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Linked Data to enhance users experience with Open Education Resources Edmundo Tovar (UPM etovar@fi.upm.es )  -   Nelson Piedra (UTPL, nopiedra@utpl.edu.ec) Jorge López, JannethChicaiza, Oscar Martinez OCWC Global 2011: Celebrating 10 years of OpenCourseWare Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA May 4, 2011 – May 6, 2011 this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/
some motivations
Status of the Current Web Web Content: Diversity of Platforms and systems (CMS, APIs); Web silos of content. A lot of Data contained in millions of web-documents (embedded within Content Management Systems). Discoverability and reusability: Not possible to reuse data outside the CMS/WebApps Not data available as unified machine readable format Diversity of APIs
Silos of data/relations/informations: Walled Social Networks Cartoon
The World Wide Web is defined as the universal, all-encompassing space containing all Internet - and other - resources referenced by Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs, sometimes commonly called "URLs").
The Web was designed as an information space, with the goal that it should be useful not only for human-human communication, but also that machines would be able to participate and help. [Tim Berners-Lee]
One of the major obstacles to this has been the fact that most information on the Web is designed for human consumption, and even if it was derived from a database with well defined meanings (in at least some terms) for its columns, that the structure of the data is not evident to a robot browsing the web. [TBL]
Leaving aside the artificial intelligence problem of training machines to behave like people, the Semantic Web approach instead develops languages for expressing information in a machine processable form. [TBL]
Web of Documentwhere links are relationships anchors in hypertext documents written in HTML from humans for humans and machines? no really welcome....
Web of Data Discovery,  Access, and Usages of Resources in the Web
Web of Data,Link DATA rather than DOCUMENTS  Linked Data is about using the Web to connect related data that wasn't previously linked, or using the Web to lower the barriers to linking data currently linked using other methods.  Linked Data as a best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF. Links  between arbitrary things described by RDF
Semantic WEB The Semantic Web isn't just about putting data on the web. It is about making links, so that a person or machine can explore the web of data.  With linked data, when you have some of it, you can find other, related, data.
Linked-Data Principles Like the web of hypertext, the web of data is constructed with documents on the web. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData Use URIs to name things on the Web (for naming everything real or abstract you could think of) Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.  When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL)  Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things.
Linked Data Key Concepts resource -- an thing of interest (OCW, syllabus, test, lecture, presentation, document, OER, ... ) URI -- global identifier for a resource. The URIs identify any kind of object or  concept.  representation -- data corresponding to the state of a resource  information resource -- a “document” containing information  non-information resource -- anything else  associated description -- representation describing a Semantic Web resource
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) RDF: The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadatadata model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax formats. Resource - everything with a URI Description - properties of these resources Framework - a system to build on
The RDF Data Model RDF Triples Resource Description Framework" subject <uri> traits or aspects of the resource predicate typed-link traits or aspects of the resource object <uri> or “literal” traits or aspects of the resource
Linked Data core stack SPARQL RDF HTTP URI
Linked Data Core Stack, Specifications RFC 2616 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1: Defines HTTP, a generic and stateless application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. RFC 3986 Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax: Defines a generic URI syntax and a process for resolving URI references that might be in relative form, along with guidelines and security considerations for the use of URIs on the Internet. RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax: Defines the RDF graph data model and key concepts. SPARQL Query Language for RDF: Defines defines the syntax and semantics of the SPARQL query language for RDF.
The Linking Open Data cloud diagram, evolution “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” Next images sequence shows datasets that have been published in Linked Data format, by contributors to the Linking Open Data community project and other individuals and organisations. It is based on metadata collected and curated by contributors to the CKAN directory. Last updated: 2010-09-22.
25 datasets 20071008 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2007-10-08.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
28 datasets 20071107 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2007-11-07.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
28 datasets 20071110 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2007-11-10.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
32 datasets 20080228 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2008-02-28.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
TED2009 Tim Berners-Lee on the next Web Linked Data is Real
34 datasets 20080331 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2008-03-31.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
45 datasets 20080919 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2008-09-18.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
89 datasets 20090305 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2009-03-05.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
93 datasets 20090327 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2009-03-27.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
95 datasets 20090714 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2009-07-14.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
203 datasets 20100922 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2010-09-22_colored.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
LinkedOCWData Project
GOAL LinkedOCWData Project Our Goal: One of the main objectives of our team is: to connect Linked Data with Open Educational Resources, aiming to improve users’ experience of OERs and OCWs. To explore how the principles of Linked Data can be used to help teachers, students and self-learners find open content. Motivation: There is an enormous amount of information and digital resources that our OCWs Officess produce in their respective universities. We must find a way to exchange quick and easy access; we must put all information in one place and under the same principles of design.
