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Dr. Marjorie Hall Haley- George Mason University
Dr. Lihong Wang- George Mason University
Dr. Sherry Steeley -Georgetown U...
 Increased demand for Arabic and Chinese
teachers in U.S.
 Focus on classroom management and
discipline and how teachers...
 Based on “Planning for Today’s Learners:
Effective Classroom Management and
Discipline.
 Blended learning activities
 ...
 Focus on critical dimensions of effective
classroom management (Kounin, 1970):
 1. “withitness”
 2. smoothness and mom...
 Pre-survey
 Post-survey
 Group interview protocol
 Online discussion boards
5Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
 Combination of Arabic and Chinese pre-
service and in-service teachers
 Public and parochial K-12 schools
 Range of te...
 How do Chinese and Arabic teachers
negotiate the cross cultural challenges
inherent in classroom management?
 How do cu...
 Based on pre-/post- survey results, extensive
learning in specific areas of classroom
management directly relevant to st...
Overcoming cultural challenges:
Socio-political context
Student-teacher relationship
Learning styles
Thinking styles
...
Developing a Cross-Cultural Classroom
Management Plan:
Incorporating culture of origin into U.S.
classroom
Using L1
Stu...
Negotiating School Culture
and Developing Classroom
Management Plans
11Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
 How do Chinese and Arabic teachers
negotiate the cross cultural challenges
inherent in classroom management?
 How do cu...
13Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
 Dealing with differences directly:
 “You can always tell the haves and
have-nots…”
14Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
 Heterogeneous population as
challenge:
 “I might be confused what kind of
rules are acceptable for all
students…”
15Hal...
 Different ethnic backgrounds:
 “I personally found that it is very
difficult not to think about the
ethnicity and race…...
 Negotiating cultural differences:
 “…American parents sometimes have
their own thoughts about education.”
17Haley, Stee...
 Presenting teacher culture to parents:
 “…Communicating with parents is
not easy…explaining our Chinese
classroom cultu...
 Diversity of parent cultures vs. U.S.
school culture:
 “…not familiar with USA’s classroom
and school policy…”
19Haley,...
 School support:
 “the counselor, the principle and the
favorite teacher might get involved...”
20Haley, Steeley, Wong (...
 Peer input
 “…how American teachers respond to
the students…”
21Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
22Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
 Due to cultural differences, a strong
management plan is critical:
 “my perception regarding the
importance of having a...
 Rules must be explicit:
 “…I will just make the classroom
rules clear..”
24Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
 From “sage on the stage” to guide on
the side…:
 “…in a typical classroom in the U.S.,
the teacher acts like a fellow l...
 Motivation is key:
 “…working hard and they will get my
attention (help) 100%.”
26Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
 From negative to positive feedback:
 “I need move my focus from negative
side to good side when I view
students.”
27Hal...
 Awareness of and planning for
cultural differences:
 “…we need to include all students'
cultural background .”
28Haley,...
 Proverbs as input:
 “Engineers of the human soul.”
 “一日为师,终生为父“ (If you teach
me 3 days, you will be my parents
foreve...
 Teachers’ cultural beliefs:
 “…teacher should have the students’
undivided attention…students should
face the board.”
3...
School
culture:
Leadership
& Peers
Student
cultures
Parent
cultures
Student-
centered
classrooms
Teaching
models
31Haley, ...
Qualitative data samples
(culture and identity issues)
 How do Chinese and Arabic teachers negotiate the cross cultural
c...
Existing literature
Perceptions of US school
culture
 Chinese educational culture
strongly influences how
Chinese immigra...
 I totally agree with you that how to motivate students is very difficult. This
is even harder for us as foreigners becau...
 In Chinese culture, teachers are authority figures towards
students. I also want to become the authority figure when I
b...
 According to my culture, managing my classroom meant
everyone is sitting quietly listening to me. Shifting from that
to ...
 I feel the same regarding how to find the right balance
between lecturing and interactive activities. As you
mentioned, ...
 Due to the fact that I went through the majority of
my education in typical Chinese classrooms, I feel
that my biggest c...
