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EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN
NEPAL: BRINGING BACK TO TRACK
PRESENTED BY
NEPAL'S TEAM
Dr. Lava Deo Awasthi, PhD
Director General, Department of Education
Mr. Yoga Raj Pokhrel,
Under Secretary, Ministry of Education
November 2010
BREAKING THE VICIOUS
CIRCLE
Lack of Basic
Capabilities
Lack of Scope for
Self-determination
Externally designed and monitored
Development strategies
Perpetuate central control
TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATIVE
TRANSFORMATION
Central legislation creating
Local Self Governance
Changing rules and
regulations
Specifications of roles and
functions New sharing of
powers
Changed framework for
education management
Involvement of community
in education management
BUILDING FROM BELOW: SOCIAL POLITICAL
TRANSFORMATION
Redefining the powers of
the Centre
Integration of the group
into the political framework
along with powers
Activating and vesting
power and authority in the
informal groups
Formal accreditation of the
community group with
power and authority
Informal grouping of
community members
Mobilizing the community
for education
NEED FOR CONVERGENT LEGITIMIZATION
State
Community
Facilitation through legal
and executive measures
Decentralized management
Structures
Processes
Proactive participation
CENTRAL TO LOCAL
Community Ownership/ Principle of
Subsidiarity
CENTRALIZED EDUCATION SERVICE
DELIVERY SYSTEM
DECENTRALIZED EDUCATION SERVICE
DELIVERY MODEL
EVOLUTION OF EDUCATIONAL
DECENTRALIZATION
 Nepal’s indigenous construct of community owned school
system
 Introduction of centralized education system in 1971
 Brining back community-culture in schools, following the
restoration of multi-party democracy in the 1990s.
 The 7th
Amendment of Education Act 2001 and Regulations
2002 – A Step Forward
 The Education Act (2001) and The Local Self Governance
Act (1999) – Inter-relations
 Reshaping schools and adding value to local constructs
 Readiness and building trust – at community levels
 Stakeholder’s interest and interest of children
 Building Consensus – on going efforts
EXPERIMENTS IN NEPALESE
EDUCATION SYSTEM
 Nepal experienced the centralized education system since
1971 when all schools were nationalized.
 Decentralization of education service at local level was
promoted following the restoration of multi-party
democracy in 1990.
 Since then,
 Several development projects and programs have been
implemented.
 Billions of rupees have been spent to increase access,
quality and efficiency of community schools.
 Several studies and researches have been conducted to
bring about the improvements in the school education
system.
10
EXPERIMENTS IN NEPALESE
EDUCATION SYSTEM
 Issues and Challenges:
 Equity and Access
 Retention and success
 Quality and Relevance
 Building trust in stakeholders
 Distribution of services
 Elite capturing
 Political interference
 Politicized teaching cadres
 Public –Private dichotomy
 Global and local realities
 Resourcing and sustainability
 School autonomy and Capacity Development
 Local accountability and ownership
EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION
REFORM
 Current moves of decentralization is
regarded as:
a response to a history of failure with
centrally planned governance,
a major component of current
institutional innovation throughout
the world,
a tool of poverty reduction, good
governance and ensuring public
accountability
12
THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL
 Enabling Environment
 Interim Constitution of Nepal , 2006
 Three Year Plan (2010-13)
 Nepal Development Forum (NDF)
 Nepal Plan of Action (NPA) / Education for All (EFA)
2001 - 2015.
 Community School Support Project (World Bank) 2002
- 04
 EFA Program 2004 - 09
 School Sector Reform Program (SSRP) 2009 - 15
 SIP, VEC, DEP
 ASIP / AWPB
 Social Audits
 Collaboration with DPS, (I)NGOs/ COs/Media /
Communities…
THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL
 The Local Self Governance Act and Regulations (LSGA)
1999
 Milestones in the history of decentralization
 Promoting local participation in planning and decision
making,
 Opened up the space for devolution
 Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002), Tenth Five Year Plan
(2003-2007), Interim Plan (2008 – 2010)
 Enlarging people’s involvement in planning process.
 Stressing on local ownership in preparing local plans.
