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The U.S. Hotel Industry:
Nature & Evolution
From 1900 to 2000:
A Century of Innovation & Change
Dr. Oscar Aguer
Areas of Focus
•  The numbers
•  The benchmarks
•  The players
•  The consolidation
•  The conclusions
•  The conclusion (...
Rate and Occupancy
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
2000 1990 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920
Occupancy
Rate
Room Inventory Impact
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
2000 1990 1980 1970 1960
Occupancy
Rate
# Rooms
Hotel Traveler Expenditure: 2000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Leisure Business
Travel
Room
Food
Entertain
Misc
The 1900’s
•  1900 - The Lenox Hotel offered “fireproof lodging,
unexcelled cuisine, a shower bath, and roof garden”, all ...
The 1910’s
•  1910 – The industry consists entirely of hotels located in
urban centers and few resorts near the principal ...
The 1920’s
•  1920 – Prohibition begins. Occupancy reaches 85%
•  1922 – The first management contract is signed by the
Tr...
The 1930’s
•  1930 – Four out of five hotels go into bankrupcy.
•  1933 – Due to the Great Depression, hotels post the low...
The 1940’s
•  1940 – Air conditionning becomes prevalent
•  1945 – Sheraton becomes the first chain listed on the
NYSE. Tr...
The 1950’s
•  1952 – A Mr. Kemmons Wilson opens his first Holliday
Inn in Memphis, Tenn, named after a Bing Crosby movie.
...
The 1960’s
•  1960 – First mini bar in guestrooms at the Siegas chain.
•  1962 - Motel 6, forerunner of the budget brand o...
The 1970’s
•  1973 – The Sheraton Anaheim is the first to offer free in-
room movies
•  1974 – The energy crisis hits the ...
The 1980’s
•  1983 – Westin accepts reservation and express check out
with major credit cards. Vingcard is invented: the f...
The 1990’s
•  1990 – Loews “Good Neighbors” policy becomes the first
comprehensive community program.
•  1991 – Westin is ...
...and in the 2000’s
•  2000 – Hilton Hotels announces plans for the first
hotel in space.
•  2002 – Precisely on January ...
The Big Players...then: Fifty two
Days Inns . Ramada . Super 8 Motels. Howard Johnson. Travelodge.
Knights Inns. Wingates ...
The Big Players...now: Eight
Days Inns . Ramada . Super 8 Motels. Howard Johnson. Travelodge.
Knights Inns. Wingates Inns....
The Consolidation
Cendant
6,540 hotels
555,000 rm
6Continents
3,030 hotels
481,482 rm
Marriott
2,084 hotels
384,010 rm
Cho...
The conclusions
Individual Group Chain Flag Brand
Local Regional National International Global
Homy Hospitality Convenienc...
The Conclusion
(...of the conclusions)
and so, ...
THE ONLY CONSTANT IS CHANGE
my THR friends
Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer
Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer
Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer
Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer
Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer
Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer
Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer
Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer
Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer
Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer
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Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer

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Hotel industry evolution Dr. Oscar Aguer

  1. 1. The U.S. Hotel Industry: Nature & Evolution From 1900 to 2000: A Century of Innovation & Change Dr. Oscar Aguer
  2. 2. Areas of Focus •  The numbers •  The benchmarks •  The players •  The consolidation •  The conclusions •  The conclusion (of the conclusions)
  3. 3. Rate and Occupancy 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2000 1990 1980 1970 1960 1950 1940 1930 1920 Occupancy Rate
  4. 4. Room Inventory Impact 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2000 1990 1980 1970 1960 Occupancy Rate # Rooms
  5. 5. Hotel Traveler Expenditure: 2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Leisure Business Travel Room Food Entertain Misc
  6. 6. The 1900’s •  1900 - The Lenox Hotel offered “fireproof lodging, unexcelled cuisine, a shower bath, and roof garden”, all for $2.00. •  1904 – New York City’s St. Regis provides individually controlled heating and cooling units in each guestrooms. •  1908 – Gideons International places their first Bible in the Superior Hotel in Montana •  1908 – The Hotel Statler chain begins in Buffalo. All rooms have private baths, full-lenght mirrors, phones, built-in radios: The model for the next 40 years.
