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Agriculture Extension

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Agriculture Extension

  1. 1. Introduction to Extension Education Methods Class Instructor: Dr. Faheem Khan Course Objectives  At the completion of this course, the students will be able to:  Develop an instructional plan  Select and apply various extension methods under different situations  Understand the teaching-learning process 1
  2. 2. Cont.. Theory Teaching as a process of facilitating learning, developing an instructional plan for extension teaching. Classification of extension teaching methods: individual, group and mass contact methods. Merits and demerits of various extension methods. Critical analysis of various extension methods. Planning, conducting and follow up of various extension methods.
  3. 3. Cont.. Practical; Each student will develop an instructional plan for a given extension-teaching situation. The student(s) will be involved in micro teaching/field situation concerning agricultural extension.
  4. 4. Definition of Teaching in Learning; Education: the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university. A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student/farmers learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient, it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning.
  5. 5. Cont.. Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, morals, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators; however, learners can also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal, Non-formal or informal settings, and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational.
  6. 6. Cont.. Extension is an educational process for bringing about the maximum number of desirable changes among the farmers, which involves both learning & teaching & needs some tools or methods commonly known as extension-teaching methods. Learning' is the process by which an individual, through his/her own activity, attains a change in his/her behavior. The essential role of an extension worker is to create effective 'learning situations'.
  7. 7. Effective learning situations;  An instructor (an extension worker, e.g. an extension officer or a village-level worker).  Learners (the farmers, the farm women & the youth).  Subject-matter (the recommended improved practices, such as the seeds of high-yielding varieties, fertilizers, balanced diet, etc.).  Teaching material, such as a flannel-board, a black-board, charts, models, samples, slides, film strips, etc.  Physical facilities, such as sitting accommodation, good visibility, etc.
  8. 8. Continued . . Role of Extension worker in Learning; The extension worker should skillfully manipulate the elements of the learning situations & provide satisfactory learning experiences for the people. The farmer, the farmer women or the farm youth are the focal points in the learning situations. The main aim of an extension worker is to bring about a change in this behavior of the people with the help of a judicious combination & use of different elements. all the teaching should be carried out according to the needs & resources of the local community or group. Teaching' is the process of arranging situations in which the things to be learnt are brought to the notice of the learners, their interest is developed & desire aroused, i.e. they are stimulated to action. For example, if we want to teach the farmers the use & advantages of chemical fertilizers, we do this by conducting demonstrations on their fields, showing them how the fertilizers are applied, & compare the yield of the fertilizers crop with that of the crop to which no fertilizers has ben applied. After seeing the beneficial effect of a fertilizers, the farmer is convinced & motivated to action & starts using fertilizers regularly.
  9. 9. Continued .. Extension-teaching methods; The extension-teaching methods are the tools & techniques used to create situations in which communication can take place between the rural people & the extension workers. They are the methods of extending new knowledge & skills to the rural people by drawing their attention towards them, arousing their interest & helping them to have a successful experience of the new practice. A proper understanding of these methods & their selection for a particular type of work are necessary.
  10. 10. Continued .. Individual-contact methods; Extension methods under this category provide opportunities for face-to-face or person-to- person contact between the rural people & the extension workers. These methods are very effective in teaching new skills & creating goodwill between farmers & the extension workers. For example; Phone call, office call, personal letter etc.
  11. 11. Continued . . Group-contact methods; Under this category, the rural people or farmers are contacted in a group which usually consists of 20 to 25 persons. These groups are usually formed around a common interest. These methods also involve a face-to-face contact with the people & provide an opportunity for the exchange of ideas, for discussions on problems & technical recommendations & finally for deciding the future course of action. For Example; Field trips, seminars, workshops, demonstration plots etc.
  12. 12. Continued . . Mass or community-contact methods. An extension worker has to approach a large number of people for disseminating a new information & helping them to use it. this can be done through mass-contact methods conveniently. These methods are more useful for making people aware of the new agricultural technology quickly. For example; print media (newspapers, poster, books, journals) Electronic media (Television, Radio, Social media etc.).