 Community empowerment
 Decentralization as a means of good governance and
poverty reduction tool
THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL
 Approach Paper to Tenth Plan
 Recognized the concept of community schools,
 Visioning the transfer of authorities, responsibilities,
and resources to local levels for operation of schools up
to secondary levels.
 Decentralization Implementation Action Plan:
 Visioning devolution of basic health, agriculture &
livestock, postal services and primary education
 The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper - 10th
Plan (Feb
2002)
 Decentralized management in the delivery of social
services,
 Accepts basic education as a tool of poverty alleviation.
THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL
 A National Framework Document for Decentralized
Governance and Capacity Building
 Alleviation of poverty by shifting decision-making
power closer to poor communities through devolution of
authorities and resources to local bodies,
 Decentralized governance to be the principal strategy
in decision making and development process by
enhancing people’s participation.
 Immediate Action Plan
 The concept of transferring management of community
schools to communities,
 Transfer o regular grants to SMCs in the form of block
grants
THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL
 Public Expenditure Review Commission
 Devolution of functions at local levels.
 Budget Speech 2002/2003
 Commitment for handing over of 100 primary schools to
Schools Management Committee,
 Promoting community ownership in the management of
primary schools,
 SMC to recruit teachers,
 Block grants to schools.
 Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal
 Promoting decentralization of administration and
political devolution through legal and financial
autonomy to local elected bodies
THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL
 The 7th
Amendment of Education Act 2001 &
Education Regulations 2002
 Internalized the concept of community schools
 Provision of Village Education Committee
(VEC) at the village level
 Provision of local body representatives in the
District Education Committee (DEC).
 Provision of Parental participation in SMC
 Empowerment of SMC to recruit teachers, set
the conditions of service for the teachers to be
accountable to the communities.
FACTORS PROMOTING EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL
 1999/2000: The preparation of District Education Plans
(DEPs) marked the beginning of the decentralized
education planning process.
 2002: Government commitment to handover 100 public
schools to communities.
 2003: Launching Learning Innovation Loan (Community
Support School Project) to handover 1500 schools to
communities.
 Increase in the allocation of resources to the district from
80% in 2000/01 to about more than 90% in subsequent
years.
19
FACTORS PROMOTING EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL
 2002/003: Transfer of the primary teachers’ and
women teachers’ salary to District Development
Committee (DDC).
 2001/02: Introduction of piloting of SIP and
formula funding approach.
 2003: Implementation of Education for All
Program
 2010: Implementation of School Sector Reform
Program 20
FACTORS PROMOTING EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL
 As of September 2010
 About 11000 schools are managed by local
community.
 Local communities have greater role to play in
school decision making.
 Inclusive participation in SMC and PTA
 SMCs are fully autonomous in funds management
of schools.
 SMCs are not fully autonomous in Teacher
management.
 Partial rights to raise local revenues from
parents and other community people.
21
OPTIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES
 Consensus on agenda Setting:
 Manifestations of political parties
 National Plans and Policy Statements
 Sectoral Plans and Programmes
 Global and local level support –
EFA/MDGs
 Parental Commitments
 Robust community support-base
 Professional strengths – teachers, wealth
of local expertise
 Private –public collaborations
 Education - top priority
 Sectoral success and role modeling
IMPLEMENTING DECENTRALIZATION –
TRACING THE TRENDS
Policy
Making
Programme
Formulation
Implementation
Centre
Local
IMPLEMENTING DECENTRALIZATION – TRACING
THE TRENDS
Financial arrangements – Three broad approaches
Block grants
Earmarked (Allocated) funds
Incentive or matching funds
Governance and Administration
SMCs are empowered
PTAs are made functional
Primary teachers' salary goes to school through DDC.
Partnership with INGOs, NGOs, GOs, COs, civil society,
community.
VECs are visualized
Ministry of Education is the executor and Department of
Education, Regional Education Directorates, District
Education Offices and Resource Center are the
implementers.
IMPLEMENTING DECENTRALIZATION – TRACING
THE TRENDS
Legal arrangements
Enactment of Seventh amendment of Education Act and
Regulations articulating education decentralization
through school management responsibility transfer to
communities.
LSGA / R 1999
Educational setup
Policy making function with the center
Implementing function with district and local level
government agencies (such as DOE, DEO, RED, RC).
