needs & characteristics of a particular group of learners. Outline approaches, methods, & procedures for implementation.
Curriculum Development Models ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Models of Curriculum Development The Taba Model   Taba took what is known as a grass-roots approach to curriculum development. She believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating teaching-learning units for their students in their schools rather initially in creating a general curriculum design.
Models of Curriculum Development The Taba Model   an inductive approach to curriculum development, starting with specifics and building up to a general design
The Taba Model   Five-Step Sequence.   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Five-Step Sequence (cont.):   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The Taba Model
GOALS & OBJECTIVES CURRICULUM DESIGNING  Decisions as to  design(s) made by  the responsible curriculum planning group(s) for a  particular  educational center. Various prior decisions by  political and social agencies may limit the  final design(s). CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION (Instruction)Decisions  as to instructional modes made by responsible teacher(s).  The curriculum plan includes alternative modes with suggestions as to resources,  media, and organization, thus encouraging  flexibility  and more freedom  for the teacher(s)  and students.  CURRICULUM EVALUATION Decisions as to evaluative procedures for determining learner progress made by the responsible teacher(s).  Decisions as to evaluative  procedures for evaluating the curriculum. Plans are made by the responsible planning group.  Evaluative data become bases for decision making in further planning. Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s conception of the curriculum planning process:
Models of Curriculum Development The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis Model Curriculum:  “a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities for persons to be educated.”   Curriculum planners begin by specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to be accomplished.
Models of Curriculum Development The best or one of the best known models for curriculum development with special attention to planning phases is Ralph W. Tyler’s in his classic little book,  Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction .   The Tyler Model
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The Tyler Model of Curriculum Design
Tyler:  Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Reflection: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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Curriculum design and models

  • 2. A Definition of Curriculum (Daniel Tanner, 1980) “ The planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence.”
  • 4. Subject-Centered Curriculum This model focuses on the content of the curriculum. The subject centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook written for the specific subject .
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  • 8. In the Philippines, our curricula in any level is also divided in different subjects or courses. Most of the schools using this kind of structure aim for excellence in the subject matter content. Subject-Centered Curriculum
  • 9. Examples of Subject-centered curriculum: 1. Subject Design The drawback of his design is that sometimes learning is so compartmentalized. It stresses so much the content that it forgets about students’ natural tendencies, interest and experiences. 2. Discipline Design Discipline refers to specific knowledge and through a method which the scholars use to study a specific content of their fields.
  • 10. This comes from a core, correlated curriculum design that links separate subject designs in order to reduce fragmentation. Subjects are related to one another but each subject a maintains its identify. 3. Correlation Design Examples of subject-centered curriculum: 4. Broad field design/interdisciplinary This design was made to prevent the compartmentalization of subjects and integrate the contents that are related to each other.
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  • 12. Students in history should learn the subject matter like historians, students in biology should learn how biologist learn, and so with students in mathematics should learn how mathematicians learn. The discipline design model of curriculum is often used in college Discipline becomes the degree program. Examples of Subject-centered curriculum:
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  • 16. Learner-Centered Curriculum 2. Experience-Centered design Experiences of the learners become the starting point of the curriculum. Thus the school environment is left open and free. Learners are made to choose from various activities that the teacher provides. The learners are empowered to shape their own learning from the different opportunities given by the teacher.
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  • 28. Problem-Centered Curriculum 1. Life-situations design It uses the past and present experiences of learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of living. As a starting point, the pressing immediate problems of the society and the student’s existing concerns are utilized. Based on Herbert Spencer’s curriculum writing, his emphases were activities that sustain life, enhance life, and in rearing children, maintain the individual’s social and political relations and enhance leisure, tasks and feelings. The connection of subject matter to real situations increases the relevance of the curriculum.
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  • 31. Problem-Centered Curriculum 2. Core design It centers on general education and the problems are based on common human activities. The central focus of the core design includes common needs, problems, concerns, of the learners.
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  • 34. Curriculum Development Models These are based on a body of theory about teaching and learning. These are targeted to needs & characteristics of a particular group of learners. Outline approaches, methods, & procedures for implementation.
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  • 36. Models of Curriculum Development The Taba Model Taba took what is known as a grass-roots approach to curriculum development. She believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating teaching-learning units for their students in their schools rather initially in creating a general curriculum design.
  • 37. Models of Curriculum Development The Taba Model an inductive approach to curriculum development, starting with specifics and building up to a general design
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  • 40. GOALS & OBJECTIVES CURRICULUM DESIGNING Decisions as to design(s) made by the responsible curriculum planning group(s) for a particular educational center. Various prior decisions by political and social agencies may limit the final design(s). CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION (Instruction)Decisions as to instructional modes made by responsible teacher(s). The curriculum plan includes alternative modes with suggestions as to resources, media, and organization, thus encouraging flexibility and more freedom for the teacher(s) and students. CURRICULUM EVALUATION Decisions as to evaluative procedures for determining learner progress made by the responsible teacher(s). Decisions as to evaluative procedures for evaluating the curriculum. Plans are made by the responsible planning group. Evaluative data become bases for decision making in further planning. Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s conception of the curriculum planning process:
  • 41. Models of Curriculum Development The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis Model Curriculum: “a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities for persons to be educated.” Curriculum planners begin by specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to be accomplished.
  • 42. Models of Curriculum Development The best or one of the best known models for curriculum development with special attention to planning phases is Ralph W. Tyler’s in his classic little book, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction . The Tyler Model
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