  13. 13. Individual Contact Method: 1. Farm visits 2. Home visits 3. Result demonstration 4. Office Call 5. Personal letters 6. Telephone Call
  14. 14. Continued.. Individual Contact Methods; Farms Visits; Extension agents/worker/field personnel usually pay visits to the farmers’ fields to accomplish several types of purposes such as disseminate of recommended agricultural information among the farmers’ communities, capacity building training etc.
  15. 15. Advantages of Farms visits: 1. Gives you first hand know-ledge of problems of the farmer and his family which you cannot get as well by any other method. 2. Is one of the most effective teaching methods because you are dealing with problems where they occur. 3. It gives the people an opportunity to know you as a friend and not just as a government worker. 4. Helps you to locate leaders and cooperators. 5. It stimulates interest in other phases of the program. 6. You can contact those who do not participate in other extension activities.
  16. 16. Disadvantages of Farm Visits: 1. Uses a large amount of your time. 2. The number of families you can reach is limited. 3. You cannot always make a visit at a time that is most convenient for the family. 4. Neighbors not visited maybe disappointed and accuse you of favoritism. 5. You may find it difficult to avoid visiting some farmers and their families more often than others.
  17. 17. Purposes of Farm Visits: 1. Public Relations Visits (Personal to Personal visit create understanding) 2. Service Visits (Problem identification and solution). 3. Teaching Visits (Extension educational program) 4. Organizational Visits (plan and establish a result demonstration, to plan for a meeting, to secure new local leaders, or to organize an advisory committee). 5. Informational Visits (Made information of innovative technologies and ideas).
  18. 18. When visits to Farm Fields  To know about the situations when the farmers needs to visits. I. People who are eager to try a new way, who accept or seek help. II. People who are natural leaders that others trust. III. People who will only follow what others do. IV. People who are reluctant to change and must be persuaded. V. People who do not like to change at all. Visit a variety of people those who are eager to learn and those who are slow to change. Don't fall into the habit of visiting only your friends. Remember, your responsibility is to help all the people.
  19. 19. Importance steps of Farms Visits: 1) Decide exactly why you are going and what you are going to do. 2) Decide if this visit fits into your plan of work and where. 3) Decide if you have other visits to make in this same area that you could include on the same trip. 4) Review what you know about the family. Learn the names of family members. 5) Decide which methods you will use to accomplish your objectives. 6) Determine what teaching materials you will need and get them ready. 7) Time your visit so you won't inconvenience the family. 8) If you can, tell the family when you will come.
  20. 20. Important Tools for Farms Visit: Demonstrations, visual aids, posters, charts, pictures, or models are as important in making a good farm and home visit as they are in a group meeting. An agricultural worker may need such things as a sharp pocket knife, hammer, small saw, pruning shears, hands prayer, and bulletins on appropriate farm practices. A home economics worker may need pictures, charts, sewing samples, and small models of simple home improvements such as a cupboard, mattress, or improved cooking utensils.
  21. 21. Preparation for un-expected Situations in Farm visits;  You must be especially observant. Be careful of the questions you ask. Do not ask too many or ask them too rapidly.  Whenever it is possible and in keeping with local custom, dis-cuss problems with both the men and the women. This can establish effective working relation-ships with the family.  Make the visit pleasant. Re-member, you are a guest.  Start the conversation about family members and their activities. Call them by name.
  22. 22. Continued . .  Be informal and let the family talk. Be a good listener and a close observer. Be interested in what family members have to say.  Be friendly, sympathetic, and always find something to praise. Every family has pride, and praise generally brings a positive response.  Render service when it is needed and wanted, and make it educational.  What you learn from the family is a secret. Never repeat it to others.
  23. 23. Continued . .  Before you leave, make sure both you and the family clearly understand the purpose of your visit and any action either of you has agreed to take. Writing down such plans and promises is a good way to help you and the family remember.  Avoid wasting your time and the time of the family. End your visit when you accomplish what you came for.  Be sure you show you appreciate the chance to meet the family and visit their home.  To make farm and home visits as effective as possible, you should record each visit soon after you make it.