School management responsibility with the community
(SMC)
School decision making through inclusive participation of
community members and local stakeholders.
EFFECTS OF EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION
 About 11000 schools are managed by community as of end
of September 2010.
 SMCs are empowered and have the right to raise local
resources and take control of school management.
 Quality of teaching and learning has been improved
following the transfer of school management to community.
 Many researches show that community managed school has
positive impacts on dropout reduction, increasing access,
promotion rate, retention.
 Local ownership has enhanced and community
participation in school decision making has been increasing.26
EFFECTS OF EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION
 Primary teacher's salary goes to school through District
Development Committee.
 In almost all of the community schools, SMCs are formed
and functional.
 Village Education Committees (VECs) are formed in many
Village Development Committees.
 To some extent, resource gaps of some community schools
are met by SMC's efforts to generate local revenues and
local contributions.
27
EFFECTS OF EDUCATION
DECENTRALIZATION
 Teachers' trust on community managed schools has been
gradually increasing to reckon that community managed
schools do not endanger their jobs prematurely.
 There are many examples of private school's students going
to community schools in several parts of the country.
 Community awareness has been increasing to participate in
the schools' decision making.
 The dalits (untouchables), ethnic minority, disadvantaged
groups are more going to schools with the initiation of SMC,
PTA
28
OBSTACLES IN EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN
NEPAL
 The prolonged internal political conflict obstructed the
smooth transformation of devolution of powers/authorities
from central to local level.
 Many provisions of Local Self Governance Act 1999 could
not be implemented due to political conflict.
 Decentralization initiatives gradually proceeded forward
with slow pace in the form of a 'maintenance approach'
rather than as a ' development or institutionalized
approach'.
 The term decentralization has become a political slogan
rather than to become a realized commitment. 29
UNRESOLVED ISSUES
 As envisaged, SMCs have not been given power to hire
and fire non-performing teacher.
 Still the local communities do not understand their roles
and responsibility in school decision making.
 Elite group has the control on school decision making.
 Capacity development of SMC has remained to be a
challenge for effective management of schools.
 Teachers are less academic but more puppets of political
parties. They are still the central government staffs.
 SMCs are more effective in communities with abundant
resources and educational attainment. 30
UNRESOLVED ISSUES
 Schools are not autonomous enough yet due to their
excessive economic dependence on central government.
 Private schools are preferred more over the community
schools.
 Community schools are regarded as the schools of people
who live in rural area without access of private schools,
who are economically poor not able to afford the cost of
private schools.
 Village Education Committees are not functional.
 The local government's support to schools has not been
institutionalized.
31
UNRESOLVED ISSUES
 Quality, results and output that the community schools
are designed to achieve has not been spelled out yet.
 The governance structure that best supports and
sustains quality community schools has not been spelled
out yet.
 The monitoring mechanism that need to be established to
frequently monitor the success and failures of community
schooling system has not been effective enough.
 It is not properly defined to ensure how will funding for
community schools be most effective in achieving priority
outcomes.
 There is no any mechanism in place to identify how will
community schools develop mutually beneficial
relationships with families, youth and other members of
the community? 32
UNRESOLVED ISSUES
 Who decides and controls decision-making?
 The local vs. the central
 Political leadership vs. bureaucracy
 Where are the people? and Professionals?
 Personnel Management Issue
 Who will appoint and control the teachers?
 Whom are personnel accountable to?
 Problem of dual control
 Problem of maintaining quality of the personnel
 Does decentralization really ensure community
empowerment and civil society participation?
 How do we make participation inclusive?
 Which type of institutional mechanism facilitates
participation?
UNRESOLVED ISSUES
 Capacity building
 Should decentralization wait for local capacity to be
developed or it should be backed by capacity development
plan?
 Need for a long-term-strategy – capacity building is a slow
process
 Other Issues
 Questions of resources – Most contentious (debatable)
 Mobilize resources for decentralization or decentralize to
mobilize resources
 Effective utilization of resources is also a serious concern
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
 A great potent for partnership at all levels.
 The main focus should be at VDC or school
 Need for capacity building at all levels
 Sheer political commitments.
