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Solid waste management

  1. SEMINAR – 6 DR. NABEELA BASHA 2
  2. CONTENTS  Introduction  History  Sources and types of waste  Solid waste  Disposal of solid waste  Magnitude of the problem and Current status  Disposal of Health Care Wastes  Waste Management  Initiatives taken  Public Health Significance 3
  3.  Conclusion  References  Previous year questions 4
  4. INTRODUCTION5
  5. What is Waste?  Waste can be defined as something which the original owner or user no longer values, and has been discarded or discharged by the original owner or user.  It is something one does not want any more and want to throw away. Waste is therefore an inevitable by-product of any process that one can think of. 6
  6.  As defined under the Environment Protection Act 1993, Waste means — Any discarded, rejected, abandoned, unwanted or surplus matter, whether or not intended for sale or for recycling, reprocessing, recovery or purification by a separate operation from that which produced the matter. 7
  7. A Timeline of Trash…..  Trash has played a tremendous role in history. The Bubonic Plague, cholera and typhoid fever, to mention a few, were diseases that altered the populations of Europe and influenced monarchies.  They were perpetuated by filth that harbored rats, and contaminated water supply.  It was not uncommon for Europeans to throw their garbage and even human wastes out of the window. 8 Kenneth Barbalace. The History of Waste. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. Aug. 2003. http://EnvironmentalChemistry.com/yogi/environmental/wastehistory.html
  8.  They figured that stray dogs would eat whatever they threw out.  How does the waste we toss today compare to the waste that was thrown away by other civilizations??  It is hard to be specific. Until recently trash quantity was calculated by volume not weight. Volume is dependant upon how much the trash is compacted.  Weight is influenced by moisture content, which varies greatly depending upon climate and weather conditions. 9
  9.  6,500 BC - North America - Archeological studies shows a clan of Native Americans in what is now Colorado produced an average of 5.3 pounds of waste a day.  500 BC - Athens Greece - First municipal dump in western world organized. Regulations required waste to be dumped at least a mile from the city limits.  1388 – England - English Parliament bars waste dispersal in public waterways 10
  10.  1400 – Paris, France - Garbage piles so high outside of Paris gates that it interfered with city defense.  1842 – England - A report links disease to filthy environmental conditions - "age of sanitation" begins.  1874 - Nottingham England - A new technology called "the Destructor" provided the first systematic incineration of refuse in Nottingham, England. Until this time, much of the burning was accidental, a result of methane production. 11
  11.  1896 - United States – Waste Reduction plants arrive in US. (for compressing organic wastes). Later closed because of noxious emissions.  Turn of Century - By the turn of the century the garbage problem was seen as one of the greatest problems for local authorities.  1900 - "Piggeries" were developed to eat fresh or cooked garbage (In the mid-50's an outbreak of vesicluar exenthama resulted in the destruction of 1,000s of pigs that had eaten raw garbage. 12
  12.  1920's – U.S - Landfills were becoming a popular way of reclaiming swamp land while getting rid of trash.  1965 – U.S - The first federal solid waste management laws were enacted.  1970 - U.S - The First Earth Day was celebrated, the Environmental Protection Agency EPA was created and the Resource Recovery Act enacted.  1979 – U.S - The EPA issued criteria prohibiting open dumping. 13
  13. SOURCES AND OTHER TYPES OF WASTE 14
  14.  Disposal of wastes is now largely the domain of sanitarians and public health engineers.  However health professionals need to have a basic knowledge of the subject since improper disposal of wastes constitute a health hazard.  Further the health professionals may be called upon to give advice in sanitation camps or coping with waste disposal problems when there is a disruption or breakdown of community health services in natural disasters. 19
  15.  Healthy cities & villages cannot thrive with in sanitary waste & indifferent sewage disposal.  In interest of community it is essential to safely put these unwanted/discarded material away.  Wastes nevertheless cannot be avoided totally from mans existence either.  The output of daily waste depends upon the dietary habits, lifestyles, living standards and degree of urbanization and industrialization. 20
  16.  The per capita daily solid waste produced ranges between 0.25-2.5 kg in different countries 21
