Making education everybody’s business
Andreas Schleicher
GESF 12 March 2016
Making Education Everybody’s Business
2
Time for a Plan B
300325350375400425450475500525550575600625650675
Mexico
Chile
Greece
Norway
Sweden
Iceland
Israel
Italy
UnitedStates
Spain...
Spending per student and learning outcomes
Slovak Republic
Czech Republic
Estonia
Israel
Poland
Korea
Portugal
New Zealand...
-0.5
-0.3
-0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.5
Korea
Estonia
Israel
Kazakhstan
Latvia
Malaysia
Slovenia
Italy
Poland
Singa...
6
Second generation immigrant students’ performance
in mathematics, by country of origin and destination
370 390 410 430 4...
7
Immigrant students’ performance in mathematics,
by country of origin and destination
300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Austral...
More people on the move
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
High income ...
Technology can amplify innovative teaching
• Make it faster and
more granular
• Collaborative platforms
for teachers to sh...
450
460
470
480
490
500
510
520
-2 -1 0 1 2
Scorepoints
Technology in schools and digital skills still don’t square
Source...
%
Yes
No
If I am more innovative in my teaching
I will be rewarded (country average)
Leverage the potential
of all learners
Better anticipate the evolution of
the demand for 21st century skills
and better in...
17
Making education everybody’s business
Everybody’s
business
Governments
The profession
The business
sector
Families
18 Governments
Government
Resilient to
political change Responsive to
new demands
19
Share of 25-34 year-olds with a tertiary degree
across OECD and G20 countries
Over the last years, China has been build...
Education in the past
Education now
22
Knowledge
Systems
thinking
Design
thinking
Information
literacy
Digital
literacy
Global
literacy
Creativity Critical Thinking Problem Solving
Innovation Collaboration Data Gathering
Communication
23
24
Can we make the differentiator of yesterday’s elite schools
the key for success in every school?
Empathy Resilience Min...
What knowledge, skills
and character qualities do
successful teachers require?
The Profession
What knowledge, skills
and character qualities do
successful teachers require?
96% of teachers: My role as a teacher
is to...
What knowledge, skills
and character qualities do
successful teachers require?
86%: Students learn best
by findings soluti...
What knowledge, skills
and character qualities do
successful teachers require?
74%: Thinking and reasoning is more
importa...
Prevalence of memorisation
rehearsal, routine exercises, drill and
practice and/or repetition
-2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00...
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Below Level
1
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6
Index of stu...
Good instructional systems are about…
36
Make learning central, encourage
engagement and responsibility
Be acutely sensiti...
37 Professional knowledge and expertise in teaching
Behaviour
Cognition
Content
Character
• Effectiveness is evidenced by ...
215 235 255 275 295 315 335 355 375
Spain
Poland
Estonia
United States
Canada
Ireland
Korea
England (UK)
England/N. Irelan...
215 235 255 275 295 315 335 355 375
Spain
Poland
Estonia
United States
Canada
Ireland
Korea
England (UK)
England/N. Irelan...
External forces
exerting pressure and
influence inward on
an occupation
Internal motivation and
efforts of the members
of ...
Policy levers to teacher professionalism
Knowledge base for teaching
(initial education and incentives for
professional de...
Teacher professionalism
Knowledge base for teaching
(initial education and incentives for
professional development)
Autono...
High Peer Networks/
Low Autonomy
High Autonomy Knowledge Emphasis
Balanced Domains/
High Professionalism
Balanced Domains/...
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Spain
Japan
France
Brazil
Finland
Flanders
Norway
Alberta(Canada)
Australia
Denmark
Israel
Korea
Un...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Discussindividual
students
Shareresources
Teamconferences
Collaboratefor
commonstandards
...
Teachers Self-Efficacy and Professional Collaboration
11.40
11.60
11.80
12.00
12.20
12.40
12.60
12.80
13.00
13.20
13.40
Ne...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Low professionalism
High professionalism
Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after
ac...
51 Integrating the worlds of work and learning
High quality
delivery
Reliable competency-
based qualifications
Provisions ...
Families
Families
Use diverse
communication
channels
Ensure balanced
communication
Reach out to
disadvantaged
parents
Clea...
