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General anesthesia

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general anesthesia for medical & dentist students

Veröffentlicht in: Gesundheit & Medizin
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General anesthesia

  1. 1. General anesthesia By: mohammad k younus
  2. 2.  Drugs that produse a generalized reversible depreesion of the CNS such that perception of ; • Loss of all sensation, especially pain • Sleep (unconsciousness) and amnesia • Immobility and muscle relaxation • Abolition of reflexes.
  3. 3. 1.INHALATIONAL Gases : nitrous oxide Liquids: Ether, Halothane, Enflurane, Desflurane, Isoflurane, Sevoflurane, Methoxyflurane
  4. 4. 2.INTRAVENOUS Inducing Agents: Thiopentone sodium,Methohexitone sodium,Propofol, Etomidate slower acting drugs: benzodizeoines – midazolam, lorazempam dissociative anaesthesia-Ketamine, Neuroleptanalgesia: Fentanyl+Droperidol (Analgesic)(Neuroleptic)
  5. 5.  General anesthesia has many purposes, including:  Analgesia (loss of response to pain)  Amnesia (loss of memory)  Immobility (loss of motor reflexes)  Hypnosis (unconsciousness)  Paralysis (skeletal muscle relaxation)
  6. 6.  In 1937 they describes four stages of anesthesia Stage 1: also known as induction, is the period between the administration of induction agents and loss of consciousness. During this stage, the patient progresses from analgesia without amnesia to analgesia with amnesia. Patients can carry on a conversation at this time
  7. 7.  Stage 2: also known as the excitement stage, is the period following loss of consciousness and marked by excited and delirious activity. During this stage, the patient'srespiration and heart rate may become irregular  Stage 3: also known as surgical anaesthesia, the skeletal muscles relax, vomiting stops, respiratory depression occurs, and eye movements slow and then stop
  8. 8. And this stage is divided into four planes:  The eyes roll, then become fixed;  Corneal and laryngeal reflexes are lost;  The pupils dilate and light reflex is lost;  Intercostal paralysis and shallow abdominal respiration occur
  9. 9.  Stage 4: also known as overdose, occurs when too much anesthetic medication is given relative to the amount of surgical stimulation and the patient has severe brainstem or medullary depression, resulting in a cessation of respiration and potential cardiovascular collapse. This stage is lethal without cardiovascular and respiratory support.
  10. 10.  Confusion and memory loss - more common in the elderly, it is not necessarily permanent  Dizziness  Difficulty passing urine  Nausea and vomiting  Shivering and feeling cold
  11. 11.  Overall, general anesthesia is very safe. Even particularly ill patients can be safely anesthetized; it is the surgical procedure itself which offers the most risk However, older adults and those undergoing lengthy procedures are most at risk of negative outcomes. These outcomes can include postoperative confusion, heart attack, pneumonia and stroke.
  12. 12.  Obstructive sleep apnea  High blood pressure  Alcoholism  Smoking  History of reactions to anesthesia  Medications that can increase bleeding- aspirin for example  Drug allergies  Diabetes  Obesity or overweight.
  13. 13. Thanks for your attention