  17. Wastes are of 3 types  Solid Waste  Sewage – Waste water from a community containing solid and liquid excreta, derived from houses, street and yard washings, factories and industries.  Sullage – Waste water which does not contain human excreta. 22
  18. SOLID WASTE The term solid wastes include  Garbage (food wastes).  Rubbish (paper, plastics, wood, metal, glass etc).  Demolition products (bricks, masonry, pipes).  Sewage treatment residues (sludge & solids from the coarse screening of domestic sewage).  Dead animals, manure and other discarded materials. 23
  19. Solid waste: “a health hazard”  It decomposes and favours fly breeding.  Attracts rodents and vermin.  The pathogens may be conveyed back to man’s food through flies and dust.  Possibility of water, soil and air pollution.  Heaps of refuse present an unsightly appearance and nuisance from bad odors. 24
  20. Sources of Refuse  Refuse that is collected by the street cleansing service or scavenging is called street refuse. It consists of leaves, straw, paper, animal droppings and litter of all kinds.  Refuse that is collected from markets is called market refuse. It contains a large proportion of putrid vegetable and animal matter.
  21.  Refuse that is collected from stables is called stable litter. It contains mainly animal droppings and left-over animal feeds.  Industrial refuse comprises a wide variety of wastes ranging from completely inert materials such as calcium carbonate to highly toxic and explosive compounds.  The domestic refuse consists of ash, rubbish and garbage. Ash is the residue from fire used for cooking and heating. Rubbish comprises paper, clothing, bits of wood, metal, glass, dust and dirt. Garbage is waste matter arising from the preparation, cooking and consumption of food. 26
  22. Stable litter Industrial refuse Domestic refuse
  23. STORAGE  The galvanized steel dust bin with close fitting cover is a suitable receptacle for storing refuse. The capacity of a bin will depend upon the number of users and frequency of collection.  The output of refuse per capita per day in India is estimated to vary from 1/10 to 1/20 c.ft. 28
  24.  For a family of 5 members, a bin having a capacity of 5/10 or 1/2 c.ft. would be needed. If collection is done once in 3 days, a bin having a capacity of 1 1/2 or 2 c.ft. would be adequate.  A recent innovation in the western countries is the "paper sack." Refuse is stored in the paper sack, and the sack itself is removed with the contents for disposal and a new sack is substituted. 29
  25.  Public Bins - They are kept on a concrete platform raised 2 to 3 inches above ground level to prevent flood water entering the bins. In bigger municipalities, the bins are handled and emptied mechanically by lorries fitted with cranes. 30
  26. COLLECTION  The method of collection depends upon the funds available. House-to-house collection is by far the best method of collecting refuse.  In India, there is no house-to-house collection system. People are expected to dump the refuse in the nearest public bin, which is usually not done.  The refuse is then transported in refuse collection vehicles to the place of ultimate disposal. 31
  27.  The Environmental Hygiene Committee (1949) recommended that municipalities and other local bodies should arrange for collection of refuse not only from the public bins but also from individual houses.  A house-to-house collection will result in a simultaneous reduction in the number of public bins. The open refuse cart should be abandoned and replaced by enclosed vans. 32
  28. METHODS OF DISPOSAL The principal methods of refuse disposal are :- a) Dumping b) Controlled tipping or sanitary land-fill c) Incineration d) Composting e) Manure pits f) Burial 33
  29. DUMPING  Refuse is dumped in low lying areas partly as a method of reclamation of land but mainly as an easy method of disposal of dry refuse. As a result of bacterial action, refuse decreases considerably in volume and is converted gradually into humus.  Kolkata disposes of its refuse by dumping and the reclaimed land is leased out for cultivation 34
  30.  WHO Expert Committee (1967) condemned dumping as "a most insanitary method that creates public health hazards, a nuisance, and severe pollution of the environment". Dumping should be outlawed and replaced by sound procedures. 35
  31. CONTROLLED TIPPING  Controlled tipping or sanitary landfill is the most satisfactory method of refuse disposal where suitable land is available. It differs from ordinary dumping in that the material is placed in a trench or other prepared area, adequately compacted, and covered with earth at the end of the working day.  The term "modified sanitary landfill" has been applied to those operations where compaction and covering are accomplished once or twice a week. 36
