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DRUG DOSAGE FORMS
Dosage forms are a mixture of active drug component and
Types of dosage form
• Liquid dosage form (solutions, syrups, suspensions, drops,
• Solid dosage form(Capsule , tablets , powder)
• Semisolid dosage form(Ointments, Creams, pastes, Gels)
It contain one or more medicinal substances enclosed with in
a shell or container prepared from suitable form of gelatin
Capsule has two types
• Hard gelatin capsules
• Soft gelatin capsules
Hard gelatin capsules
It is made up of gelatin ,sugar and water. They are
physically hard. The hard-shell gelatin capsules contain
Soft gelatin capsule
It is made up of gelatin. Glycerin
Or sorbitol are added to render gelatin elastic. The
soft-shell gelatin capsules contain oils. These capsules
are easily swallowed due to tasteless shell.
A tablet is a solid dosage form that is prepared by
compressing or molding of the drug into various
sizes and shapes.
A polymer coating is often applied to make the
Smoother, easier to swallow, to control release
rate of active ingredient, to make it more resistant to
the environment and enhance tablet appearance
Tablet are often stamped with symbols ,letters, and
numbers which enable them to identified. Their
sizes are from few millimeters to about centimeter
Some tablets are in the shape of capsule are called
Types of tablet
Tablets for oral administration
Tablets for implantation (pellets)
Tablets for oral administration
Immediate release tablet: Release the drug substance immediate
Delayed release tablet: The drug substance is not released until a
physical event has occurred e.g. change in gut flora.
Chewable tablet: The tablets are placed in the mouth, chewed and
swallowed e.g. Lozenges
Buccal tablet: These are designed to be placed in buccal cavity of
mouth for rapid action.
Sublingual tablets: these are placed under tongue for rapid
Effervescent tablets: The tablet contain sodium bicarbonate in
addition to the drug substance. Before use they are dissolve in
water.e.g. Acetylsalicylic acid
Tablets for implantation (pellets)
A small tablet that is prepared for insertion under
the skin by giving a small surgical cut into the skin
which is stitched after the insertion of tablets. The
tablet must be sterile one.
Contraceptive tablets are formulated as implant
Powders are drugs or drug extracts that are dried and ground
and converted into fine particles.
Use both internally and externally
Good chemical stability as compared to fluids
Rapid onset of action
Easy to swallow even in large bulk, espacially mixed with
Safe to children and elderly patients
Not suitable for drugs unstable in atmospheric condition
Not suitable for bitter, deliquescent and hygroscopic drug.
The dispensing of powder is time consuming.
Types of powder
1)Divided powder: They are dispensed in form of individual
doses and generally are dispensed in papers, metal foil and heat
sealed plastic bags and other containers.
2. Bulk powder
Oral powder: They are intended to be suspended or
dissolve in water or mixed with foods e.g. Antacid and
Dentifrices: They contain soap or detergent, mild abrasive
and anticariogenic agent
Dusting powder: They are locally applying non toxic
preparation that is intended to be dissolved in water prior
to use as an antiseptic. They may be formulated for nasal,
optic and vaginal use.
Insufflations: They are introduced in body cavity such as ear
,nose, throat, tooth socket.Insuffaltor is used to administer
Liquid dosage form
Liquid dosage forms are prepared:
(1) By dissolving the active drug substance(s) in an
aqueous or no aqueous (e.g. alcohol, ether,
(2) By suspensing the drug in appropriate medium.
(3) by incorporating the drug substance into an oil or
Liquid dosage forms can be administered:
• Topically - lotions or suspension applied to the
skin, eye drops, nasal drops, ear drops
• Orally (p.o.) - oral suspension and solution
• Parenterally -
• subcutaneous injection (s.c.),
• intramuscular injection (i.m.)
• and intravenous administration (i.v.)
Solutions are prepared
by dissolving a solid or
liquid drug in distilled
water Solutions are
intended for topical, oral,
for local administration
usually called lotions.
A suspension consists of a
dispersion of relatively
coarse particles, usually in
Suspensions may be used for
oral and topical
solutions, oral suspensions
are useful in children and
patients who cannot tolerate
a solid dosage form.
Drops are solutions, tinctures or mixtures of high-
potent drug substances
Drops are prescribed in small quantity (10-30 g)
Drops are intended to be administered orally or
externally(as eye drops, nasal drops and ear drops).
eye drops (collyrium): Timolol
nasal (nose) drops: Olynth 0,1%
ear drops: Furotalgin
• Emulsions are two-phase systems consist of
liquid drug substances.
They are classified as:
• oil-in-water emulsion (O/W)
• water- in-oil emulsion (W/O)
Emulsions can be administered
as topically, orally, and I.M.
• Injection is an infusion
method of putting drug
into the body with syringe
• It is usually administrated
by parental route.
• It shows rapid action and
may be used for
Semisolid dosage forms
Semisolid dosage forms are products of semisolid
consistency and applied to skin or mucous
membranes for therapeutic or protective action or
b) Elegant in appearance
c) Non dehydrating
d) Non greasy
e) Non hygroscopic
f) Non irritating
g) Do not alter membrane / skin functioning
They are composed of fluid hydrocarbon meshed in a
matrix of higher melting solid hydrocarbon, e.g.
According the place of application they are:
1) unguentum dermaticum
2) unguentum ophthalmicum
3) unguentum nasale
These are either oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil
(W/O) emulsions and contain preservatives to
prevent bacterial and fungal growth. Easier to
spread & remove.
The commonest preservatives are parabens
Oil-in-water emulsions rub into the skin and are
easily washed off
Water-in-oil emulsions are greasier
Gels are semi-colloids which liquefy on contact
with the skin
Gels are transparent or translucent non-greasy
semisolid gels .
Gels are a common form for acne preparations
(e. g. Acnederm)
They are used as lubricant.
Pastes semisolid preparations
that contain a Larger Amount of
Solids compared to ointments
Stiffer than ointments, remain in
place after application & can
absorb serious secretions
Zinc oxide paste, contains 25%
ZnO in starch & white
petrolatum, product is firm &
can protect skin & absorb