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CfgMgmt vs Work
fl
ows


vs Orchestration
stackconf 2022
Martin Alfke
ma@betadots.de
© betadots GmbH 2022
Martin Alfke
CEO betadots
© betadots GmbH 2022
• Linux since 1996, Puppet since 2009


• Puppet Trainer since 2011


• Puppet Certi
fi
ed Solution Consultant since 2015


• tuxmea (Twitter, GitHub, Slack)


• DevOps/SRE Consulting, Training and Development
About
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Agenda
© betadots GmbH 2022
• Con
fi
guration Management


• Work
fl
ows


• Orchestration


• Summary
Agenda
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Con
fi
guration


Management
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Con
fi
guration Management
The past
In the past maintaining platforms has been a nightmare:


- Unplanned changes


- Outages


- New setups for new products


- Unreproducible changes


- Incomplete changes
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Con
fi
guration Management
The past
Raise your hands if you remember or have seen that:


- everybody had its own set of scripts for automation


- changes could not be done because of hardware
maintenance


- one accidentally omitted a new server from deployment


- a deployment must be done during night
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Con
fi
guration Management
The modern past
More than 10 years ago, the modern Con
fi
guration
Management showed up.


Bcfg2 and cfengine used a client server model and
implemented the desired changes.


Puppet introduced the declarative state con
fi
guration and
moved the change process into Version Control.


Ansible moved from client/server to an SSH-based push
implementation.
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Con
fi
guration Management
The present
All tools use the principle of Infrastructure as Code.


Code must be developed in Version Control and tested.


Some people name this DevOps, some name it SRE.


DevOps: Developer build and run their applications


SRE: provides an infrastructure for DevOps automation
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Con
fi
guration Management
The problem
Within Declarative State Con
fi
guration (DSC) we describe the
fi
nal desired state of a system.


But:


- how to deal with DSC if you need to stop and later restart a
service?


- how to deal with actions which must not run permanently
but on demand only?
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow


Management
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow Management
What is a work
fl
ow?
Anything which is not describable in its
fi
nal state but usually
done via a script or command should be considered a work
fl
ow.
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow Management
Why does a work
fl
ow con
fl
ict with DSC?
Declarative State Con
fi
guration (DSC) describes the desired
fi
nal setup of a system.


Any declarative state management solution compares the
existing with the desired state.


DSC does not allow con
fl
icting changes (service stop, do
something, service start).
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow Management
Work
fl
ow implementations
Ansible users place the commands in playbooks and run them
on-demand.


This is possible due to Ansible push model.


Puppet runs in pull mode. Therefore we need another solution:


Puppet Bolt Tasks


Puppet users develop tasks which consist of a Script (Bash,
Python, Ruby, Perl, PowerShell) and a JSON
fi
le which
describes the parameters and the desired Data Types.
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow Management
Work
fl
ow implementations - Puppet
Tasks
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow Management
Work
fl
ow implementations - Puppet
Tasks
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow Management
Work
fl
ow implementations - Puppet
Tasks
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow Management
Work
fl
ow implementations with SSH
Ansible users run playbooks.


Puppet users can make use of Puppet Bolt


bolt task show


bolt task run <modulename>::upgrade_app -t <node> version=‘1.4.5’
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow Management
Work
fl
ow implementations without SSH
Ansible users can make use of Tower or AWX.


Puppet users can make use of Puppet Enterprise or Choria.


Not using SSH, but a Message Queue
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow Management
Work
fl
ow examples
Anything you do not regular or which is an anti-pattern to DSC
is a work
fl
ow:


- we need an anonymised backup from production database
for the dev environment


- during application update we must refresh the application
caches while the application is stopped.


- we need the actual con
fi
guration as CSV
fi
le
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Work
fl
ow Management
But
- how do we deal with application dependencies?


- how can we ensure that an application stack is built in order
(DB, Middleware, Frontend)
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Orchestration


Management
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Orchestration Management
What is orchestration?
Actions which must be done in order either on a single system
or platform wide needs an orchestration.


Consider spinning up a new environment. You need:


- VMs


- Base con
fi
guration


- Application deployment
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Orchestration Management
What is orchestration?
Actions which must be done in order either on a single system
or platform wide needs an orchestration.