  32.  The trench method : Where level ground is available, the trench method is usually chosen. A long trench is dug out - 2 to 3m (6-10 ft.) deep, 4 to 12 m(12-36 ft.) wide, depending upon local conditions.  The refuse is compacted and covered with excavated earth. Where compacted refuse is placed in the fill to a depth of 2 m (6 ft.), it is estimated that one acre of land per year will be required for 10,000 population. 37
  33.  The ramp method : This method is well suited where the terrain is moderately sloping. Some excavation is done to secure the covering material.  The area method : This method is used for filling land depressions, disused quarries and clay pits. The refuse is deposited, packed and consolidated in uniform layers up to 2 to 2.5 m (6-8 ft.) deep. 38
  34.  Each layer is sealed on its exposed surface with a mud cover at least 30 cm (12 inches) thick. Such sealing prevents infestation by flies and rodents and suppresses the nuisance of smell and dust. This method often has the disadvantage of requiring supplemental earth from outside sources. 39
  35. INCINERATION  It is the method of choice where suitable land is not available.  Hospital refuse which is particularly dangerous is best disposed of by incineration.  Incineration is not a popular method in India because the refuse contains a fair proportion of fine ash which makes the burning difficult. 40
  36.  A preliminary separation of dust or ash is needed. All this involves heavy outlay and expenditure, besides manipulative difficulties in the incinerator.  There are 3 basic kinds of incinerators: a) Double – chamber pyrolytic b) Single – chamber furnaces c) Rotary kilns 41
  37. Pyrolytic Incinerators Most reliable and commonly used process for health care waste. They are called Double – chamber incinerators as they comprise of:  A Pyrolytic chamber  A Post combustion chamber 42
  38. Suitable for:  Infectious waste (including sharps) and pathological waste  Pharmaceutical and chemical residues. Inadequate for:  Genotoxic waste  Radioactive waste  Non risk health care waste 43
  39. Single – Chamber Incinerator  This can be used for health – care waste if a pyrolytic incinerator cannot be afforded.  This type of incinerator treats waste in batches.  Loading and de-ashing operations are performed manually. 44
  40.  This method should only be used as a last resort as it is difficult to burn the waste completely without generating potentially harmful smoke.  Drawbacks:  The process will cause emission of black smoke, fly ash and potentially toxic gases.  Exhaust gas cleaning is not practical – can cause air pollution 45
  41. Rotary Kiln  They comprise of a rotating oven and a post- combustion chamber.  Rotary kilns may operate continuously and adaptable to a wide range of loading devices.  Used for:  Infectious waste and pathological wastes.  Cytotoxic waste 46
  42.  Inadequate for: • Radio – active wastes  Capacity of rotary kilns: 0.5 – 3 tonnes/hour  Disadvantages: • Well trained personnel required • Energy consumption is high. • Equipment and operation costs are high. 47
  43. COMPOSTING  It is a process of nature whereby organic matter breaks down under bacterial action resulting in the formation of relatively stable humus-like material, called the compost which has considerable manurial value for the soil.  The principal by products are carbon dioxide, water and heat. 48
  44.  The heat produced during composting - 60 deg C or higher, over a period of several days- destroys eggs and larvae of flies, weed seeds and pathogenic agents.  The end-product compost contains few or no disease producing organisms, and is a good soil builder containing small amounts of the major plant nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. The following methods of composting are now used :  Bangalore method (Anaerobic method)  Mechanical composting (Aerobic method) 49
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  46. BANGALORE METHOD  This method of composting was developed at Bangalore in India in 1939 (FAO, 1980).  It has been recommended as a satisfactory method of disposal of town wastes and night soil  It is also called the hot fermentation process.  Trenches are dug 3ft deep,5-8 mts broad and 15-30 ft long  It should be located 800 m away from city limits. 51
  47.  First a layer of refuse about 15 cm (6 in) thick is spread at the bottom of the trench. Over this, night soil is added corresponding to a thickness of 5cm(2 in).  Then alternate layers of refuse and night soil are added in the proportion of 15 cm (6 in) and 5 cm (2 in) respectively, till the heap rises to 30cm (1 ft.) above the ground level. 52
