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Decreased zoonotic disease, increased food safety: the multiple benefits of a One Health approach to Public Health Emergency Preparedness

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Decreased zoonotic disease, increased food safety: the multiple benefits of a One Health approach to Public Health Emergency Preparedness

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Presentation by Professor Robyn Alders, Hub Roadmap Series Lead, at the Special Technical Session on 'Building a resilient biomedical disaster response: learning from the Covid-19 pandemic' organised by The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).

This session was part of the 5th World Congress on Disaster Management (WCDM), which took place in New Delhi, India, in November 2021.

Presentation by Professor Robyn Alders, Hub Roadmap Series Lead, at the Special Technical Session on 'Building a resilient biomedical disaster response: learning from the Covid-19 pandemic' organised by The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).

This session was part of the 5th World Congress on Disaster Management (WCDM), which took place in New Delhi, India, in November 2021.

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Decreased zoonotic disease, increased food safety: the multiple benefits of a One Health approach to Public Health Emergency Preparedness

  1. 1. Robyn Alders, AO Global Health Programme, Chatham House, London, UK Development Policy Centre and Institute for Climate, Energy and Disaster Solutions, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia Decreased zoonotic disease, increased food safety: the multiple benefits of a One Health approach to Public Health Emergency Preparedness Building a resilient biomedical disaster response: learning from the COVID-19 pandemic - Session 3 Health Emergency Preparedness 24 November 2021
  2. 2. Chatham House | The Royal Institute of International Affairs 2 Acknowledgements
  3. 3. CABI 2020 African Swine Fever ¼ global pig population killed Fall armyworm USD 6 billion/yr in 12 African countries High path avian influenza H5N1 > USD 60 billion AMR Climate change Biodiversity & agro-diversity Malnutrition FOOD COVID-19 is symptomatic of wider systemic failures
  4. 4. What’s facilitating the spread of pathogens and pests? (I) Increasing • Human population • Domestic livestock population • Companion animal population • Frequency of movement of people, plants and animals • Length of value chains • Human expansion into naïve landscapes Decreasing • Biodiversity • Agrobiodiversity (plant & animal) • Genetic diversity of livestock and crops increases their pest and disease susceptibility • Funding for national biosecurity and quarantine services and international points of entry • Funding for frontline engagement • Efficiency of chain of command (decentralisation)
  5. 5. Evolution of new avian viruses and variants of existing virulent viruses facilitated by characteristics of current intensive poultry production systems including: Host genetic homogeneity (with few host adaptive bottlenecks) High density rearing (allowing close animal- to-animal contact and favouring transmission of virulent over low pathogenic strains) Intensive vaccination programs (which provide selective immune pressures and may be executed improperly in resource-poor settings) Make high biosecurity essential for intensive production systems What’s facilitating the spread of pathogens and pests? (II)
  6. 6. One Health framing Humans Animals Water Soil Plants Environment • Aim: One Health policy framework that positively reinforces good practice and good outcomes across all sectors • Sustainble and circular bioeconomies valuing all inputs - to deliver safe, nutritious food for all Ref: 2020 Global Hunger Index Essay ‘One Health, Zero Hunger
  7. 7. One Health biosecurity risk analysis, management and communication Common understanding Feasible, comprehensible • Participatory epidemiology and disease/pest control • Appropriate language(s), terms and images for community and technicians • Pre-testing of communication materials • Participatory implementation, monitoring and evaluation • Community perspectives - disease aetiology - problem identification - system specific • Policy objectives and implementation constraints across relevant sectors (Alders and Bagnol 2007)
  8. 8. 8 Coronavirus depresses demand and disrupts supply The spread of misinformation about poultry being a source of COVID19 on social media heavily impacted consumption An example: communicate COVID-19 risk more effectively by building on local knowledge and priorities
  9. 9. Chatham House | The Royal Institute of International Affairs 9 1. A One Health approach to risk analysis, risk management and risk communication 2. A One Health approach to legislation and policy to increase efficiency and minimise chances of negative impacts of public health measures between sectors 3. Inclusive One Health policy making, implementation and monitoring 4. Emergency preparedness practices tailored to system-specific risk analyses 5. Emergency preparedness training tailored to local circumstances 6. To document the multiple benefits of being prepared, for example, improved nutrition security, food safety and return on funds invested across sectors To deliver effective and efficient Public Health Emergency Preparedness, we need:
  10. 10. 10 Comments and queries welcome RAlders@chathamhouse.org Robyn.alders@anu.edu.au Thank you for your time No one individual, group or sector can deliver sustainable emergency preparedness. Together, we have to!

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