Public and private returns to educational investment
0
50 000
100 000
150 000
200 000
250 000
300 000
350 000
400 000
450 ...
56
Making educational reform happen
• Clear and consistent priorities (across
governments and across time), ambition and
u...
Resilience to
political
change
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with ...
Resilience to
political
change
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with ...
Resilience to
political
change
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with ...
Resilience to
political
change
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with ...
Resilience to
political
change
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with ...
Resilience to
political
change
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with ...
Routine cognitive skills Conceptual understanding, complex ways
of thinking, ways of working
Some students learn at high l...
The old bureaucratic system The modern enabling system
Some students learn at high levels  All students learn at high lev...
65
65 Thank you
Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org
– All publications
– The complete micro-level database
Email:...
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Making Education Everybody’s Business

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Andreas Schleicher - Director for the Directorate of Education and Skills, OECD. Poverty is not destiny The country where migrants go to school matters more than the country where they came from. Technology can amplify innovative teaching. Countries where students have stronger beliefs in their abilities perform better in mathematics.

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Making Education Everybody’s Business

  1. 1. Making education everybody’s business Andreas Schleicher GESF 12 March 2016 Making Education Everybody’s Business
  2. 2. 2 Time for a Plan B
  3. 3. 300325350375400425450475500525550575600625650675 Mexico Chile Greece Norway Sweden Iceland Israel Italy UnitedStates Spain Denmark Luxembourg Australia Ireland UnitedKingdom Hungary Canada Finland Austria Turkey Liechtenstein CzechRepublic Estonia Portugal Slovenia SlovakRepublic NewZealand Germany Netherlands France Switzerland Poland Belgium Japan Macao-China HongKong-China Korea Singapore ChineseTaipei Shanghai-China Source: PISA 2012 Poverty is not destiny PISA performance by decile of social background
  4. 4. Spending per student and learning outcomes Slovak Republic Czech Republic Estonia Israel Poland Korea Portugal New Zealand Canada Germany Spain France Italy Singapore Finland Japan Slovenia Ireland Iceland Netherlands Sweden Belgium UK Australia Denmark United States Austria Norway Switzerland Luxembourg Viet Nam Jordan Peru Thailand Malaysia Uruguay Turkey Colombia Tunisia Mexico Montenegro Brazil Bulgaria Chile Croatia Lithuania Latvia Hungary Shanghai-China 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 0 20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000 100 000 120 000 140 000 160 000 180 000 200 000 Average spending per student from the age of 6 to 15 (USD, PPPs) Low spending High spending PISAMathPerformance
  5. 5. -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 Korea Estonia Israel Kazakhstan Latvia Malaysia Slovenia Italy Poland Singapore Argentina CostaRica Netherlands Portugal Colombia Bulgaria France Finland Tunisia Lithuania Qatar Macao-China Thailand Spain Greece Switzerland Romania Norway RussianFed. Japan Austria Montenegro Croatia Canada U.A.E. OECDaverage Germany Denmark Hungary UnitedKingdom Luxembourg HongKong-China Belgium Iceland Jordan Peru VietNam Ireland UnitedStates Chile CzechRepublic Serbia Turkey Mexico Indonesia Uruguay Shanghai-China SlovakRepublic Sweden Brazil NewZealand Australia ChineseTaipei Albania Meanindexdifference More teacher shortage in disadvantaged schools Less teacher shortage in disadvantaged schools Few countries attract the most talented teachers to the most challenging classrooms
  6. 6. 6 Second generation immigrant students’ performance in mathematics, by country of origin and destination 370 390 410 430 450 470 490 510 Austria Belgium Switzerland Germany Denmark Netherlands Austria Belgium Switzerland Germany Denmark Netherlands PISA score points in mathematics First-generation immigrants' score, after accounting for socio-economic… 2nd generation students from Turkey in: The country where migrants go to school matters more than the country where they came from 1st generation students from Turkey in: First generation immigrant students’ performance in mathematics, by country of origin and destination
  7. 7. 7 Immigrant students’ performance in mathematics, by country of origin and destination 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Australia Macao-China New Zealand Hong Kong-China Qatar Finland Denmark United Arab… Netherlands PISA score points in mathematics First-generation immigrants' score, after accounting for socio-economic… Students from Arabic-speaking countries in: 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 Denmark Qatar United Arab Emirates Netherlands Finland % Percentage of students with an immigrant background who reported they feel they belong at school Students from Arabic-speaking countries in: The country where migrants go to school matters more than the country where they came from
  8. 8. More people on the move -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 High income OECD members Low income Middle income Source : OECD (2013), Trends Shaping Education. Primary source: World Bank (2012), World Databank: Net Migration. Net migration (in millions of people) into regions, with countries grouped by income level and OECD members, 1960-2010.