  24. 24. Continued . .  It is generally wise not to make written notes while you are at the home, except to write down things you promise to do. Stop along the road later and write down what you learned. Use a form like that on page 10 to record each visit you make.  Follow up the visit; Send any material or information you promised as promptly as you can. Invite the family to attend any pertinent meetings to be held in their area. If you promised a return visit, go back when you said you would.  Evaluate the visit; How do you feel about the visit you have made? Think it over. To learn how you could have done better, ask yourself the following questions. This will help you to improve your future visits.
  25. 25. Significant of Farm Visit:  A visit is the best method for the job.  You have a definite purpose.  You plan the visit carefully.  You are friendly, understanding, and sympathetic.  You gain the family's confidence.  You usually tell them you are coming.  You help them analyze their problems and make their own decisions.  You leave when your work is done.  You follow up. Remember; Visit those families who need a visit the most. If other methods will do the job as well, use them.
  26. 26. Office Call These involve direct personal contact between the extension worker and the farmer for desiring information on need base. In the office contact method, the farmer goes to the office of the extension worker to seek some sort of help, assist, training or cooperation.
  27. 27. Reasons of Office Call Method I. The farmer clearly recognizes the complexity of his/her problem, and that it is directly related to fulfillment of some urgent need. II. The farmer has a strong desire to solve its problem. It is not possible himself/herself to solve it. III. The farmer has a full confidence in extension worker and values his/her advice regarding the solution of his/her problem. IV. The farmer is receptive to learn new things.
  28. 28. Basic essential for successful Office Call The following conditions must be met if the extension worker’s office is to be attractive to farmers. I. The extension field personnel must prove themselves to be a valuable source of information for the farmers. The farmer visits the extension office if he/she feels that there is something useful for him/her. II. Field worker must keep themselves available in their office during office hours.
  29. 29. Continued . . III. All types of information required by the farmers should be readily available in the office. IV. The office of the extension worker should be located at a home which is easy for the farmers to reach. V. Visitors (extension workers) should be given respect and full cooperation. The office in-charge must ensure proper space, seating arrangements, and other needs to facilities for the comfort of visitors. Before, coming to discussion, it is always desirable to chat or have light refreshments in order to ensure the visitors of their worth.
  30. 30. Advantages of Office Call 1) Money-saving is a decisive factor in parsing the advantages and disadvantages of conference calls; It would be difficult to think of any enterprise which wouldn’t be cheered by the thought of saving some money. Even organizations which aren’t run for profit like charities can gain a lot and save a lot by conference calling. There are actually lots of costs which teleconferencing can slash. To begin with, you’re saving commuting costs for all the participants who would have to travel to the meeting. You could also save a bundle on renting out an appropriate meeting space. Things like providing refreshments or printing materials can quickly build to a significant chunk of the budget by the end of the year. Plus, even something like using electricity to light the room comes at a cost, and every penny counts!.
  31. 31. Continued . . 2) Conference calls can be totally free; No fees or charges for being a member, hosting a call, or any other part of Call services, conference calling will never have to figure in your budget at all. 3) Save time by conference calling; Agricultural extension worker can also save lots of time. And if time is money, that’s even more back in your pocket. 4) Telephones are extremely accessible, a crucial consideration in the advantages and disadvantages of conference meetings.
  32. 32. Continued . . 5) Conference Call allows direct Communication; There are things which it’s quicker and easier to express vocally. Signals can get crossed and messages literally and figuratively missed in lengthy IM conversations and endless email chains. Picking up the phone can cut through the nonsense and get people to work. 6) Collaboration and cooperation are powerful business tools and vital factors in the advantages and disadvantages of conference calls.
  33. 33. Continued . . 7) You can cast a much wider net; Taking geographical proximity out of the equation means you can appeal to a far greater number of stakeholders. It is fruitful to reaching a wider audience and increasing the number of potential partnerships makes successful alliances and investments more likely. 8) Flexible working figures crucially in the advantages and disadvantages of conference calls.
  34. 34. Result Demonstration Result demonstration 4) Selection of demonstrator; It is better and advisable that a capable farmer be entrusted to act a demonstrator. The extension worker is, therefore, supposed to assist the farmers demonstrator whenever it is necessary. In this way the process of demonstration will be conducted in a healthy atmosphere. The true spirit of the demonstration is that all activities should be performed by the demonstrator himself, with the minimum assistance of agricultural extension worker.