 I think the biggest difference between Chinese culture and
here is the value towards people. We tend to focus on
conform...
 One example is: American students don't expect homework
during weekends while Chinese teachers tend to give more
homewor...
 In other words, We always tell students don’t do this, don’t’
do that, rarely to encourage them to positively participat...
 Classroom management problem is much easier for teachers to
handle if teaching in China. My classroom management plan is...
 I definitely agree with you that communicating with parents is
not easy! I heard many Chinese teachers complain about th...
 The use of technology to classroom management and the
introduction of new technology to classroom, both can help
buildin...
 As we discussed yesterday, it is always a challenge to use
target language while maintaining classroom management,
there...
 “we define who we are by where we
have been and where we are going’
 (Wenger, 1998, p.149)
46Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
 Teacher’s perception of him or herself influences his or her
actions (Fraser, 2011).
 ‘’identity is closely related to ...
 Teachers’ beliefs about their roles as teachers and about
student-teacher relationships are shaped by both their prior
e...
 Reconciling the duality of teacher’s culture
and U.S. classroom context
 Macro and micro factors impacting learning
and...
 Wenger, E. (1998). Community of Practice. Cambridge University Press
 Orton, J. (2011). Educating Chinese language teac...
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2015 NCLC - 21st-Century Schooling: Engaging Chinese Teachers in Discourse on Classroom Management and Discipline

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Currently there is an increased demand for Chinese language teachers across the U.S. The majority of today’s Chinese teachers are faced with the daunting realization that teaching in U.S. schools is tremendously different from their own schooling experiences; numerous factors contribute to this contrast. This study specifically focused on classroom management and discipline and examines how teachers address the challenges of working across the languages and cultures of U.S. schooling. Through a carefully designed sequence of blended learning activities, this study provided participants multiple opportunities to explore and examine introspectively critical considerations that directly influence transitioning into a learner-centered classroom, utilizing various classroom management skills and strategies with millennial learners. Data collection instruments included two online surveys, a group interview, and online discussion board threads. Results indicate that there remains a great deal to be done in this area to assist Chinese teachers.

Speaker:
Marjorie Hall & Sherry Steeley

Dr. Marjorie Hall Haley is tenured Professor of Education at George Mason University in Fairfax, VA. She is a former Spanish, French, German, and ESL teacher of 14 years.She teaches Foreign Language methods and ESL methods courses as well as doctoral courses in Brain-compatible Teaching and Learning, Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition Research. She is actively involved in ongoing action research projects with teachers at local, national, and international levels. Dr. Haley’s research and publication record is wide. Her most recent books are, Content-Based Second Language Teaching and Learning: An Interactive Approach (2nd Ed.) (2014) and Brain-compatible Differentiated Instruction for English Language Learners (2010). In addition, she is a featured scholar in the WGBH and Annenberg/CPB video, “Valuing Diverse Learners” available at www.learner.org

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2015 NCLC - 21st-Century Schooling: Engaging Chinese Teachers in Discourse on Classroom Management and Discipline

  1. 1. Dr. Marjorie Hall Haley- George Mason University Dr. Lihong Wang- George Mason University Dr. Sherry Steeley -Georgetown University 1Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  2. 2.  Increased demand for Arabic and Chinese teachers in U.S.  Focus on classroom management and discipline and how teachers address these challenges across languages and cultures of U. S. schooling. 2Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  3. 3.  Based on “Planning for Today’s Learners: Effective Classroom Management and Discipline.  Blended learning activities  Multiple opportunities to explore and examine transitioning to a learner-centered classroom.  Utilizing classroom management skills and strategies with millennial learners. 3Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  4. 4.  Focus on critical dimensions of effective classroom management (Kounin, 1970):  1. “withitness”  2. smoothness and momentum  3. behavior expectations  4. variety and challenge  Focus on classroom management at the beginning of the school year 4Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  5. 5.  Pre-survey  Post-survey  Group interview protocol  Online discussion boards 5Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  6. 6.  Combination of Arabic and Chinese pre- service and in-service teachers  Public and parochial K-12 schools  Range of teaching experience  Native and heritage speakers  All participants were female, ranging from 23-51 years old.  All volunteered for this study 6Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  7. 7.  How do Chinese and Arabic teachers negotiate the cross cultural challenges inherent in classroom management?  How do culturally and linguistically diverse teachers/ teachers of critical languages experience school culture?  How do teachers of critical language perceive their identity as teachers? 7Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  8. 8.  Based on pre-/post- survey results, extensive learning in specific areas of classroom management directly relevant to student Example: Survey Question: Describe your level of knowledge about classroom management skills and strategies Pre-Institute: 5.26% high level Post-Institute: 40.0% high level 8Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  9. 9. Overcoming cultural challenges: Socio-political context Student-teacher relationship Learning styles Thinking styles Praise Interactions with parents 9Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  10. 10. Developing a Cross-Cultural Classroom Management Plan: Incorporating culture of origin into U.S. classroom Using L1 Student centeredness 10Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  11. 11. Negotiating School Culture and Developing Classroom Management Plans 11Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  12. 12.  How do Chinese and Arabic teachers negotiate the cross cultural challenges inherent in classroom management?  How do culturally and linguistically diverse teachers/ teachers of critical languages experience school culture?  How do teachers of critical language perceive their identity as teachers? 12Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  13. 13. 13Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  14. 14.  Dealing with differences directly:  “You can always tell the haves and have-nots…” 14Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  15. 15.  Heterogeneous population as challenge:  “I might be confused what kind of rules are acceptable for all students…” 15Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  16. 16.  Different ethnic backgrounds:  “I personally found that it is very difficult not to think about the ethnicity and race…I am still working on that.” 16Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  17. 17.  Negotiating cultural differences:  “…American parents sometimes have their own thoughts about education.” 17Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  18. 18.  Presenting teacher culture to parents:  “…Communicating with parents is not easy…explaining our Chinese classroom culture to parents is very, very important.” 18Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  19. 19.  Diversity of parent cultures vs. U.S. school culture:  “…not familiar with USA’s classroom and school policy…” 19Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  20. 20.  School support:  “the counselor, the principle and the favorite teacher might get involved...” 20Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  21. 21.  Peer input  “…how American teachers respond to the students…” 21Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  22. 22. 22Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  23. 23.  Due to cultural differences, a strong management plan is critical:  “my perception regarding the importance of having a classroom management plan…” 23Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  24. 24.  Rules must be explicit:  “…I will just make the classroom rules clear..” 24Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  25. 25.  From “sage on the stage” to guide on the side…:  “…in a typical classroom in the U.S., the teacher acts like a fellow learner who have more expertise in the subject…” 25Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  26. 26.  Motivation is key:  “…working hard and they will get my attention (help) 100%.” 26Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  27. 27.  From negative to positive feedback:  “I need move my focus from negative side to good side when I view students.” 27Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  28. 28.  Awareness of and planning for cultural differences:  “…we need to include all students' cultural background .” 28Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  29. 29.  Proverbs as input:  “Engineers of the human soul.”  “一日为师,终生为父“ (If you teach me 3 days, you will be my parents forever)” 29Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  30. 30.  Teachers’ cultural beliefs:  “…teacher should have the students’ undivided attention…students should face the board.” 30Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  31. 31. School culture: Leadership & Peers Student cultures Parent cultures Student- centered classrooms Teaching models 31Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  32. 32. Qualitative data samples (culture and identity issues)  How do Chinese and Arabic teachers negotiate the cross cultural challenges inherent in classroom management?  How do culturally and linguistically diverse teachers/ teachers of critical languages experience school culture?  How do teachers of critical language perceive their identity as teachers? 32Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  33. 33. Existing literature Perceptions of US school culture  Chinese educational culture strongly influences how Chinese immigrant teachers perceive themselves in an overseas context (Pratt, Kelly, & Wong, 1999), and have suggested that their professional identities tend to be authoritarian and teacher-centered as a result of the impact of Confucianism (Gao & Watkins, 2002; Ho, 2004).  American educational culture is characterized by a low power distance and higher level of equity in teacher-student relationship and by students’ active role in choosing teaching and learning activities. 33Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  34. 34.  