  48.  The top layer should be of refuse, at least 25 cm (9 in) thickness. Then the heap is covered with excavated earth.  Within 7 days as a result of bacterial action considerable heat (over 60 deg.C) is generated in the compost mass. This intense heat which persists over 2 or 3 weeks, serves to decompose the refuse and night soil and to destroy all pathogenic and parasitic organisms. 53
  49.  At the end of 4 to 6 months, decomposition is complete and the resulting manure is a well decomposed, odourless, innocuous material of high manurial value. 54
  50. MECHANICAL COMPOSTING  Aerobic method/ Indore method  Compost is manufactured on large scale.  The refuse is first cleared of salvable materials such as rags, bones, metal glass, items which are rendered to interfere in grinding.  It is then pulverized in pulverizing equipment in order to reduce size of the particle to less than 2 inches. 55
  51.  The pulverized refuse is then mixed with sewage, sludge or night soil in a rotating machine and incubated.  The entire process of composting is complete in 4-6 weeks. 56
  52.  This method of composting is in function in some of the developed countries, e.g., Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Israel.  Cities such as Delhi, Nagpur, Mumbai, Chennai, Pune, Allahabad, Hyderabad, Lucknow and Kanpur have offered to join the Government for setting up pilot plants for mechanical composting. 57
  53. MANURE PITS  Manure pits is the best method of refuse disposal by individual house holders.  The garbage ,cattle dung, straw and leaves should be dumped into the manure pits. 58
  54.  Two such pits will be needed, when one is closed, the other will be in use. In 5 to 6 month's time, the refuse is converted into manure which can be returned to the field. This method of refuse disposal is effective and relatively simple in rural communities. 59
  55. BURIAL  This method is suitable for small camps.  A trench 1.5cm wide and 2 m deep is excavated and at end of each day the refuse is covered with 20 -30 cm of earth 60
  56. VERMICOMPOSTING  Municipal solid waste is highly organic in nature, so vermicomposting has become an appropriate alternative for the safe, hygienic and cost effective disposal of it.  In this method earthworms feed on the organic matter present in the solid waste and convert into casting (ejected matter) rich in plant nutrients. 61
  57.  Vermicomposting has been used in various cities of India like Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mumbai and Faridabad. 62
  58. Magnitude of Problem in India  Per capita waste generation increasing by 1.3% per annum  With urban population increasing between 3 - 3.5% per annum  Yearly increase in waste generation is around 5% annually 63
  59.  India produces 42.0 million tons of municipal solid waste annually at present.  Per capita generation of waste varies from 200 gm to 600 gm per capita / day. Average generation rate at 0.4 kg per capita per day.  Collection efficiency ranges between 50% to 90% of the solid waste generated. 64
  60.  Urban Local Bodies spend around Rs.500/- to Rs.1500/- per ton on solid waste management of which, * 60% -70% of the amount is on collection alone * 20% - 30% on transportation * Hardly any fund is spent on treatment and disposal of waste  Crude dumping of waste in most of the cities 65
  61. PRESENT STATUS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT  Storage of waste at source is lacking  Domestic waste is thrown on streets  Trade waste on Roads / Streets  Construction debris left unattended  Bio-medical Waste disposed in Municipal waste stream 66
  62.  Industrial waste disposed of in open areas  Segregation of recyclable waste at source not done  Design & location of Municipal waste storage depots are inappropriate, resulting in littering of garbage.  Street sweeping not done everyday.  Waste transportation is done in open vehicles  Rag pickers collect recyclables from municipal bins/ dumpsites and litter the waste causing insanitary conditions. 67
  63. DISPOSAL OF HEALTH CARE WASTES 69
  64.  Health care waste: It is defined as all the waste generated by health – care establishments, research facilities and laboratories.  Bio-medical waste: According to Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 of India, “Bio-medical waste” means any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human-beings or animals, or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biologicals. 70
  65.  Waste produced in the course of health care activities carries a higher potential for infection and injury than any other types of waste.  Inappropriate and inadequate handling of health care waste may have serious public health consequences and a significant impact on the environment.  Wherever it is generated, safe and reliable methods are therefore essential. 71