  35. 35. Characters of demonstrators I. Cooperative with extension worker and other farmers. II. Well educated and dynamic. III. Financial sound that he/she able to bear the expenses of the demonstration. IV. Have a favorable opinion of the extension worker. V. Have a large enough, fertile piece of land along the road side which is easily approachable to other farmers. VI. Well respectable and popular among other community members.
  36. 36. Continued . . 5) Starting the demonstration; Before starting the demonstration, the extension worker will review the whole plan for demonstration with demonstrator. Discuss all steps with the administrator. Keep the demonstration very simple at only ONE aspect. The extension worker must ensure the active participation of the demonstrator through the process.
  37. 37. Continued . . 6) Supervision; The extension worker must pay frequent visits to the demonstration to: I. Check the progress. II. Maintain the interest of the demonstrator. III. Provide technical assistance in the demonstration.
  38. 38. Continued . . 7) Completion of the demonstration; At the completion stage, the recommended and traditional practices are to be compared. The extension worker must use all the possible ways and means to call the maximum number of farmers to the spot to show them the difference between both practices. At this stage, demonstration may become group contact method. The extension worker must summarized the whole process to audience. He/she should also take pictures for general public use and distribute printed material regarding the results of the demonstration among the audience.
  39. 39. Continued . . 8) Follow-up; A successful demonstration demands follow-up. The extension worker must try to inform as many as farmers as possible about the result demonstration. After that, he must maintain regular contact with the farmers to get them to adopt the improved demonstrated practice. Then the extension worker must render all possible help to the farmers in putting it into practice.
  40. 40. Adult Education / Farmers’ Education Adult/Farmers Education or Extension Education; The success of adult farmer education or an extension programme depends upon the motivation of adults to participate in the programme. It is essential for the extension work to perform their tasks in accordance with the performances and needs of innovations in most understandable, convincing and effective way. It is because that farmers adopt the innovation practices and ideas in farming.
  41. 41. Essential Steps for Farmers / Adult Education  Know about the adult education  Characters and needs of adult learners.  Laws and factors effecting the adult learning. Concept of Adult education; I. Adult education is the process of educating adults who are not able to get formal education or have failed to continue their education for any reason. II. Adult education is providing outside four boundaries wall (formal education). It is called Non-Formal education.
  42. 42. Continued . . III. Adult education is providing for a person having 16 years or above age. IV. Educational purpose carried on by mature and competent person on a part time basis. V. Adult education is any voluntary, purposeful effort toward the self development of adult farmers. VI. Adult education conducted by public or private agencies directed towards such special subject as citizenship, consumers problems, farming etc.
  43. 43. Aim of Adult Education 1) Access to education by men and women who are no longer of school age and young people who for various reasons, have not had the opportunity to attend school. 2) Lifelong process, give education to each individual to supplement his/her store of knowledge throughout the course of his/her life. 3) Aimed at redressing the shortcomings of conventional education. 4) Knowledge of farmers should be current/updated in light of new research findings and changes in educational practices.
  44. 44. Reasons for the Need of Adult Education 1) Changes of technology and other aspects; The agricultural technologies and practices are rapidly changing all over the world. The delay of adoption innovative technologies and practices are cause back individual or a nation. 2) The problems faced by our community are mostly at level. The adults must step forward and try to solve the problems faced by their own generation. The nature of person problem be changed with time and young generation are facing other new problems.
  45. 45. Continued . . 3) Knowledge is unlimited; No one can clam master or expert of any type of knowledge. A result of continuous research, knowledge is developing and changing rapidly. 4) Education is a continuous process and should never be disrupted. The individual is said to be competent who has kept himself/herself continuously informed of new knowledge. Without education the individual can not step forward for his/her own nation development.
  46. 46. Continued . . 5) Adult education is more effective than traditional education; It is because that clients of adult education are mature and equipped with sound understanding. Although, adults have decreasing memorizing ability, their understanding level is surly enhanced. Again, adult education is the last chance for individuals who want to gain knowledge to join the educated persons.