ABOUT LinkedOCWData Project About Project: LinkedOCWData project is to make the OpenCourseWare (OCW) and OpenEducationalResources(OER) datasets easily available as RDF. Additionally, we are providing interlinking with DBpedia, GeoNames and Univerisities Linked Datasets. Expected outcome: The result is a rich, open and integrated dataset which we hope to be useful for research and application development. The datasets can be publicly accessed via downloads, Linked Data, and SPARQL-endpoints. We have also launched an experimental “Live-SPARQL-endpoint” that is synchronized with the minutely updates from OCW/OER initiatives whereas the changes to our store are republished as RDF.
Solutions: The key to achieving these objectives is the disambiguation of open educational materials with unique identifiers through a consensual vocabulary. That is, permanent links which contain structured data that can be read automatically by computers. In resolving a URI, data may be obtained on the course/open resource -author, content, licensing, data on the principles of design and content localization-.  Development Cycle: LinkedOCWData Project
Life Cycle: LinkedOCWData Project Linked Data requires you to assign URLs to identify things: people, places, events, whatever.
Consensual vocabulary to assess the advantages of using Linked Data in Open Educational Materials. 1. Deciding what content to look for. Faced with a wide range of open content, it is difficult to decide between materials of the same subject. Thus, it will be possible to anticipate some of the interests of OCW users.  2. We can help people get more information by using the URL of an open educational resource, and connecting it automatically to related information found in the internet cloud, conveniently and unobtrusively. It consequently adds context to knowledge and open educational materials A challenging task: LinkedOCWData Project
A Best Practice: Linked Open Data star scheme by example Tim Berners-Lee suggested a 5-star deployment scheme for Linked Open Data and Ed Summers provided a nice rendering of it.  ★ make your stuff available on the Web (whatever format) under an open license ★★ make it available as structured data (e.g., Excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ use non-proprietary formats (e.g., CSV instead of Excel) ★★★★ use URIs to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ link your data to other data to provide context from: http://lab.linkeddata.deri.ie/2010/star-scheme-by
Example: Linked Data applied to OpenCourseWare Opencourseware description: Ontologies and Semantic Web, 2008 The general objective is to provide students with a sound grounding of scientific, methodological and technological fundamentals in Ontological Engineering and the Semantic Web areas. This knowledge will be later used to build applications that can integrate, combine and infer heterogeneous and distributed information. Guadalupe Aguado;  Oscar Corcho; Asunción Gómez Departamento de Inteligencia Artificial.Facultad de Informática. A four-monthly subject in the following official master programs: Master in Information Technologies European Master in Logic Computation (ERASMUS Mundus Program) Master in Research in Artificial Intelligence Ontology Network   Last revision: April 2008.   It is credited 6 ECTS. Presential classes: 2 hours/week. Total learning time: 32 hours. http://ocw.upm.es/ciencia-de-la-computacion-e-inteligencia-artificial/ontologies-and-semantic-web
raw data within UPM opencourseware web page OCW University knowledge area Title Author(s) Department syllabus bibliography year ects credits time autoself description
‘Ontologies and Semantic Web’ subject has a author-creator predicate whose name is Asunción Gómez Pérez object
http://ocw.upm.es/ciencia-de-la-computacion-e-inteligencia-artificial/ontologies-and-semantic-web subject has a http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1//creator predicate whose name is Asunción Gómez Pérez object
RDF graph of OpenCourseWare

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Linked Data to Improve the OER Experience

  • 1. Linked Data to enhance users experience with Open Education Resources Edmundo Tovar (UPM etovar@fi.upm.es ) - Nelson Piedra (UTPL, nopiedra@utpl.edu.ec) Jorge López, JannethChicaiza, Oscar Martinez OCWC Global 2011: Celebrating 10 years of OpenCourseWare Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA May 4, 2011 – May 6, 2011 this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/
  • 3. Status of the Current Web Web Content: Diversity of Platforms and systems (CMS, APIs); Web silos of content. A lot of Data contained in millions of web-documents (embedded within Content Management Systems). Discoverability and reusability: Not possible to reuse data outside the CMS/WebApps Not data available as unified machine readable format Diversity of APIs
  • 4. Silos of data/relations/informations: Walled Social Networks Cartoon
  • 5. The World Wide Web is defined as the universal, all-encompassing space containing all Internet - and other - resources referenced by Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs, sometimes commonly called "URLs").