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  69. Sources of Health Care Waste75
  70. Composition of Hospital Waste  The amount of waste generated per bed varies with the type of hospital, however, on an average, 1-5kg of waste per bed per day is generated. The type of waste generated is :  85% Non - hazardous  15% Hazardous • 5% Hazardous but not infective • 10% Hazardous and infective 76
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  72. RATIONALE FOR WASTE DISPOSAL  To prevent Nosocomial infections.  To protect Health care providers.  To prevent risk to general population (when hospital waste is thrown in open area without proper treatment, it is hazardous)  To protect the environment. 78
  73. Steps in Management of Health Care Waste  The key to minimization and effective management of health care waste is segregation (separation) and identification of the waste, appropriate handling, treatment and disposal of waste by the types. 80
  74. SEGREGATION  To separate the waste into different categories at the POINT OF GENERATION to reduce chances of injury and the quantity of hazardous waste.  Color coded containers.  Containers should never be overfilled. 81
  75. COLLECTION  Waste should not be allowed to accumulate at the point of production,  Waste should be collected daily and transported to the storage site.  No bags should be removed unless they are labeled.  The bags and containers should be replaced immediately with new ones of the same type. 82
  76. STORAGE  The waste should be stored in a separate area, room or building of a size appropriate to the quantity of waste produced and the frequency of collection.  The storage area should have an impermeable hard standing floor with good drainage. It should be easy to clean and disinfect.  There should be a water supply for cleaning purposes. 83
  77. LABELLING  All waste bags or containers should be labeled with basic instructions on their content and information on the waste producer. This instructions may be written directly on the bag or container or on preprinted labels, securely attached.  It is also recommended that the 2 digits of the yr of manufacture of the packing specified on the package, - Waste category - Date of collection - Place in hospital where produced (ex. wards) - Waste destination 84
  78. TRANSPORTATION  Wastes should be transported by means of wheeled trolleys, containers or carts that are not used for any other purposes.  They should be easy to load and unload.  No sharp edges that could damage waste bags  Easy to clean  The vehicles should be cleaned and disinfected daily. 86
  79. Treatment and Disposal of Health care waste The various disposal technologies are:  Incineration  Chemical disinfection  Wet and Dry thermal treatment  Microwave Irradiation  Inertization 87
  80. Chemical Disinfection  Chemical are added to waste kill or inactivate the pathogens it contains, this treatment usually results in disinfection rather than sterilization. Chemical disinfection is most suitable for treating liquid waste such as blood, urine, stools or hospital sewage.  However, solid wastes including microbiological cultures, sharps etc, may also be disinfected chemically with certain limitations. 88
  81. Wet and Dry Thermal Treatment  Wet thermal treatment: Wet thermal treatment or steam disinfection is based on exposure of shredded infectious waste to high temperature, high pressure steam, and is similar to the autoclave sterilization process.  The process is inappropriate for the treatment of anatomical waste and animal carcassess, and will not efficiently treat chemical and pharmaceutical waste. 89
  82. Screw-feed technology:  Screw –feed technology is the basis of a non-burn, dry thermal disinfection process in which waste is shredded and heated and rotated. The waste is reduced by 80 % in volume and by 20-35 % in weight.  This process is suitable for treating infectious waste and sharps, but it should not be used to process pathological, cytotoxic or radioactive waste. 90
  83. Microwave Irradiation  Most microorganisms are destroyed by the action of microwave of a frequency of about 2450 MHZ and a wave length of 12.24 cm. The water contained within the waste is rapidly heated by the microwaves and the infectious components are destroyed by heat conduction.  The efficiency of the microwave disinfection should be checked routinely through bacteriological and virological tests. 91