 Accomplishments of SSRP goals and targets.
 More external supports.
 Peaceful political settlement and state restructuring.
 Constitutional commitments
 Well designed decentralization action plan and functional
structure.
 Autonomous SMCs and accountable schools with sufficient
rights of funds management, teacher management, local
resource generation.
THANK YOU

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Education decentralization in nepal bringing back to track

  • 1. EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL: BRINGING BACK TO TRACK PRESENTED BY NEPAL'S TEAM Dr. Lava Deo Awasthi, PhD Director General, Department of Education Mr. Yoga Raj Pokhrel, Under Secretary, Ministry of Education November 2010
  • 2. BREAKING THE VICIOUS CIRCLE Lack of Basic Capabilities Lack of Scope for Self-determination Externally designed and monitored Development strategies Perpetuate central control
  • 3. TECHNICAL ADMINISTRATIVE TRANSFORMATION Central legislation creating Local Self Governance Changing rules and regulations Specifications of roles and functions New sharing of powers Changed framework for education management Involvement of community in education management
  • 4. BUILDING FROM BELOW: SOCIAL POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION Redefining the powers of the Centre Integration of the group into the political framework along with powers Activating and vesting power and authority in the informal groups Formal accreditation of the community group with power and authority Informal grouping of community members Mobilizing the community for education
  • 5. NEED FOR CONVERGENT LEGITIMIZATION State Community Facilitation through legal and executive measures Decentralized management Structures Processes Proactive participation
  • 6. CENTRAL TO LOCAL Community Ownership/ Principle of Subsidiarity
  • 9. EVOLUTION OF EDUCATIONAL DECENTRALIZATION  Nepal’s indigenous construct of community owned school system  Introduction of centralized education system in 1971  Brining back community-culture in schools, following the restoration of multi-party democracy in the 1990s.  The 7th Amendment of Education Act 2001 and Regulations 2002 – A Step Forward  The Education Act (2001) and The Local Self Governance Act (1999) – Inter-relations  Reshaping schools and adding value to local constructs  Readiness and building trust – at community levels  Stakeholder’s interest and interest of children  Building Consensus – on going efforts
  • 10. EXPERIMENTS IN NEPALESE EDUCATION SYSTEM  Nepal experienced the centralized education system since 1971 when all schools were nationalized.  Decentralization of education service at local level was promoted following the restoration of multi-party democracy in 1990.  Since then,  Several development projects and programs have been implemented.  Billions of rupees have been spent to increase access, quality and efficiency of community schools.  Several studies and researches have been conducted to bring about the improvements in the school education system. 10
  • 11. EXPERIMENTS IN NEPALESE EDUCATION SYSTEM  Issues and Challenges:  Equity and Access  Retention and success  Quality and Relevance  Building trust in stakeholders  Distribution of services  Elite capturing  Political interference  Politicized teaching cadres  Public –Private dichotomy  Global and local realities  Resourcing and sustainability  School autonomy and Capacity Development  Local accountability and ownership
  • 12. EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION REFORM  Current moves of decentralization is regarded as: a response to a history of failure with centrally planned governance, a major component of current institutional innovation throughout the world, a tool of poverty reduction, good governance and ensuring public accountability 12
  • 13. THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL  Enabling Environment  Interim Constitution of Nepal , 2006  Three Year Plan (2010-13)  Nepal Development Forum (NDF)  Nepal Plan of Action (NPA) / Education for All (EFA) 2001 - 2015.  Community School Support Project (World Bank) 2002 - 04  EFA Program 2004 - 09  School Sector Reform Program (SSRP) 2009 - 15  SIP, VEC, DEP  ASIP / AWPB  Social Audits  Collaboration with DPS, (I)NGOs/ COs/Media / Communities…
  • 14. THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL  The Local Self Governance Act and Regulations (LSGA) 1999  Milestones in the history of decentralization  Promoting local participation in planning and decision making,  Opened up the space for devolution  Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002), Tenth Five Year Plan (2003-2007), Interim Plan (2008 – 2010)  Enlarging people’s involvement in planning process.  Stressing on local ownership in preparing local plans.  Community empowerment  Decentralization as a means of good governance and poverty reduction tool
  • 15. THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL  Approach Paper to Tenth Plan  Recognized the concept of community schools,  Visioning the transfer of authorities, responsibilities, and resources to local levels for operation of schools up to secondary levels.  Decentralization Implementation Action Plan:  Visioning devolution of basic health, agriculture & livestock, postal services and primary education  The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper - 10th Plan (Feb 2002)  Decentralized management in the delivery of social services,  Accepts basic education as a tool of poverty alleviation.