  • 6. The Web was designed as an information space, with the goal that it should be useful not only for human-human communication, but also that machines would be able to participate and help. [Tim Berners-Lee]
  • 7. One of the major obstacles to this has been the fact that most information on the Web is designed for human consumption, and even if it was derived from a database with well defined meanings (in at least some terms) for its columns, that the structure of the data is not evident to a robot browsing the web. [TBL]
  • 8. Leaving aside the artificial intelligence problem of training machines to behave like people, the Semantic Web approach instead develops languages for expressing information in a machine processable form. [TBL]
  • 9. Web of Documentwhere links are relationships anchors in hypertext documents written in HTML from humans for humans and machines? no really welcome....
  • 10. Web of Data Discovery, Access, and Usages of Resources in the Web
  • 11. Web of Data,Link DATA rather than DOCUMENTS Linked Data is about using the Web to connect related data that wasn't previously linked, or using the Web to lower the barriers to linking data currently linked using other methods. Linked Data as a best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF. Links  between arbitrary things described by RDF
  • 12. Semantic WEB The Semantic Web isn't just about putting data on the web. It is about making links, so that a person or machine can explore the web of data.  With linked data, when you have some of it, you can find other, related, data.
  • 13. Linked-Data Principles Like the web of hypertext, the web of data is constructed with documents on the web. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData Use URIs to name things on the Web (for naming everything real or abstract you could think of) Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things.
  • 14. Linked Data Key Concepts resource -- an thing of interest (OCW, syllabus, test, lecture, presentation, document, OER, ... ) URI -- global identifier for a resource. The URIs identify any kind of object or  concept. representation -- data corresponding to the state of a resource information resource -- a “document” containing information non-information resource -- anything else associated description -- representation describing a Semantic Web resource
  • 15. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) RDF: The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadatadata model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax formats. Resource - everything with a URI Description - properties of these resources Framework - a system to build on
  • 16. The RDF Data Model RDF Triples Resource Description Framework" subject <uri> traits or aspects of the resource predicate typed-link traits or aspects of the resource object <uri> or “literal” traits or aspects of the resource
  • 17. Linked Data core stack SPARQL RDF HTTP URI
  • 18. Linked Data Core Stack, Specifications RFC 2616 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1: Defines HTTP, a generic and stateless application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. RFC 3986 Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax: Defines a generic URI syntax and a process for resolving URI references that might be in relative form, along with guidelines and security considerations for the use of URIs on the Internet. RDF Concepts and Abstract Syntax: Defines the RDF graph data model and key concepts. SPARQL Query Language for RDF: Defines defines the syntax and semantics of the SPARQL query language for RDF.
  • 19. The Linking Open Data cloud diagram, evolution “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” Next images sequence shows datasets that have been published in Linked Data format, by contributors to the Linking Open Data community project and other individuals and organisations. It is based on metadata collected and curated by contributors to the CKAN directory. Last updated: 2010-09-22.
  • 20. 25 datasets 20071008 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2007-10-08.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
  • 21. 28 datasets 20071107 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2007-11-07.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
  • 22. 28 datasets 20071110 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2007-11-10.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
  • 23. 32 datasets 20080228 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2008-02-28.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
  • 24. TED2009 Tim Berners-Lee on the next Web Linked Data is Real
  • 25. 34 datasets 20080331 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2008-03-31.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
  • 26. 45 datasets 20080919 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2008-09-18.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
  • 27. 89 datasets 20090305 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2009-03-05.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
  • 28. 93 datasets 20090327 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2009-03-27.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
  • 29. 95 datasets 20090714 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2009-07-14.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
  • 30. 203 datasets 20100922 http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2010-09-22_colored.png “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/” This work is available under a CC-BY-SA license.