  9. 9. Technology can amplify innovative teaching • Make it faster and more granular • Collaborative platforms for teachers to share and enrich teaching materials • As tools for inquiry- based pedagogies with learners as active participants • Well beyond textbooks, in multiple formats, with little time and space constraints Expand access to content Support new pedagogies Feedback Collaboration for knowledge creation
  10. 10. 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 -2 -1 0 1 2 Scorepoints Technology in schools and digital skills still don’t square Source: Figure 6.5 Relationship between students’ skills in reading and computer use at school (average across OECD countries) OECD average Digital reading skills of 15-year-olds Intensive technology useNo technology use
  11. 11. % Yes No If I am more innovative in my teaching I will be rewarded (country average)
  12. 12. Leverage the potential of all learners Better anticipate the evolution of the demand for 21st century skills and better integrate the world of work and learning Find more innovative solutions to what we learn, how we learn, when we learn and where we learn Advance from an industrial towards a professional work organisation …build learning systems that… 16 Citizens expect that we…
  13. 13. 17 Making education everybody’s business Everybody’s business Governments The profession The business sector Families
  14. 14. 18 Governments Government Resilient to political change Responsive to new demands
  15. 15. 19 Share of 25-34 year-olds with a tertiary degree across OECD and G20 countries Over the last years, China has been building almost one university per week
  16. 16. Education in the past
  17. 17. Education now
  18. 18. 22 Knowledge Systems thinking Design thinking Information literacy Digital literacy Global literacy
  19. 19. Creativity Critical Thinking Problem Solving Innovation Collaboration Data Gathering Communication 23
  20. 20. 24 Can we make the differentiator of yesterday’s elite schools the key for success in every school? Empathy Resilience Mindfulness Inclusion Curiosity Ethics Courage Leadership
  21. 21. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? The Profession
  22. 22. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? 96% of teachers: My role as a teacher is to facilitate students own inquiry
  23. 23. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? 86%: Students learn best by findings solutions on their own
  24. 24. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? 74%: Thinking and reasoning is more important than curriculum content
  25. 25. Prevalence of memorisation rehearsal, routine exercises, drill and practice and/or repetition -2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 Switzerland Poland Germany Japan Korea France Sweden Shanghai-China Canada Singapore United States Norway Spain Netherlands United Kingdom Prevalence of elaboration reasoning, deep learning, intrinsic motivation, critical thinking, creativity, non-routine problems High Low Low High
  26. 26. -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Index of student-oriented instruction Index of teacher-directed instruction Index of cognitive-activation instruction Students' proficiency level in PISA mathematics 35 Teaching strategies and learning outcomes Mean Index Students at Level 5 and 6 can develop and work with models for complex situations, and work strategically with advanced reasoning skills Students below Level 2 have difficulties using basic algorithms, formulae, procedures or convention
  27. 27. Good instructional systems are about… 36 Make learning central, encourage engagement and responsibility Be acutely sensitive to individual differences Provide continual assessment with formative feedback Be demanding for every student with a high level of cognitive activation Ensure that students feel valued and included and learning is collaborative
  28. 28. 37 Professional knowledge and expertise in teaching Behaviour Cognition Content Character • Effectiveness is evidenced by teacher behaviour and student learning outcomes • Teachers who are passionate, compassionate and thoughtful, with strategies, decisions and reflections • The nature and adequacy of teacher knowledge of the substance of the curriculum being taught • The teachers serve as moral agents, deploying a moral-pedagogical craft Teacher knowledge of, and sensitivity to, cultural, social and political contexts and the environments of their students.