  7. 7. The 1910’s •  1910 – The industry consists entirely of hotels located in urban centers and few resorts near the principal vacation destinations. •  1912 – Electricity is being installed in new hotels for cooking purposes. Most hotels still place candles and matchboxes in every rooms. •  1919 – A Mr. Conrad Hilton purchases his first hotel, The Mobley in Cisco, Texas. •  During that decade, the number of hotels is 10,000 and the average size is 60-75 rooms.
  8. 8. The 1920’s •  1920 – Prohibition begins. Occupancy reaches 85% •  1922 – The first management contract is signed by the Treadway Company on small college inns. •  1925 – The first roadside “motel” opens in San Luis Obispo, Calif, for $2.50 a night. •  1929 – Western Hotels, now Westin, starts with 17 hotels in the Pacific Northwest and establishes the first hotel management company. •  During that decade the hotel construction reaches an all- time peak, fueled by the state and federal highway program, and the developing automobile industry.
  9. 9. The 1930’s •  1930 – Four out of five hotels go into bankrupcy. •  1933 – Due to the Great Depression, hotels post the lowest occupancy ever: 51%. Construction stops.
  10. 10. The 1940’s •  1940 – Air conditionning becomes prevalent •  1945 – Sheraton becomes the first chain listed on the NYSE. Travelodge is the first economy concept. •  1946 – Westin introduces the the first guest credit card. Occupancy reaches all-time high of 93%. First casino hotel opens: The Flamingo in Las Vegas. The first Loews hotel comes to the market: Laurel-in-the-Pines, N.J. •  1947 - Westin introduces the first hotel reservation system. The Roosevelt installs TVs in every rooms. •  1949 - Hilton becomes the first international chain with the Caribe Hilton in San Juan.
  11. 11. The 1950’s •  1952 – A Mr. Kemmons Wilson opens his first Holliday Inn in Memphis, Tenn, named after a Bing Crosby movie. •  1954 – A Mr. Howard Dearing Johnson initiates the first lodging franchise, a motor lodge in Savannah, Georgia. Conrad Hilton buys the Statler for $111 M, the largest hotel transaction to that date. •  1957 – J.W. Marriott opens his first hotel, The Twin Bridges Marriott Motor Hotel in Arlington, VA, and Jay Pritzker buys his first hotel, The Hyatt House, near the L.A. airport. Hilton offers direct-dial phone service. •  1958 – First electronic reservation system by Sheraton.
  12. 12. The 1960’s •  1960 – First mini bar in guestrooms at the Siegas chain. •  1962 - Motel 6, forerunner of the budget brand opens in Santa Barbara, Calif. •  1964 – Travelodge offer wheelchair-accessible rooms. •  1967 – The Atlanta Hyatt Regency opens, featuring a 21- story atrium and changing the course of upscale hotel design. •  1968 – Westin introduces the first 24-hour room service concept in all its hotels.
  13. 13. The 1970’s •  1973 – The Sheraton Anaheim is the first to offer free in- room movies •  1974 – The energy crisis hits the industry. Hotels ask guests to save electricity and cut heat to unoccupied rooms. •  1975 – Four Seasons is the first chain to offer brand name bathroom amenities. Hyatt introduces its Regency Club, the first concierge level proposing ultimate VIP service.
  14. 14. The 1980’s •  1983 – Westin accepts reservation and express check out with major credit cards. Vingcard is invented: the first optical electronic keycard •  1984 – Choice hotels offers non-smoking rooms. Holliday Inn starts the first nationwide all-suite hotel chain. •  1988 – The extended stay concept is introduced by Marriott with Residence Inns, and Holliday Corp with Homewood Suites. •  1989 – Hyatt introduces the first kids program “Camp Hyatt”, and Hampton Inns offers “100% guaranteed satisfaction, or your money back!”.