  • 32. GOAL LinkedOCWData Project Our Goal: One of the main objectives of our team is: to connect Linked Data with Open Educational Resources, aiming to improve users’ experience of OERs and OCWs. To explore how the principles of Linked Data can be used to help teachers, students and self-learners find open content. Motivation: There is an enormous amount of information and digital resources that our OCWs Officess produce in their respective universities. We must find a way to exchange quick and easy access; we must put all information in one place and under the same principles of design.
  • 33. ABOUT LinkedOCWData Project About Project: LinkedOCWData project is to make the OpenCourseWare (OCW) and OpenEducationalResources(OER) datasets easily available as RDF. Additionally, we are providing interlinking with DBpedia, GeoNames and Univerisities Linked Datasets. Expected outcome: The result is a rich, open and integrated dataset which we hope to be useful for research and application development. The datasets can be publicly accessed via downloads, Linked Data, and SPARQL-endpoints. We have also launched an experimental “Live-SPARQL-endpoint” that is synchronized with the minutely updates from OCW/OER initiatives whereas the changes to our store are republished as RDF.
  • 34. Solutions: The key to achieving these objectives is the disambiguation of open educational materials with unique identifiers through a consensual vocabulary. That is, permanent links which contain structured data that can be read automatically by computers. In resolving a URI, data may be obtained on the course/open resource -author, content, licensing, data on the principles of design and content localization-. Development Cycle: LinkedOCWData Project
  • 35. Life Cycle: LinkedOCWData Project Linked Data requires you to assign URLs to identify things: people, places, events, whatever.
  • 36. Consensual vocabulary to assess the advantages of using Linked Data in Open Educational Materials. 1. Deciding what content to look for. Faced with a wide range of open content, it is difficult to decide between materials of the same subject. Thus, it will be possible to anticipate some of the interests of OCW users. 2. We can help people get more information by using the URL of an open educational resource, and connecting it automatically to related information found in the internet cloud, conveniently and unobtrusively. It consequently adds context to knowledge and open educational materials A challenging task: LinkedOCWData Project
  • 37.
  • 38. A Best Practice: Linked Open Data star scheme by example Tim Berners-Lee suggested a 5-star deployment scheme for Linked Open Data and Ed Summers provided a nice rendering of it. ★ make your stuff available on the Web (whatever format) under an open license ★★ make it available as structured data (e.g., Excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ use non-proprietary formats (e.g., CSV instead of Excel) ★★★★ use URIs to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ link your data to other data to provide context from: http://lab.linkeddata.deri.ie/2010/star-scheme-by
  • 39. Example: Linked Data applied to OpenCourseWare Opencourseware description: Ontologies and Semantic Web, 2008 The general objective is to provide students with a sound grounding of scientific, methodological and technological fundamentals in Ontological Engineering and the Semantic Web areas. This knowledge will be later used to build applications that can integrate, combine and infer heterogeneous and distributed information. Guadalupe Aguado;  Oscar Corcho; Asunción Gómez Departamento de Inteligencia Artificial.Facultad de Informática. A four-monthly subject in the following official master programs: Master in Information Technologies European Master in Logic Computation (ERASMUS Mundus Program) Master in Research in Artificial Intelligence Ontology Network   Last revision: April 2008.   It is credited 6 ECTS. Presential classes: 2 hours/week. Total learning time: 32 hours. http://ocw.upm.es/ciencia-de-la-computacion-e-inteligencia-artificial/ontologies-and-semantic-web
  • 40. raw data within UPM opencourseware web page OCW University knowledge area Title Author(s) Department syllabus bibliography year ects credits time autoself description
  • 41. ‘Ontologies and Semantic Web’ subject has a author-creator predicate whose name is Asunción Gómez Pérez object
  • 42. http://ocw.upm.es/ciencia-de-la-computacion-e-inteligencia-artificial/ontologies-and-semantic-web subject has a http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1//creator predicate whose name is Asunción Gómez Pérez object
  • 43. RDF graph of OpenCourseWare
  • 44. Next Applications “investigate and prototype the use of linked data technologies and approaches to linking and exposing data for students and researchers”. Plan for development of specific applications targeting: Students: in finding resources related to courses, topics, and helping selecting courses to enroll to – Researchers: Identify interesting connections/ research questions from research data linked to OU/external sources• Already a number of (more generic) applications emerging…