  84. Inertization  The process of “Inertization” involves mixing waste with cement and other substances before disposal, in order to minimize the risk of toxic substances contained in the wastes migrating into the surfaces water or ground water.  A typical proportion of the mixture is 65% pharmaceutical waste. 15 %lime, 15% cement and 5 % water. A homogeneous mass is formed an cubes or pellets are produced on site and then transported to suitable storage sites. 92
  85. Bio-Medical Waste Management in India  Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rule 1998, prescribed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, came into force on 28th July 1998.  This rule applies to those who generate, collect, receive, store, dispose, treat or handle bio-Medical Waste in any manner. 93
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  89. Waste Management in Dental Office • Dental waste is obtained from all its branches • Proper management of few of them is highly necessary E.g., Mercury, Fixer solution, lead foils, collars, aprons • Others include impression materials, Plaster of Paris, Needles, Cotton swabs etc 97
  90. MERCURY STORAGE AND SPILLS  Stored in tight container containing fixer solution  Training of all professionals in handling and maintaining mercury hygiene crucial.  Office Engineering: • Well ventilated work areas • If using air-conditioner then filters changed periodically • No use of carpet • Periodic checkup of dental operatory 98
  91.  Mercury Hygiene recommendations:  Use of pre-capsulated amalgam alloys and amalgamator  Avoid skin contact with fresh mixes  Use high volume suction machines connected to amalgam separators  Management of Mercury spills:  Never use a vacuum cleaner  Never allow people to move around spill areas  Use fresh mix of amalgam to remove them  Large spills - call environmental contractors 99
  92.  Lead foils, collars, aprons should be collected and sent for recycling through authorized companies  Plaster of Paris can be can be crushed to powder and used as raw material for cement manufacturing  Impression materials can be incinerated  Needles can be clipped off in puncture resistant containers  Swabs, Tissues etc can be incinerated. 100
  93. MANAGEMENT OF WASTE 101
  94.  Waste management is a problem in urban and rural areas. Many areas, particularly in developing countries, still have inadequate waste management; poorly controlled open dumps and illegal roadside dumping remain a problem. Such dumping spoils scenic resources, pollutes soil and water resources, and is a potential health hazard to plants, animals and people.  According to the United Nation’s Centre for Human Settlements, only between 25 and 55 per cent of all waste generated in large cities is collected by municipal authorities. 102
  95. 4 R’s CONCEPT103
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  97. Management of Solid Waste Duties of waste generators.- (1) Every waste generator shall,- (a) Segregate and store the waste generated by them in three separate streams namely bio-degradable or wet waste, non bio-degradable or dry waste and domestic hazardous wastes in suitable bins and handover segregated wastes to waste collectors as per the direction by the urban local body from time to time; 105
  98. (b) Wrap securely the used sanitary waste as and when generated in a newspaper or suitable bio-degradable wrapping material and place the same in the domestic bin meant for non bio-degradable waste or dry waste; (c) Store separately construction and demolition waste in your own premises, as and when generated and shall dispose off as per the rules; (d) Store separately horticulture waste and garden waste in your premises and dispose of the same as may be prescribed by urban local body from time to time. 106
  99. (2) No waste generator shall throw the waste generated by him on the street, open spaces, drain or water bodies. (3) All waste generators shall pay such user fee or charge or fines as may be specified in the bye-laws of the urban local bodies for solid waste management. 107
  100. (4) No person shall organize an event or gathering likely to generate solid waste at unlicensed place without intimating the urban local body at least three working days in advance and such person or the organizer of such event shall arrange for segregation of waste at source and ensure handing over of segregated waste to the placed designated by urban local body or to waste collection agency authorized by the urban local body. 108
  101. (5) Every institutional generators of solid waste shall segregate and store the waste generated by them in three separate streams namely bio-degradable or wet waste, non bio-degradable or dry waste and domestic hazardous wastes in suitable bins and handover segregated wastes to authorized waste processing or disposal facilities or deposition centers either at its own or through the authorized waste collection agency. 109