  • 16. THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL  A National Framework Document for Decentralized Governance and Capacity Building  Alleviation of poverty by shifting decision-making power closer to poor communities through devolution of authorities and resources to local bodies,  Decentralized governance to be the principal strategy in decision making and development process by enhancing people’s participation.  Immediate Action Plan  The concept of transferring management of community schools to communities,  Transfer o regular grants to SMCs in the form of block grants
  • 17. THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL  Public Expenditure Review Commission  Devolution of functions at local levels.  Budget Speech 2002/2003  Commitment for handing over of 100 primary schools to Schools Management Committee,  Promoting community ownership in the management of primary schools,  SMC to recruit teachers,  Block grants to schools.  Sustainable Development Agenda for Nepal  Promoting decentralization of administration and political devolution through legal and financial autonomy to local elected bodies
  • 18. THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL  The 7th Amendment of Education Act 2001 & Education Regulations 2002  Internalized the concept of community schools  Provision of Village Education Committee (VEC) at the village level  Provision of local body representatives in the District Education Committee (DEC).  Provision of Parental participation in SMC  Empowerment of SMC to recruit teachers, set the conditions of service for the teachers to be accountable to the communities.
  • 19. FACTORS PROMOTING EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL  1999/2000: The preparation of District Education Plans (DEPs) marked the beginning of the decentralized education planning process.  2002: Government commitment to handover 100 public schools to communities.  2003: Launching Learning Innovation Loan (Community Support School Project) to handover 1500 schools to communities.  Increase in the allocation of resources to the district from 80% in 2000/01 to about more than 90% in subsequent years. 19
  • 20. FACTORS PROMOTING EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL  2002/003: Transfer of the primary teachers’ and women teachers’ salary to District Development Committee (DDC).  2001/02: Introduction of piloting of SIP and formula funding approach.  2003: Implementation of Education for All Program  2010: Implementation of School Sector Reform Program 20
  • 21. FACTORS PROMOTING EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL  As of September 2010  About 11000 schools are managed by local community.  Local communities have greater role to play in school decision making.  Inclusive participation in SMC and PTA  SMCs are fully autonomous in funds management of schools.  SMCs are not fully autonomous in Teacher management.  Partial rights to raise local revenues from parents and other community people. 21
  • 22. OPTIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES  Consensus on agenda Setting:  Manifestations of political parties  National Plans and Policy Statements  Sectoral Plans and Programmes  Global and local level support – EFA/MDGs  Parental Commitments  Robust community support-base  Professional strengths – teachers, wealth of local expertise  Private –public collaborations  Education - top priority  Sectoral success and role modeling
  • 23. IMPLEMENTING DECENTRALIZATION – TRACING THE TRENDS Policy Making Programme Formulation Implementation Centre Local
  • 24. IMPLEMENTING DECENTRALIZATION – TRACING THE TRENDS Financial arrangements – Three broad approaches Block grants Earmarked (Allocated) funds Incentive or matching funds Governance and Administration SMCs are empowered PTAs are made functional Primary teachers' salary goes to school through DDC. Partnership with INGOs, NGOs, GOs, COs, civil society, community. VECs are visualized Ministry of Education is the executor and Department of Education, Regional Education Directorates, District Education Offices and Resource Center are the implementers.
  • 25. IMPLEMENTING DECENTRALIZATION – TRACING THE TRENDS Legal arrangements Enactment of Seventh amendment of Education Act and Regulations articulating education decentralization through school management responsibility transfer to communities. LSGA / R 1999 Educational setup Policy making function with the center Implementing function with district and local level government agencies (such as DOE, DEO, RED, RC). School management responsibility with the community (SMC) School decision making through inclusive participation of community members and local stakeholders.
