Essential to beauty.
Visual arts: achieved by establishing a
pleasing relationship between the
Unity: various parts of the design will
give an appearance of belonging
Repetition of angles and curves,
shapes, lines and colors will give a
3. To relieve monotony, there must be
◦ The spice of life and of art.
◦ May be achieved by the diversity of
materials used and slight contrast in color,
texture, shape and space arrangements.
Painting and interior decoration:
complementary hues when used will
Sculptor: use of conrast of texture,
such as smooth and rough, in his
4. Architect: instead of using a long line of
windows, may group the windows and
introduce space between the groups.
Monotony produced by vertical lines of
columns in buildings may be relieved
by transition lines.
If the wall paper in room is figured, the
use of plain curtains will make it more
beautiful and restful.
Artist must ne careful that the variety
he introduces does not destroy the
All parts are equally distributed around
a central point.
Weights are equally distributed on
each side of a center of fulcrum, as in
Gives a feeling of stability and rest.
Makes an object or room not only
interesting but also pleasant to look at.
6. Formal balance
Achieved by making both sides
Objects of the same size and
shape, when arranged on two sides of
a center, will produce formal balance.
Gives an atmosphere of dignity and
7. Informal or asymmetrical
More difficult to achieve the formal
balance; however, the results are more
Achieved when objects of unequal
weights or unequal attractions are placed
at the correct distances from the center as
when a large object or an object of
stronger attraction is placed near the
center, while the smaller object or one
with less striking attraction is moved
8. Generally used when we want to
attract the attention of observers and
set them thinking about the object
◦ Active balance: suggests spontaneity and
◦ Gives an impression of casualness.
Determined by a comparison of the sizes
of different parts of an object or of an
Achieved when one part of an object
does not seem too big or too small for
Painting: the principle of good proportion
is useful in combining colors successfully
and in determining the margins for
◦ There should be more of one color than the
Achieved by the regular or
harmonious recurrence of lines, forms,
Organized movement, a beat, a
Through the repetition of lines or
forms, a pattern is produced, which
the eye follows as it moves from the
right to left.
A series of units repeated one after
11. Through the use of color, charming
patterns will be formed that will carry
the eye from one part of a room to
Repetition of color in different parts of
the room produces a rhythmical effect
which is not only charming but
Rhythmical patterns help the aye to
move easily from one part of the room
to another or from one part of a design
12. It is used as the most effective way of
creating aesthetic unity in
prose, music, dance, painting, architec
ture, and sculpture.
Space arts: rhythm is used in
repetition, alternation, and gradation of
the elements of art, line, form, color
13. Emphasis/ Subordination
Some parts easily catch our attention
and interest while other parts are not
noticed at all.
Produced by the design or form that
catches our attention while the rest
Pattern emphasized usually forms
the center of interest.
Giving importance to the parts or to