1. Smart Cities….Smart Future
Institute for Communication Systems (ICS)/
5G Innovation Centre
University of Surrey
Guildford, United Kingdom
The IET Surrey Network, December 2015
2. “A hundred years hence people will be so avid
of every moment of life, life will be so full of
busy delight, that time-saving inventions will
be at a huge premium…”
“…It is not because we shall be hurried in
nerve-shattering anxiety, but because we shall
value at its true worth the refining and restful
influence of leisure, that we shall be impatient
of the minor tasks of every day….”
The March 26, 1906, New Zealand Star :
4. Apollo 11 Command Module (1965) had
64 kilobytes of memory
operated at 0.043MHz.
An iPhone 5s has a CPU running at speeds
of up to 1.3GHz
and has 512MB to 1GB of memory
Cray-1 (1975) produced 80 million Floating
point operations per second (FLOPS)
10 years later, Cray-2 produced 1.9G FLOPS
An iPhone 5s produces 76.8 GFLOPS – nearly
a thousand times more
Cray-2 used 200-kilowatt power
Source: Nick T., PhoneArena.com, 2014
image source: http://blog.opower.com/
5. Computing Power
−More memory and more storage
−"Moore's law" over the history of computing, the
number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit
has doubled approximately every two years.
7. The Internet:A brief history
− 1961: Leonard Kleinrock at MIT published the first paper on
packet switching theory in July 1961.
− 1962: J.C.R. Licklider of MIT discussed his "Galactic Network"
concept - a globally interconnected set of computers through
which everyone could quickly access data and programs from
− 1968: an RFQ was released by DARPA for the development of
one of the key components, the packet switches called
Interface Message Processors (IMP's).
− The RFQ was won in December 1968 by a group headed by
Frank Heart at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN).
Source: Internet Society
8. The Internet:A brief history
− 1970: the Network Working Group (NWG) working under S.
Crocker finished the initial ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol,
called the Network Control Protocol (NCP).
− 1972: Bob Kahn organized a large, very successful
demonstration of the ARPANET at the International
Computer Communication Conference (ICCC).
− This was the first public demonstration of this new network
technology to the public.
− 1972: the first "hot" application, electronic mail, was
Source: Internet Society
12. Fibre optic cables around the world
A single fibre can
transmit as much as 100
billion bits per second
(100 Gbps, about ten
thousand times faster
than a typical home
- A cable can contain
hundreds of fibres, a
single cable can have
enough capacity for the
millions of users.
13. Countries at risk of getting disconnected from the
14. Connectivity and information exchange was
(and is ) the main motivation behind the
Internet; but Content and Services are now
the key elements;
and all started growing rapidly by the
introduction of the World Wide Web.
More “Things” are being connected
Internet of Things (IoT)
− Extending the current Internet and providing connection,
communication, and inter-networking between devices and
physical objects, or "Things," is a growing trend that is often
referred to as the Internet ofThings.
− “The technologies and solutions that enable integration of
real world data and services into the current information
networking technologies are often described under the
umbrella term of the Internet of Things (IoT)”
CDMA IS-95, PDC
Connection + Control M2M/IoT
Change in the communication
27. Internet of Things: The story so far
Wireless Sensor and
, solutions for
efficiency, routing, …
vertical applications, early
concepts and demos, …
More products, more
solutions for control and
Future: Cloud, Big (IoT) Data
Enhanced Cellular/Wireless Com.
for IoT, Real-world operational
use-cases and Industry and B2B
28. Cities of the future
30. Smart Citizens (more informed and more in control)
Smart Governance (better services and informed decisions)
Providing more equality and wider reach
Context-aware and situation-aware services
Cost efficacy and supporting innovation
What does makes smart cities “smart”?
36. Applications and potentials
− Analysis of thousands of traffic, pollution, weather, congestion, public
transport, waste and event sensory data to provide better transport and
− Converting smart meter readings to information that can help prediction
and balance of power consumption in a city.
− Monitoring elderly homes, personal and public healthcare applications.
− Event and incident analysis and prediction using (near) real-time data
collected by citizen and device sensors.
− Turning social media data (e.g.Tweets) related to city issues into event and
− Any many more…
42. An example: Extraction of events and semantics from
Tweets from a city
P. Anantharam, P. Barnaghi, K. Thirunarayan, A. Sheth, "Extracting city events from social streams,“, 2014.
43. Activity 3.4 – Event Detection for Social Media
Yes it is police @hasselager
… there directing traffic
Loc. Est. =
Loc. Est. =
Level = 2Level = 2
City Event Extraction
CulturalCultural SocialSocial Enviro.Enviro. SportSport HealthHealth
Yes <O> it <O> is <O> police <B-CRIME>
@hasselager <B-LOCATION>… <O> there <O>
directing <O> traffic <B-TRAFFIC>
Yes <S-NP/O> it <S-NP/O> is <S-VP/O> police
<S-NP/O> @hasselager <S-LOC> ... <O/O> there
<S-NP/O> directing <S-VP/O> traffic <S-NP/O>
61. Let’s hope
−The Internet of the Future will be
−For everyone, everywhere, available at anytime,
−People will have control on their data
−Data will be used for helping people
−Smart applications will contribute to a better life
and to a better use of of our resources in the