  • 26. EFFECTS OF EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION  About 11000 schools are managed by community as of end of September 2010.  SMCs are empowered and have the right to raise local resources and take control of school management.  Quality of teaching and learning has been improved following the transfer of school management to community.  Many researches show that community managed school has positive impacts on dropout reduction, increasing access, promotion rate, retention.  Local ownership has enhanced and community participation in school decision making has been increasing.26
  • 27. EFFECTS OF EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION  Primary teacher's salary goes to school through District Development Committee.  In almost all of the community schools, SMCs are formed and functional.  Village Education Committees (VECs) are formed in many Village Development Committees.  To some extent, resource gaps of some community schools are met by SMC's efforts to generate local revenues and local contributions. 27
  • 28. EFFECTS OF EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION  Teachers' trust on community managed schools has been gradually increasing to reckon that community managed schools do not endanger their jobs prematurely.  There are many examples of private school's students going to community schools in several parts of the country.  Community awareness has been increasing to participate in the schools' decision making.  The dalits (untouchables), ethnic minority, disadvantaged groups are more going to schools with the initiation of SMC, PTA 28
  • 29. OBSTACLES IN EDUCATION DECENTRALIZATION IN NEPAL  The prolonged internal political conflict obstructed the smooth transformation of devolution of powers/authorities from central to local level.  Many provisions of Local Self Governance Act 1999 could not be implemented due to political conflict.  Decentralization initiatives gradually proceeded forward with slow pace in the form of a 'maintenance approach' rather than as a ' development or institutionalized approach'.  The term decentralization has become a political slogan rather than to become a realized commitment. 29
  • 30. UNRESOLVED ISSUES  As envisaged, SMCs have not been given power to hire and fire non-performing teacher.  Still the local communities do not understand their roles and responsibility in school decision making.  Elite group has the control on school decision making.  Capacity development of SMC has remained to be a challenge for effective management of schools.  Teachers are less academic but more puppets of political parties. They are still the central government staffs.  SMCs are more effective in communities with abundant resources and educational attainment. 30
  • 31. UNRESOLVED ISSUES  Schools are not autonomous enough yet due to their excessive economic dependence on central government.  Private schools are preferred more over the community schools.  Community schools are regarded as the schools of people who live in rural area without access of private schools, who are economically poor not able to afford the cost of private schools.  Village Education Committees are not functional.  The local government's support to schools has not been institutionalized. 31
  • 32. UNRESOLVED ISSUES  Quality, results and output that the community schools are designed to achieve has not been spelled out yet.  The governance structure that best supports and sustains quality community schools has not been spelled out yet.  The monitoring mechanism that need to be established to frequently monitor the success and failures of community schooling system has not been effective enough.  It is not properly defined to ensure how will funding for community schools be most effective in achieving priority outcomes.  There is no any mechanism in place to identify how will community schools develop mutually beneficial relationships with families, youth and other members of the community? 32
  • 33. UNRESOLVED ISSUES  Who decides and controls decision-making?  The local vs. the central  Political leadership vs. bureaucracy  Where are the people? and Professionals?  Personnel Management Issue  Who will appoint and control the teachers?  Whom are personnel accountable to?  Problem of dual control  Problem of maintaining quality of the personnel  Does decentralization really ensure community empowerment and civil society participation?  How do we make participation inclusive?  Which type of institutional mechanism facilitates participation?
  • 34. UNRESOLVED ISSUES  Capacity building  Should decentralization wait for local capacity to be developed or it should be backed by capacity development plan?  Need for a long-term-strategy – capacity building is a slow process  Other Issues  Questions of resources – Most contentious (debatable)  Mobilize resources for decentralization or decentralize to mobilize resources  Effective utilization of resources is also a serious concern
  • 35. FUTURE DIRECTIONS  A great potent for partnership at all levels.  The main focus should be at VDC or school  Need for capacity building at all levels  Sheer political commitments.  Accomplishments of SSRP goals and targets.  More external supports.  Peaceful political settlement and state restructuring.  Constitutional commitments  Well designed decentralization action plan and functional structure.  Autonomous SMCs and accountable schools with sufficient rights of funds management, teacher management, local resource generation.

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