Consider spinning up an application. You need to start the
application in strict order:


- Start Service A on Server A


- Start Service B on Server B


- Restart Service A on Server A
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Orchestration Management
Orchestration Implementation
Within Ansible one uses Hostgroups.


Within Puppet Bolt one can use Puppet Plans.


Puppet Plans are written in Puppet DSL or YAML and are
executed on an Orchestration Host.


The Plan describes which Puppet Tasks or commands must be
run on which Servers in which order.
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Orchestration Management
Orchestration Implementation -
Puppet Plans
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Orchestration Management
Orchestration Implementation -
Puppet Plans
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Orchestration Management
Orchestration Implementation -
Puppet Plans
Server lists can be fetched by a Plan from PuppetDB based on
Facter or Catalog information.
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Orchestration Management
Orchestration Implementation -
Puppet Plans
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Summary
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Summary
CfgMgmt + Work
fl
ows + Orchestration
CfgMgmt helps organisations


- to build scalable platforms


- which are easy to spin up from scratch (TTM)


- which are easy to recover (MTTR) and


- which is adoptable to new required setups.


CfgMgmt automation reduces time and effort
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Summary
CfgMgmt + Work
fl
ows + Orchestration
Work
fl
ows are needed


- to automate single tasks


- if we need to run actions on demand only


- if actions con
fl
ict with DSC
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Summary
CfgMgmt + Work
fl
ows + Orchestration
Orchestration is needed to get the whole picture of an
infrastructure.


Deploy three-tier applications in order.


Run patches amounts clusters without downtime (passive,
switch, 2nd node)
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Summary
CfgMgmt + Work
fl
ows + Orchestration
Existing Con
fi
guration Management Solutions implement all of
these.


Ansible has orchestration built-in due to the push model


Puppet needs Tasks and Plans
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs. Work
fl
ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
Summary
CfgMgmt + Work
fl
ows + Orchestration
Containers still need these!


- CfgMgmt -> Docker
fi
le


- Work
fl
ows -> Compose/Helm


- Orchestration -> Kubernetes/Swarm
© betadots GmbH 2022
CfgMgmt vs Work
fl
ows


vs Orchestration
stackconf 2022
Thanks you!
ma@betadots.de

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stackconf 2022: Configuration Management vs. Workflows vs. Orchestration