I totally agree with you that how to motivate students is very difficult. This is even harder for us as foreigners because we have different culture backgrounds with our students. I always want to use humor in my classroom to let my students feel this class is interesting, so they have more motivation to learn this class. However, this does not always work well. I had the same experience with you. Last semester, I used a lot of time creating activities in order to engage student, but turned out they did not like many activities. Therefore, now I am a little bit confused what kind of activities will attract students' attention. I still need to learn how to motivate them. 34Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  35. 35.  In Chinese culture, teachers are authority figures towards students. I also want to become the authority figure when I become a teacher, because I don't want my class to be out of control. But at the same time, I don't want students to be too afraid of me, their fear might influence their engagement. I want to have great interactions with my students. I think this is the biggest challenge for me.  I thought once I enter the classroom, the students will meet me with the respect I had for my teachers when I was student. Here in U.S schools teachers have to earn the respect with good classroom management. 35Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  36. 36.  According to my culture, managing my classroom meant everyone is sitting quietly listening to me. Shifting from that to adapt what I have been learning, I will just make the classroom rules clear. And work harder in the beginning of the year to establish routine and gradually let the students take big part of the responsibility of their learning.  Also, my communication style was so different from that of my students that it led to many unpleasant and conflictive moments. Now, I became more aware of my personal identity and more appreciative of the diverse cultural backgrounds of my students. This will help me in managing my classroom by considering all students and different cultural backgrounds. 36Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  37. 37.  I feel the same regarding how to find the right balance between lecturing and interactive activities. As you mentioned, we should always have a purpose while implementing games into our lessons. The games are included in the lesson because they will facilitate the learning further, not only because they are fun.  I like the fact that everyone is talking about fun and games. HOWEVER, as we all know, learning is not always fun, but it's drudgery and hard work too. Sometimes I worry if I have too much fun with the kids. That's when I hold back and pull on the reins a little.  Before, I thought playing games and working in groups wasn't part of teaching-learning . Now I understood that while students are rotating and playing game they are learning too. (Arabic teacher)  37Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  38. 38.  Due to the fact that I went through the majority of my education in typical Chinese classrooms, I feel that my biggest challenges is how not to assume while carrying out my classroom management plans. While introducing the classroom rules and routines to my students, I shouldn't assume that the students will automatically follow them. There should be thorough explanations and discussions involved regarding the rules between my students and me. Modeling is absolutely necessary, and there should be consequences and positive rewards built in to ensure consistency and fairness. 38Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  39. 39.  I think the biggest difference between Chinese culture and here is the value towards people. We tend to focus on conformity and obedience in appearance, in other (sic) to achieve that, we always take the short cut sometimes including harsh criticism and discipline. The focus is on result not on people. But here, all students are respected and their needs are being addressed individually. The focus is on students as individual, result is the by product of good relationship and inspiration. It takes longer to achieve the result, but it also last longer and a much happier experience for students. 39Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  40. 40.  One example is: American students don't expect homework during weekends while Chinese teachers tend to give more homework during the weekend. I grew up in a culture that teachers thought we had more time to do homework during weekends, so I had more homework on weekends than during weekdays. Sometimes I apply my American mind (which I have developed after 3 years teaching); sometimes I apply my Chinese mind. It really depends on what kind of issue, and we as teachers need to be flexible to deal this them. 40Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  41. 41.  In other words, We always tell students don’t do this, don’t’ do that, rarely to encourage them to positively participate the classroom activities. We did not give them enough praise no matter by tone, by words, or by prices.  The Chinese culture, as most people have already mentioned, emphasizes a lot on discipline. Although it is all that helpful in the American tradition, it does provide a model for how an organized classroom should look like. However, we should use positive reinforcement, instead of negative reinforcement, to reach that goal. Meanwhile, we also learned that an organized classroom created by positive reinforcement is a lot more friendly and encouraging environment than one created by negative reinforcement. 41Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  42. 42.  