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Organizational Structure, do's and dont's.ppt

  1. Organizational Structure How organizations rationalize their resources
  2. Structure Offers Clues About  Where formal power resides  How tasks are coordinated  How the actions of members are controlled  How decision-making authority is assigned  How strategy and decisions are enacted 2
  3. Organizational Structure What is the role of structure?  Provides a roadmap for workflow  Creates or restrains interactions  Influences attitudes and social relations  Influences how work is completed 3
  4. Organizational Structure What is the appropriate way to divide and coordinate work and work related processes?  Differentiation – Influences how well organizations collaborate (create therir own cooperate culture)  Horizontal: delegates specialized tasks to particular employees  Vertical:top-down structure  Personal: personal tasks  Spatial:uses employees at different locations to accomplish different tasks 4
  5.  Integration – Determines how Organizations coordinate their work  Mutual Adjustment:refers to the ways in which both owner-managers and their employees accommodate, adapt to and, potentially, struggle with one another to develop working practices and employment relationships  Direct supervision: by higher authority  Standardization:process of implementing and developing technical standards, maximize compatibility, safety, or quality.
  6. Organizational Structure Mechanistic Structures Mechanistic structures are those that resemble a bureaucracy. These structures are highly formalized and centralized. Communication tends to follow formal channels and employees are given specific job descriptions delineating their roles and responsibilities.  Bureaucracy  Clearly defined roles  Senior people have more knowledge of issues and problems  Standardized policies and procedures govern organizational decision-making  Rewards are determined by adherence to instruction from supervisors 6
  7. Organizational Structure Organic structures Organic structures are flexible and decentralized, with low levels of formalization. In Organizations with an organic structure, communication lines are more fluid and flexible. Employee job descriptions are broader and employees are asked to perform duties based on the specific needs of the organization at the time as well as their own expertise levels. Organic structures tend to be related to higher levels of job satisfaction  Flexibly designed to cope with change  Less focus on formal roles and specialization  Not assumed that people in higher positions are better informed than those in lower positions  Horizontal relationships are equal to or more important than vertical relationships  Formal structure is fluid and changeable 7
  8. Organizational Structure Dimensions of Structure exist on a continuum  Centralization:Centralization is the degree to which decision-making authority is concentrated at higher levels in an organization. In centralized companies, many important decisions are made at higher levels of the hierarchy,  whereas in Decentralized companies, decisions are made and problems are solved at lower levels by employees who are closer to the problem in question.  Formalization:Formalization is the extent to which an organization’s policies, procedures, job descriptions, and rules are written and explicitly articulated. Formalized structures are those in which there are many written rules and regulations. These structures control employee behavior using written rules,n advantage of formalization is that it makes employee behavior more predictable. Whenever a problem at work arises, employees know to turn to a handbook or a procedure guideline. Therefore, employees respond to problems in a similar way across the organization; this leads to consistency of behavior.  Complexity:Complexity has represented a number of different aspects of organizational structure throughout history. complexity are specialization, interdependency span of control, and height. 8
  9. Organizational Structure Determinants of structure  Size: the size of the enterprise and its scope of performance have an effective influence on the organisation  Complexity:  Strategy: plays a special role in determining the outline of authority and flow of communication in an organisation.  External considerations  Managerial experience and skill 9
  10. Do’s and Don’ts of Professional Practices
  11. Do’s and Don’ts of Professional Practices  Presentation  Policies & Procedures  Communication Skills  Personal Tasks  Proper Office Etiquette  Have a Positive Attitude  Take Initiative 11
  12. Presentation  Dress in a Manner Appropriate to Your Office  Look At Others or Ask What is Appropriate  Listen and Observe to Avoid Mistakes  Learn What is and is Not Appropriate  Ask Your Supervisor For Feedback About Your Performance  Be Prepared--Bring All Materials 12
  13. Policies & Procedures  Know Company Policies & Procedures  Don’t Break Any Rules  Agree To a Work Schedule and Keep It  Give Notice of Your Absence in Advance  Don’t Be Absent Often  Be On Time 13
  14. Communication Skills  Consider All Office Information Confidential  Social Interaction in the Office Should Be Kept at a Minimum  Dating & flirting is not recommended  Use Discretion When Interrupting Others  Don’t Interrupt Those on the Phone or in Meetings with Others 14
  15. Communication Skills  Don’t Badmouth Your Boss or Other Employees  Answer the Phone Professionally  Avoid Office Gossip  Don’t Be Afraid To Ask For Help  Don’t Refuse To Do Something  Don’t Argue with Supervisors or Co-Workers 15
  16. Personal Tasks  Computers are Not For Personal Use  Keep your Cell Phone Off  Friends and Family Members Shouldn’t Call You At Work  Do not Send Personal Emails  Personal Phone Calls Should Not Be Made 16
  17. Proper Office Etiquette  If You Have Questions--Ask  If You Make a Mistake--Tell Someone About It (Don’t Cover It Up)  Don’t Talk Too Much About Your Personal Life  Don’t Make Enemies or Burn Bridges  Be Professional and Ethical At All Times  Only Take Credit for Your Work 17
  18. Proper Office Etiquette  Always Be Honest  Respect Your Co-Workers  Be a Team Player, Cooperate with Others  Be Open To Suggestions and Constructive Criticism  Be Responsible for Your Actions 18
  19. Have a Positive Attitude  Be Enthusiastic and Energetic and Portray Genuine Interest  Avoid Negativity  Don’t complain, be rude, disrespect coworkers, act unprofessionally, or gossip  Exceed Employers Expectations  Offer Suggestions, Become Part of the Team, Be Reliable, and Be Honest 19
  20. Take Initiative  Ask for Things to Do  Ask to Attend Meetings and Events  Go Above and Beyond your Duties  Don’t Be Afraid to Ask Questions  Learn All You can About the Industry  Get in the Information Loop 20
  21. Sample Internship Resume Jane Smith 300 4th Avenue apt. 1 San Diego, CA 92103 mobile:(619) EDUCATION: Master of Arts, Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Anticipated Completion: December, 2008 Alliant International University, San Diego, CA Bachelor of Arts, Psychology & Social Behavior, 2005 University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA Associate of Arts, Psychology, 2002 San Diego Mesa College, San Diego, CA GRADUATE COURSES TAKEN: Introduction to Professional Practice Personnel & Work Psychology Organizational Behavior Organizational Theory Pro Seminar in Industrial/Organizational Psychology Cultural Diversity in Organizations Human Resource Management Work Motivation and Productivity 21
  22. Sample Internship Resume Cont’d PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: Created and piloted a performance appraisal tool for expatriate managers Conducted several interviews for projects in cultural diversity, human resource management, work motivation & productivity, and organizational change & development Created a mock RFP (research for proposal) Power-point presentations for several classes in a variety of subject areas Class room e.g. case study facilitation Presentation at the WPA (Western Psychological Association, a division of the APA) Volunteer work in mentoring/tutoring, event coordination, fundraising, facilitating handicapped children and adults STRENGTHS Editing Writing Teaching Presenting International orientation Microsoft Office Suite Interpersonal communication 22
  23. Sample Internship Resume Cont’d WORK HISTORY Business English Teacher May 2005 – March 2006 XYZ Language Academy, Taipei, Taiwan  Private teacher for business professionals  Catered each class to fit students’ industries, position, and occupational responsibilities  Prepared and edited presentations for XYZ’s human resources department for overseas conferences  Edited staff handbook (mission statements, visions/goals, team-building, moral-building, etc) Intern Fall 2004 Acme Cross Cultural Community Center, Garden Grove, California 23