  15. 15. The 1990’s •  1990 – Loews “Good Neighbors” policy becomes the first comprehensive community program. •  1991 – Westin is first to offer voice mail in all guestrooms. Industry looses a record 61.8% of revenue. (recession and overbuilding). •  1992 – Industry breaks even after 6 years of consecutive losses. Radisson began offering the first “business class” rooms. •  1994 – Hyatt and Promus are the first chains to establish a web site on the Internet. •  1995 – Choice and Holliday Inn offer online reservations. •  1999 – Starwood creates the “W” boutique brand.
  16. 16. ...and in the 2000’s •  2000 – Hilton Hotels announces plans for the first hotel in space. •  2002 – Precisely on January 1st, at 9:04 AM, in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, (waking up E.B, O.A, and J.C.P from their New Year’s Eve parties), Jacques M. Bourgeois joins forces with THR (or vice-versa!?) to develop the newly created “Advanced Hotel & Resorts Management” Division.....OK! on to the next slide!!
  17. 17. The Big Players...then: Fifty two Days Inns . Ramada . Super 8 Motels. Howard Johnson. Travelodge. Knights Inns. Wingates Inns. Villager Inns. AmeriHost. Holiday Inn. Holiday Inn Express. Crowne Plaza. Inter-Continental. Holiday Select. Holiday Garden Court. Holiday Sunspree. Forum Hotels. Staybridge Suites. Marriott hotels, resorts, suites. Ritz Carlton. Courtyard. Renaissance. Stouffer. Fairfields. Residence Inns. Townplace Inns. Spring Hills Suites. Comfort Inns. Quality Inns. Econolodge. Clarion Hotels. Flag hotels. Sleep Inns. Rodeway Inns. MainStay Suites. Friendship Inns. Royal Inns. Hampton Inns. Hilton Hotels. Doubletree. Embassy Suites. Garden Inns. Homewood Inns. Red Lion. Conrad Intl. Sheraton. Westin. Four Points Hotels. St. Regis Collection. W Hotels. Hyatt Hotels & resorts Intl. Four Seasons.
  18. 18. The Big Players...now: Eight Days Inns . Ramada . Super 8 Motels. Howard Johnson. Travelodge. Knights Inns. Wingates Inns. Villager Inns. AmeriHost. Holiday Inn. Holiday Inn Express. Crowne Plaza. Inter-Continental. Holiday Select. Holiday Garden Court. Holiday Sunspree. Forum Hotels. Staybridge Suites. Marriott hotels, resorts, suites. Ritz Carlton. Courtyard. Renaissance. Stouffer. Fairfields. Residence Inns. Townplace Inns. Spring Hills Suites. Comfort Inns. Quality Inns. Econolodge. Clarion Hotels. Flag hotels. Sleep Inns. Rodeway Inns. MainStay Suites. Friendship Inns. Royal Inns. Hampton Inns. Hilton Hotels. Doubletree. Embassy Suites. Garden Inns. Homewood Inns. Red Lion. Conrad Intl. Sheraton. Westin. Four Points Hotels. St. Regis Collection. W Hotels. Hyatt Hotels & resorts Intl. Four Seasons.
  19. 19. The Consolidation Cendant 6,540 hotels 555,000 rm 6Continents 3,030 hotels 481,482 rm Marriott 2,084 hotels 384,010 rm Choice 4,219 hotels 337,226 rm Hilton 1,910 hotels 333,110 rm Starwood 713 hotels 217,651 rm Hyatt 190 hotels 87,234 rm 4 Seasons 53 hotels 15,048 rm
  20. 20. The conclusions Individual Group Chain Flag Brand Local Regional National International Global Homy Hospitality Convenience Experience Commodity Reality New reality Newer reality Newest reality Brandnew real
  21. 21. The Conclusion (...of the conclusions) and so, ... THE ONLY CONSTANT IS CHANGE my THR friends

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