  29. 29. 215 235 255 275 295 315 335 355 375 Spain Poland Estonia United States Canada Ireland Korea England (UK) England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Northern Ireland (UK) France Australia Sweden Czech Republic Austria Netherlands Norway Germany Flanders (Belgium) Finland Japan Numeracy score 38 Teachers’ skills Numeracy test scores of tertiary graduates and teachers Numeracy score Numeracy skills of middle half of college graduates
  30. 30. 215 235 255 275 295 315 335 355 375 Spain Poland Estonia United States Canada Ireland Korea England (UK) England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Northern Ireland (UK) France Australia Sweden Czech Republic Austria Netherlands Norway Germany Flanders (Belgium) Finland Japan Numeracy score 39 Teachers’ skills Numeracy test scores of tertiary graduates and teachers Numeracy score Numeracy skills of teachers
  31. 31. External forces exerting pressure and influence inward on an occupation Internal motivation and efforts of the members of the profession itself 40 Professionalism Professionalism is the level of autonomy and internal regulation exercised by members of an occupation in providing services to society
  32. 32. Policy levers to teacher professionalism Knowledge base for teaching (initial education and incentives for professional development) Autonomy: Teachers’ decision- making power over their work (teaching content, course offerings, discipline practices) Peer networks: Opportunities for exchange and support needed to maintain high standards of teaching (participation in induction, mentoring, networks, feedback from direct observations) Teacher professionalism
  33. 33. Teacher professionalism Knowledge base for teaching (initial education and incentives for professional development) Autonomy: Teachers’ decision- making power over their work (teaching content, course offerings, discipline practices) Peer networks: Opportunities for exchange and support needed to maintain high standards of teaching (participation in induction, mentoring, networks, feedback from direct observations)
  34. 34. High Peer Networks/ Low Autonomy High Autonomy Knowledge Emphasis Balanced Domains/ High Professionalism Balanced Domains/ Low Professionalism Teacher professionalism
  35. 35. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Spain Japan France Brazil Finland Flanders Norway Alberta(Canada) Australia Denmark Israel Korea UnitedStates CzechRepublic Shanghai(China) Latvia Netherlands Poland England NewZealand Singapore Estonia Networks Autonomy Knowledge Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 4444 TALIS Teacher professionalism index
  36. 36. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Discussindividual students Shareresources Teamconferences Collaboratefor commonstandards Teamteaching CollaborativePD Jointactivities Classroom observations Percentageofteachers Average Professional collaboration Percentage of lower secondary teachers who report doing the following activities at least once per month Professional collaboration among teachers Exchange and co-ordination (OECD countries)
  37. 37. Teachers Self-Efficacy and Professional Collaboration 11.40 11.60 11.80 12.00 12.20 12.40 12.60 12.80 13.00 13.20 13.40 Never Onceayearorless 2-4timesayear 5-10timesayear 1-3timesamonth Onceaweekormore Teacherself-efficacy(level) Teach jointly as a team in the same class Observe other teachers’ classes and provide feedback Engage in joint activities across different classes Take part in collaborative professional learning Less frequently More frequently
  38. 38. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Low professionalism High professionalism Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 4949 Teacher professionalism index and teacher outcomes Perceptions of teachers’ status Satisfaction with the profession Satisfaction with the work environment Teachers’ self-efficacy Predicted percentile
  39. 39. 51 Integrating the worlds of work and learning High quality delivery Reliable competency- based qualifications Provisions that match labour- market needs Find the appropriate role for government that supports the interests of students and balances the perspectives of employers and unions. Mechanisms linking provision to needs Engagement of social partners Draw on employers’ perspectives and capacity to assess whether content of curricula and qualifications meet current labour market needs Systematic, mandatory, credit-bearing and quality assured work-based learning Ensure that VET teachers and trainers have both pedagogical skills and up-to-date technical expertise Provide adequate quality assurance and monitor labour-market outcomes ‘Contextual learning’ of basic skills Developed together with labour market actors and reflecting labour market needs Qualifications reflecting labour market needs that are nationally consistent but allow for a locally negotiated element High quality assesments
  40. 40. Families Families Use diverse communication channels Ensure balanced communication Reach out to disadvantaged parents Clear guidelines on what is expected from parents
  41. 41. Public and private returns to educational investment 0 50 000 100 000 150 000 200 000 250 000 300 000 350 000 400 000 450 000 500 000 Turkey Denmark Spain Estonia Sweden NewZealand Greece Korea Japan Canada SlovakRepublic Poland Norway Israel CzechRepublic France Australia Finland OECDaverage Portugal EU21average Austria UnitedKingdom Netherlands Italy Belgium Slovenia Germany UnitedStates Hungary Ireland EquivalentUSD Private net returns Public net returns Net private and public returns associated with a man attaining tertiary education (2010)