  102. Authorities Responsible For Waste Management  Secretary–in-charge, Urban Development Department, in States or Union Territory.  Commissioner or Director of Municipal Administration or Director of Local Bodies in States or Union Territories.  District Magistrate or District Collector or Deputy Commissioner of District in State or Union Territory.  Central Pollution Control Board.  Urban Local Body.  State Pollution Control Board. 110
  103. Occupational hazards associated with waste handling  Infections - Skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste, and from infected wounds. - Eye and respiratory infections resulting from exposure to infected dust, especially during landfill operations. - Intestinal infections that are transmitted by flies feeding on the waste. 111
  104.  Chronic diseases Incineration operators are at risk of chronic respiratory diseases, including cancers resulting from exposure to dust and hazardous compounds. 112
  105.  Accidents - Infecting wounds resulting from contact with sharp objects. - Poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small amounts of hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste. - Burns and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste disposal sites or from methane gas explosion at landfill sites. 113
  106. The Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011  Plastic waste means any plastic product such as carry bags, pouches, etc. which has been discarded after use or end-of-life.  The rules are applicable to all manufacturers, stockists, distributors, retailers and users of plastic products.  Every manufacturer of plastic carry bags, multilayered pouches or sachets and every recycler to seek registration with SPCB. Such registration is valid for a period of 3 years. 114
  107.  No retailer can provide plastic carry bags free of cost.  There is no specific penalty provided for non- compliance and thus, penalty under EPA will apply as per which the person-incharge may be imprisoned for up to 5 years and/or fined up to INR 100,000 (US$ 15574). 115
  108. SOME INITIATIVES  Solid Waste Management cannot be successful without the involvement of all stakeholders who have a vital role to play in successful implementation of the scheme. It is worthwhile to examine some of the initiatives in this regard. 116
  109. BHAGIDARI SCHEME IN DELHI  The Delhi Government instituted the Bhagidari Scheme for ensuring close cooperation of the Residents Welfare Association (RWAs), civic agencies and the government. A step in the right direction was taken by getting a court order for compulsory segregation of waste at the household level from January 1, 2004. 117
  110. BANGALORE AGENDA TASK FORCE (BATF)  As a part of the overall plan of the BATF, solid waste management has been taken up in a big way in Bangalore City. The whole operation has been outsourced to private agencies who provide the infrastructure right from Safai Karamcharis, their uniforms and caps, bins, trolleys and vehicles (dumpers) that pick up the collected waste and transport it to the composting site on the city’s outskirts. 118
  111.  The Safai Karamcharis have been given strict instructions not to collect the waste from households if it is not segregated. Their areas of responsibility are clearly demarcated along with their collection schedule. These areas are under supervisors of the contracted agency and hence, it is ensured that every place is kept clean. 119
  112. MUMBAI INITIATIVE  Under the dynamic leadership of Ms. Kunti Oza, Clean Mumbai Foundation has taken up solid waste management with the help of corporate sector.  A Ward comprising (Cuffe Parade, Nariman Point, Strand / Colaba, Museum, Paltan Road Bora Bazar, Ballard Estate and Churchgate / Marine Drive) had been selected for the pilot project. 120
  113.  A collection system had been organized and the wet garbage is taken to selected sites in parks that would have composting pits.  What is interesting in this scheme is the novel Pavement Tank Method of utilizing waste at some sites.  As there are high rise residential buildings without any space for garbage disposal, the residents provided funds for making rectangular brick tanks around trees on the lane pavements. 121
  114. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan  Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi launched the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan or Clean India Mission on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi on October 2, 2014 at Rajghat in New Delhi. 122