Classroom management problem is much easier for teachers to handle if teaching in China. My classroom management plan is influenced by this culture, I also want to be the authority figure when I become a teacher. However, American students are not the same. I noticed there are two characteristics of American education. First one is the diversity of the members and the second one is the foundation of freedom and democratic value. The population of American students are heterogeneous, it consists of students from all over the world. These students come with diverse cultural, linguistic and historical background. They might not value my classroom management culture and might /can not understand my plans. Most importantly, they value the spirit of freedom and equality. Therefore, I need my class to be student-centered, I will give students authority and choices in class. I should earn the respect and authority by my own efforts instead of take that for granted. 42Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  43. 43.  I definitely agree with you that communicating with parents is not easy! I heard many Chinese teachers complain about this. I think your solution that explaining our Chinese classroom culture to parents is very very important. Parents should know that this is just our culture instead of thinking we are not high-quality teachers. We should keep an openly (sic) communication with our students' parents, after all, we have the same goal---promote students' learning. 43Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  44. 44.  The use of technology to classroom management and the introduction of new technology to classroom, both can help building our relationship with student. Students usually hold the belief that Chinese teachers are very conservative. If we are able to introduce something new and interesting to our students. They will be : OMG, this is so cool. This will make the classroom more efficient and also as teachers, we can increase our influence. 44Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  45. 45.  As we discussed yesterday, it is always a challenge to use target language while maintaining classroom management, therefore we need to go beyond the verbal communication and use body language, eye contact, and of course, technology! With their interactive nature, the tech tools often provide comprehensible input to our students and help them to understand the subject better.  (one Chinese teacher also said that now she used more body language in the US classroom) 45Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  46. 46.  “we define who we are by where we have been and where we are going’  (Wenger, 1998, p.149) 46Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  47. 47.  Teacher’s perception of him or herself influences his or her actions (Fraser, 2011).  ‘’identity is closely related to practice; and the construction of one’s identity is related to identification and meaning negotiation within community” (Wenger, 1998, p.149)  A prevalent assumption in studies of immigrant teachers’ identities and beliefs is that because of beliefs and identities formed earlier in their lives, adapting to a new educational system brings challenges and transformation in teachers’ identities and views on teaching. (Wang & Du, 2014). 47Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  48. 48.  Teachers’ beliefs about their roles as teachers and about student-teacher relationships are shaped by both their prior experiences and backgrounds and the current social and cultural contexts in which they are situated.(Wang & Du, 2014)   Teacher’s professional identity has a dynamic and shifting nature, subject to cultural, contextual, and personal influences (Beauchamp & Thomas, 2009).  Identity change is an active process of negotiating meaning between the individual and the outside sociocultural context (Xu, 2013). Trend (2010) argues that experiences of border- crossing are consequential for identity because they can involve a feeling of becoming someone new (Trend, 2010, p.2) 48Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  49. 49.  Reconciling the duality of teacher’s culture and U.S. classroom context  Macro and micro factors impacting learning and communication  Process approach to classroom management led to positive results  This study is further evidenced of the strength and importance of StarTalk programs and their impact. 49Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)
  50. 50.  Wenger, E. (1998). Community of Practice. Cambridge University Press  Orton, J. (2011). Educating Chinese language teachers-some fundamentals. In L. Tsung & K. Cruickshank (Eds), Teaching and learning Chinese in global contexts (pp.151-164). London: Continuum.  Pratt, D. D., Kelly, M., & Wong, W. S. (1999). Chinese conceptions of “effective teaching” in Hong Kong: Towards culturally sensitive evaluation of teaching. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 18(4), 241–258.  Gao, L. B., & Watkins, D. A. (2002). Conceptions of teaching held by school science teachers in PR China: Identification and cross-cultural comparisons. International Journal of ScienceEducation, 24(1), 61–79.  Xu, H. (2013). From the imagined to the practiced: A case study on novice EFL teachers’professional identity change in China. Teaching and Teacher Education, 31(11), 79– 86.  Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2009). Understanding teacher identity: An overview of issues in the literature and implications for teacher education. Cambridge Journal of Education,39(2), 175–189.  Wang, L. & Du, X.Y. (2014) Chinese Teachers’ Professional Identity and Beliefs about the Teacher-Student Relationships in an Intercultural Context, Frontiers of Education in China 9(3): 429–455 50Haley, Steeley, Wong (2015)

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