  42. 42. 56 Making educational reform happen • Clear and consistent priorities (across governments and across time), ambition and urgency, and the capacity to learn rapidly. Shared vision • Appropriate targets, real-time data, monitoring, incentives aligned to targets, accountability, and the capacity to intervene where necessary. Performance management • Building professional capabilities, sharing best practice and innovation, flexible management, and frontline ethos aligned with system objectives. Frontline capacity • Strong leadership at every level, including teacher leadership, adequate process design and consistency of focus across agencies. Delivery architecture
  43. 43. Resilience to political change Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with the profession • Acknowledge divergent views and interests • Communicate, communicate, communicate – Feedback reduces the likelihood of strong opposition – Involvement of stakeholders cultivates a sense of joint ownership over policies, and hence helps build consensus over both the need and the relevance of reforms • Mechanisms of regular and institutionalised consultation contribute to the development of trust among parties, and help them reach consensus – Regular interactions raise awareness of the concerns of others, thus fostering a climate of compromise • External pressures can build a compelling case for change . 57 Successful reform implementation Strive for consensus about the aims without compromising the drive for improvement
  44. 44. Resilience to political change Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with the profession • Regular involvement by teachers in policy design helps to build capacity and shared ideas over time • Several countries have established teaching councils that provide teachers with both a forum for policy development and, critically, a mechanism for profession-led standard setting and quality assurance in teacher education, teacher induction, teacher performance and career development • Policy can encourage the formation of such communities . 58 Successful reform implementation Engage teachers not just in the implementation of reform but in their design
  45. 45. Resilience to political change Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with the profession • Currently only one in ten educational reforms is evaluated • Policy experimentation can help build consensus on implementation and can prove powerful in testing out policy initiatives and – by virtue of their temporary nature and limited scope – overcoming fears and resistance by specific groups of stakeholders. 59 Successful reform implementation Use and evaluate pilot projects before full implementation
  46. 46. Resilience to political change Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with the profession –The benefits for ‘winners’ are often insufficient to mobilise support, the costs for ‘losers’ are concentrated •That’s the power of interest groups –Need for consistent, co-ordinated efforts to persuade those affected of the need for change and, in particular, to communicate the costs of inaction 60 Successful reform implementation Back reforms with sustainable capacity
  47. 47. Resilience to political change Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with the profession • All political players and stakeholders need to develop realistic expectations about the pace and nature of reforms to improve outcomes • Certain reform measures are best introduced before others, particularly because of the substantial gap between the time at which the initial cost of reform is incurred, and the time when the intended benefits of reforms materialise • Time is needed to learn about and understand impact, to build trust and develop capacity for the next stage . 61 Successful reform implementation Time implementation carefully
  48. 48. Resilience to political change Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with the profession • Putting the teaching profession at the heart of education reform requires a fruitful dialogue between governments and unions • Teachers should not just be part of the implementation of reforms but also part of their design • Conflict isn’t best addressed by weak unions but by strong social partnership . 62 Successful reform implementation Build partnerships with education unions to design and implement reforms
  49. 49. Routine cognitive skills Conceptual understanding, complex ways of thinking, ways of working Some students learn at high levels All students need to learn at high levels Student inclusion Curriculum, instruction and assessment Standardisation and compliance High-level professional knowledge workers Teacher quality ‘Tayloristic’, hierarchical Flat, collegial Work organisation Primarily to authorities Primarily to peers and stakeholders Accountability What it all means The old bureaucratic system The modern enabling system
  50. 50. The old bureaucratic system The modern enabling system Some students learn at high levels  All students learn at high levels Uniformity  Embracing diversity Curriculum-centred  Learner-centred Learning a place  Learning an activity Prescription  Informed profession Delivered wisdom  User-generated wisdom
  51. 51. 65 65 Thank you Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherEDU and remember:

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