  115.  The mission is estimated to cost around 62,009 crore rupees.  India's biggest ever cleanliness drive. Around three million government employees and school and college students of India participated in the event in its initial phase.  The mission was started by Prime Minister Modi, who, on December 25, 2014, nominated nine famous personalities for the campaign. They took up the challenge and nominated nine more people. Thereafter, it has been carried forward with people from all walks of life joining it. 123
  116.  The goal also includes the elimination of open defecation, conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradicating of manual scavenging and Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM). 124
  117. PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE  Raised incidence of low birth weight births has been related to residence near landfill sites, as has the occurrence of various congenital malformations.  There is little evidence for an association with reproductive or developmental effects with proximity to incinerators. 125
  118.  Studies of cancer incidence and mortality in populations around landfill sites or incinerators have varying results for different cancer sites.  Many of these studies lack individual exposure information and data on potential confounders, such as socio-economic status.  Waste management workers have been shown to have increased incidence of accidents and musculoskeletal problems. 126
  119. CONCLUSION  The menace of solid waste in many sectors has become a monstrous reality.  Nothing substantial has been done in most of the towns and cities in the country.  Although India has the most comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, it is just a directive on paper without any enforcement and implementation. Very little effort has been made to train and build the capacity of all stakeholders. Hence, there are all kinds of excuses given for its failure 127
  120.  Resource agencies, like NGOs, want to take the initiative but do not wish to get involved till they have a complete assurance of cooperation from all stakeholders, specially the government and civic agencies.  The government should educate and inform people about such projects before executing any plan, so that the desired results are obtained. 128
  121.  Biomedical waste management is as important as treatment plan for health care professionals. Awareness programs should be conducted for all health care personnel and auxiliary personnel of various health care institutes to keep side by side with the current knowledge of scientific biomedical waste management system and its importance and benefits to the patients, staff and the community as an entire. 129
  122.  Safe and effective management of biomedical waste is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. 130
  123. REFERENCES  K. Park. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social medicine. 23th ed. Jabalpur: M/s Banarsidas bhanot; 2015. p. 705-742.  Textbook Of Preventive and Social Medicine Mahajan and Gupta 3rd edition.  Dhaar G.M, Robbani I. Foundations of community medicine. 2nd ed. Elsevier publication, Noida; 2008. p. 64-66 131
  124.  Hiremath S.S. Textbook of preventive and community dentistry. 2nd ed. Elsevier publishers, New Delhi; 2011. p. 51-55.  Bharadwaj P, Ramesh C . The World Scenario-Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Research gate. Jan 2013.5(1).123-138.  Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. Governament of India. Solid waste disposal rules. 2015. Published In the Gazette of India, Part-II, Section-3, Sub-section (ii). 132
  125.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid_waste_policy  http://www.cpcb.nic.in/Directions_commissioners.p df  https://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_BloodborneFact s/bbfact02.pdf  Bhaskar Agarwal, Saumyendra Vikram Singh, Sumit Bhansali, Srishti Agarwal. Waste Management in Dental Office. Indian J Community Med. 2012 Jul-Sep; 37(3): 201–202.  http://www.devalt.org/newsletter/jun04/lead.htm 133
  126.  Singh H, Rehman R, Bumb SS. Management of biomedical waste: a review. Int J Dent Med Res 2014;1(1):14-20.  http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs253/en/  Pandit NA, Tabish SA, Qadri GJ, Ajaz Mustafa. Biomedical waste management in a Large teaching hospital. JK-Practitioner 2007;14(1):57-59.  P.Soben. Essentials of preventive and social medicine. 5th ed. Arya publishing house, New Delhi; 2013. p. 101-111. 134
  127. PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTIONS  Disposal of Solid wastes. 10 marks. (Sumandeep Vidyapeeth; MDS Degree Examination) DEC 2009  Biomedical Waste Management. 10 marks. (RGUHS MDS Degree examination) APR/MAY 2007; MAY 2009; NOV 2011; MAY 2013; 135
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