  • 45. Resource Types geo: http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos# sioc: http://rdfs.org/sioc/ns# tag: http://twitlogic.fortytwo.net/hashtag/ rdf: http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# rdfs:http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# owl: http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl# Dublin Core, dc: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ dcterms: http://purl.org/dc/terms/ Person, foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ fti: http://franz.com/ns/allegrograph/2.2/textindex/ Concept, skos: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core# Bibliographic Ontology, bibo: http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/
  • 46. example for locwd dataset
  • 47. OCW-dataset guidelines There must be resolvable http:// (or https://) URIs. They must resolve, with or without content negotiation, to RDF data in one of the popular RDF formats (RDFa, RDF/XML, Turtle, N-Triples). The dataset must contain at least 1000 triples. (Hence, your FOAF file most likely does not qualify.) The dataset must be connected via RDF links to a dataset that is already in the diagram. This means, either your dataset must use URIs from the other dataset, or vice versam. We arbitrarily require at least 50 links. Access of the entire dataset must be possible via RDF crawling, via an RDF dump, or via a SPARQL endpoint.
  • 48. So a lot of work has gone into use and reuse resources integration: we wanted to explore how to automate some of the process. To publish OCW and OER on our websites, we needed to capture the metadata naturally produced in the production process and expose it online. CMS: Educommons Moodle Drupal DSpace integration of OCW Content Management Systems
  • 49. to finish Linked Data as a best practice for exposing, sharing, connecting, and interoperate from opencourseware resources, pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF.
  • 50. TED2009 Tim Berners-Lee on the next Web Linked Data is Data Interoperability The need for communication and interoperation between autonomous and distributed information systems is increasing with the increasing usage of the Web.
  • 51. linkeddata in the internet of future The OSI/OSI 7-Layer architecture is a conceptual view on networking architectures. One possible view is a look at Linked Data as an independent layer in the Internet architecture, on top of the networking layer, but below the application layers, since it provides a common data model for all applications as shown in the figure below. Figure OSI/OSI Model and envisioned Linked Data Interoperability Layer http://www.future-internet.eu/home/future-internet-assembly/ghent-dec-2010/session-i-linked-open-data-i.html
  • 52. Linked Data achievements and challenges achievements: The Linked Data initiative has given rise to an increasing number of RDF datasets, many of which are freely accessible online. Extension of the Web using standards technologies (HTTP, URI, RDF, SPARQL) Enterprise and Industrial uptake begins (e.g. BBC, Thomson Reuters) Emerging governmental adoption in sight (e.g. UK, USA) Establishing Linked Data as a deployment path for the Semantic Web Enthusiastic global community challenges: To scale beyond the initial Linked Data community: academia, “skilled artisans”. Enconding knowledge in the form of tools, vocabularies, best practices and design patterns Changing the nature of the linked Data: largely static and slow moving environment to one that is much more lively and real-time. Increasing number of primary sources with high quality data.
  • 53. Conclusion Linked data is essential to actually connect the semantic web.  It is quite easy to do with a little thought, and becomes second nature.   Various common sense considerations determine when to make a link and when not to. Linked Data, and RDF specifically, it is so much more portable than any other format. This means that teorically any organization/person can easily replicate data, to share and providing access. With Linked Data the OCW Initiatives have the option of federating or sharing data across the web. Linked data benefits: linking the pieces of data, information, knowledge on the Web from disparate resources. Machine processable information ready to use by web software-agents. Improved retrieval and discovery services
  • 54. References The Semantic Web, Scientific American, May 2001, Berners-Lee, Hendler and Lassila W3C Semantic Web Activity, February 2001 Dave Beckett's RDF Resource Guide http://ilrt.org/discovery/rdf/resources/Everything about RDF. Semantic Web History: Nodes and Arcs 1989-1999 - The WWW Proposal and RDF, Dan Brickley, 1999-11-12 BERNERS-LEE, Tim. Linked data [online]. W3C, Last change 2009/06/18. Available from WWW: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html