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Cultures of Openness: New
Architectures of Global
Collaboration in Higher Education
Michael A. Peters
UIUC
Faculty of Educ...
Structure of Presentation
• Defining a ‘Culture of Openness’
• Technopolitical economy of openness
- Politics of Openness
...
The Politics of Openness
• The politics of openness names a version of postwar
liberalism strongly supported by the ‘marri...
Henri Bergson, 1859-1941
Two Sources of Morality and Religion
• Develops from Creative Evolution
(as an engagement with Ka...
Karl Popper, 1902-1994
The Open Societies and its Enemies (1945)
• Critique of historicism (Plato, Hegel,
Marx); defense o...
Friedrich von Hayek
• Austrian school political
philosopher – classical liberal
defense of free market
• Road to Serfdom (...
George Soros, 1930-
• Studied under Popper at LSE
• Established Open Society Institute in
1994 (named after Popper’s work)...
Open Government
• Roots in Enlightenment thought of
constitution of civil society and in
democratic practice
• Linked to f...
Freedom House
• Free (green) – 90 countries or 47
per cent
• Partly Free (yellow) – 60
countries or 31 per cent
• Not Free...
Freedom of Mobility?
Technologies of Openness
• Macy Cybernetic group conferences
and concept of the open systems
• Claude Shanon’s mathematica...
Group Photo, Macy 10th
Conference, 1953
• T.C. Schneirla, Y. Bar-Hillel, Margaret Mead, Warren S. McCulloch, Jan Droogleev...
Wiener, Cybernetics
&Communication
A Mathematical Theory of
Communication, 1948
The fundamental problem of communication is that
of reproducing at one point ...
Development of the Internet
Web 2.0 Technologies
• New architectures
of participation and
collaboration
• Social media-social
networking
• Wiki-collab...
Web 2.0 Mass Customization
• Economics of file-
sharing
• Mass customization
• Personalization of
services
• Co-production...
Growing Interconnectedness
Economics of Openness
• Knowledge as a global public good
• ‘Weightlessness’ of digital knowledge
goods
• ‘The Economy of ...
Knowledge as Global Public Good
• knowledge is non-rivalrous
the stock of knowledge is not depleted by use and in this sen...
Weightlessness of Digital Goods
Digital information goods approximate pure thought
• Information goods especially in digit...
John Perry Barlow
• Information is an activity.
• ‘Information is a verb, not a noun; it is
experienced not possessed; it ...
Yochai Benkler
• Cooperation and Human Systems Design
• Commons-based information production
and exchange
• Freedom, justi...
Open Cultures/Open Education
Emerging Knowledge Ecologies
• MIT adopts OpenCourseWare (2001)
• Budapest OA statement; NIH;...
Ithaka Report, 2007
• changes in creation, production and consumption
of scholarly resources --‘creation of new formats
ma...
Wider Cultural Changes:
Writer’s strike in Hollywood
‘Cheap production technology, no-barrier-to-entry
distribution, and a...
Open 21st
Century?
• The present decade can be called the ‘open’ decade (open
source, open systems, open standards, open a...
Open Education
‘the open provision of educational
resources, enabled by information and
communication technologies, for
co...
The Emerging Open
Education Paradigm
US Committee for Economic Development
• Open Standards, Open Source, and Open
Innovat...
Three Reports on OER
• Giving Knowledge for Free: The
Emergence Of Open Educational
Resources (OECD, 2007)
• Open Educatio...
OECD Report 2007
• ‘An apparently extraordinary trend is
emerging. Although learning resources
are often considered as key...
OpenCourseWare
• MIT OpenCourseWare has reached 35
million people and another 14 million in
translation
• OpenCourseWare C...
Global Power/Knowledge
Systems
• Openness seems also to suggest
political transparency, an ethic of
participation, collabo...
(i) Criticisms of the major reports
on Open Education
(a) Critique of underlying ‘engineering’ concept of
information (as ...
(ii) Criticisms of the ideological nature of the
‘open society’
(a) Contextualizing Popper in the Cold War, state
phobia o...
(iii) Criticisms of Benkler and limitations of
liberal political economy
(a) ‘open governance’ in an era of
globalization ...
(iv) An ontology of openness?
(a) A specific debate in Web environments – semantic framework &
knowledge representations o...
‘Open To, Open(ness), and the Open as Exposure and
Appearance in the Presence of Dasein’
• The words that surround this co...
Open Source as a Philosophical Topic
• Thinking the open in a deeply engaged way
is pressing to the coming century as thin...
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Cultures of Openness: New Architectures of Global Collaboration in Higher Education

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Defining a ‘Culture of Openness’
Technopolitical economy of openness
- Politics of Openness
- Technologies of Openness
- Economics of Openness
Open Cultures/Open Education
New Architectures of Collaboration
Towards an Ontology of Openness

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Cultures of Openness: New Architectures of Global Collaboration in Higher Education