  • 1. CfgMgmt vs Work fl ows 
 vs Orchestration stackconf 2022 Martin Alfke ma@betadots.de © betadots GmbH 2022
  • 2. Martin Alfke CEO betadots © betadots GmbH 2022 • Linux since 1996, Puppet since 2009 
 • Puppet Trainer since 2011 • Puppet Certi fi ed Solution Consultant since 2015 • tuxmea (Twitter, GitHub, Slack) • DevOps/SRE Consulting, Training and Development About CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
  • 3. Agenda © betadots GmbH 2022 • Con fi guration Management 
 • Work fl ows • Orchestration • Summary Agenda CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022
  • 4. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Con fi guration Management
  • 5. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Con fi guration Management The past In the past maintaining platforms has been a nightmare: - Unplanned changes - Outages - New setups for new products - Unreproducible changes - Incomplete changes
  • 6. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Con fi guration Management The past Raise your hands if you remember or have seen that: - everybody had its own set of scripts for automation - changes could not be done because of hardware maintenance - one accidentally omitted a new server from deployment - a deployment must be done during night
  • 7. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Con fi guration Management The modern past More than 10 years ago, the modern Con fi guration Management showed up. Bcfg2 and cfengine used a client server model and implemented the desired changes. Puppet introduced the declarative state con fi guration and moved the change process into Version Control. Ansible moved from client/server to an SSH-based push implementation.
  • 8. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Con fi guration Management The present All tools use the principle of Infrastructure as Code. Code must be developed in Version Control and tested. Some people name this DevOps, some name it SRE. DevOps: Developer build and run their applications SRE: provides an infrastructure for DevOps automation
  • 9. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Con fi guration Management The problem Within Declarative State Con fi guration (DSC) we describe the fi nal desired state of a system. But: - how to deal with DSC if you need to stop and later restart a service? - how to deal with actions which must not run permanently but on demand only?
  • 10. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management
  • 11. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management What is a work fl ow? Anything which is not describable in its fi nal state but usually done via a script or command should be considered a work fl ow.
  • 12. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management Why does a work fl ow con fl ict with DSC? Declarative State Con fi guration (DSC) describes the desired fi nal setup of a system. Any declarative state management solution compares the existing with the desired state. DSC does not allow con fl icting changes (service stop, do something, service start).
  • 13. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management Work fl ow implementations Ansible users place the commands in playbooks and run them on-demand. This is possible due to Ansible push model. Puppet runs in pull mode. Therefore we need another solution: Puppet Bolt Tasks Puppet users develop tasks which consist of a Script (Bash, Python, Ruby, Perl, PowerShell) and a JSON fi le which describes the parameters and the desired Data Types.
  • 14. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management Work fl ow implementations - Puppet Tasks
  • 15. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management Work fl ow implementations - Puppet Tasks
  • 16. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management Work fl ow implementations - Puppet Tasks
  • 17. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management Work fl ow implementations with SSH Ansible users run playbooks. Puppet users can make use of Puppet Bolt bolt task show bolt task run <modulename>::upgrade_app -t <node> version=‘1.4.5’
  • 18. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management Work fl ow implementations without SSH Ansible users can make use of Tower or AWX. Puppet users can make use of Puppet Enterprise or Choria. Not using SSH, but a Message Queue
  • 19. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management Work fl ow examples Anything you do not regular or which is an anti-pattern to DSC is a work fl ow: - we need an anonymised backup from production database for the dev environment - during application update we must refresh the application caches while the application is stopped. - we need the actual con fi guration as CSV fi le
  • 20. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Work fl ow Management But - how do we deal with application dependencies? - how can we ensure that an application stack is built in order (DB, Middleware, Frontend)
  • 21. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Orchestration Management
  • 22. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Orchestration Management What is orchestration? Actions which must be done in order either on a single system or platform wide needs an orchestration. Consider spinning up a new environment. You need: - VMs - Base con fi guration - Application deployment
  • 23. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Orchestration Management What is orchestration? Actions which must be done in order either on a single system or platform wide needs an orchestration. Consider spinning up an application. You need to start the application in strict order: - Start Service A on Server A - Start Service B on Server B - Restart Service A on Server A
  • 24. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Orchestration Management Orchestration Implementation Within Ansible one uses Hostgroups. Within Puppet Bolt one can use Puppet Plans. Puppet Plans are written in Puppet DSL or YAML and are executed on an Orchestration Host. The Plan describes which Puppet Tasks or commands must be run on which Servers in which order.
  • 25. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Orchestration Management Orchestration Implementation - Puppet Plans
  • 26. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Orchestration Management Orchestration Implementation - Puppet Plans
  • 27. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Orchestration Management Orchestration Implementation - Puppet Plans Server lists can be fetched by a Plan from PuppetDB based on Facter or Catalog information.
  • 28. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Orchestration Management Orchestration Implementation - Puppet Plans
  • 29. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Summary
  • 30. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Summary CfgMgmt + Work fl ows + Orchestration CfgMgmt helps organisations - to build scalable platforms - which are easy to spin up from scratch (TTM) - which are easy to recover (MTTR) and - which is adoptable to new required setups. CfgMgmt automation reduces time and effort
  • 31. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Summary CfgMgmt + Work fl ows + Orchestration Work fl ows are needed - to automate single tasks - if we need to run actions on demand only - if actions con fl ict with DSC
  • 32. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Summary CfgMgmt + Work fl ows + Orchestration Orchestration is needed to get the whole picture of an infrastructure. Deploy three-tier applications in order. Run patches amounts clusters without downtime (passive, switch, 2nd node)
  • 33. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Summary CfgMgmt + Work fl ows + Orchestration Existing Con fi guration Management Solutions implement all of these. Ansible has orchestration built-in due to the push model Puppet needs Tasks and Plans
  • 34. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs. Work fl ows vs. Orchestration - stackconf 2022 Summary CfgMgmt + Work fl ows + Orchestration Containers still need these! - CfgMgmt -> Docker fi le - Work fl ows -> Compose/Helm - Orchestration -> Kubernetes/Swarm
  • 35. © betadots GmbH 2022 CfgMgmt vs Work fl ows 
 vs Orchestration stackconf 2022 Thanks you! ma@betadots.de