  1. 1. Cultures of Openness: New Architectures of Global Collaboration in Higher Education Michael A. Peters UIUC Faculty of Education University of Glasgow
  2. 2. Structure of Presentation • Defining a ‘Culture of Openness’ • Technopolitical economy of openness - Politics of Openness - Technologies of Openness - Economics of Openness • Open Cultures/Open Education • New Architectures of Collaboration • Towards an Ontology of Openness
  3. 3. The Politics of Openness • The politics of openness names a version of postwar liberalism strongly supported by the ‘marriage’ of Cold War warriors Hayek (on ‘open markets’) and Popper (on ‘open society’) - Henri Bergson - The Two Sources of Morality and Religion (1932) - Karl Popper - The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945) - Friedrich Hayek – The Road to Serfdom (1944) - George Soros – The Open Society Institute, 1994 • Open Government and Official Information Act • Freedom House on postwar growth of liberal democracy.
  4. 4. Henri Bergson, 1859-1941 Two Sources of Morality and Religion • Develops from Creative Evolution (as an engagement with Kant) • Two sources: - Closed morality, static religion - Open morality, dynamic religion • Open morality is universal (includes everyone) and aims at peace • Based on ‘creative emotions’ – the emotion creates the representation (rather than vice versa) • Mystical experience • Revitalization in Gilles Deleuze
  5. 5. Karl Popper, 1902-1994 The Open Societies and its Enemies (1945) • Critique of historicism (Plato, Hegel, Marx); defense of liberal democracy as open society • Cold war warrior (with Hayek) driven by state phobia and fear of totalitarianism; failure of Marxism against fascism • Against essentialism of conceptual analysis of early Wittgenstein and for ‘open epistemology’ (Hayek’s evolutionism) called ‘critical rationalism’ based on falsificationism (as a critique of logical empiricism [positivism] and solution of the problem of induction) • “In what follows, the magical or tribal or collectivist society will also be called the closed society, and the society in which individuals are confronted with personal decisions, the open society” (Ch. 10)
  6. 6. Friedrich von Hayek • Austrian school political philosopher – classical liberal defense of free market • Road to Serfdom (1944) • Constitution of Liberty (1960) • LSE – invited by Lionel Robbins in 1931 • U of Chicago – 1950, joining Committee on Social Thought • 1962-68 – U of Frieburg • Nobel prize in 1974 • Critic of collectivism & demand economy advocating catallaxy – ‘self-organizing system of voluntary co-operation’ – and spontaneous order • Est. Mt Pelerin Society in 1947 (classical liberalism against sociolism) • Invited Popper to LSE 1946
  7. 7. George Soros, 1930- • Studied under Popper at LSE • Established Open Society Institute in 1994 (named after Popper’s work) • ‘The Open Society Institute (OSI), a private operating and grantmaking foundation, aims to shape public policy to promote democratic governance, human rights, and economic, legal, and social reform.’ • Budapest Open Access Initiative (2001) • Europe as a Prototype for a Global Open Society (2006) • Open Society: Reforming Global Capitalism (2000) • Opening the Soviet System (1990)
  8. 8. Open Government • Roots in Enlightenment thought of constitution of civil society and in democratic practice • Linked to freedom of speech, freedom of the press and other freedoms that have become basis for constitutional law • Strongly linked with passage of freedom of information law in US (1966), Denmark & Norway (1970), France & Holland (1978), Australia, Canada, NZ (1982), UK (2000), Japan & Mexico (2002), Germany (2005) • Norms of openness address transparency, accountability, official secrets, public trust • Linked to open source governance – application of open source to democratic principles encouraging citizen participation in legislative process
  9. 9. Freedom House • Free (green) – 90 countries or 47 per cent • Partly Free (yellow) – 60 countries or 31 per cent • Not Free – 43 countries or 41 per cent • Increasing from 1977 (43 [28]) to 2007 (90 [47]); from 66 electoral democracies (1987) to 121 (2007) http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=395
  10. 10. Freedom of Mobility?
  11. 11. Technologies of Openness • Macy Cybernetic group conferences and concept of the open systems • Claude Shanon’s mathematical theory of communication 1948 • Development of Internet, 1992 • Shift from PC to Internet as platform • Web 2.0 technologies
  12. 12. Group Photo, Macy 10th Conference, 1953 • T.C. Schneirla, Y. Bar-Hillel, Margaret Mead, Warren S. McCulloch, Jan Droogleever-Fortuyn, Yuen Ren Chao, W. Grey-Walter, Vahe E. Amassian. • Leonard J. Savage, Janet Freed Lynch, Gerhardt von Bonin, Lawrence S. Kubie, Lawrence K. Frank, Henry Quastler, Donald G. Marquis, Heinrich Kluver, F.S.C. Northrop. • Peggy Kubie, Henry Brosin, Gregory Bateson, Frank Fremont-Smith, John R. Bowman, G.E. Hutchinson, Hans Lukas Teuber, Julian H. Bigelow, Claude Shannon, Walter Pitts, Heinz von Foerster
  13. 13. Wiener, Cybernetics &Communication
  14. 14. A Mathematical Theory of Communication, 1948 The fundamental problem of communication is that of reproducing at one point either exactly or approximately a message selected at another point. Frequently the messages have meaning; that is they refer to or are correlated according to some system with certain physical or conceptual entities. These semantic aspects of communication are irrelevant to the engineering problem. The significant aspect is that the actual message is one selected from a set of possible messages. The system must be designed to operate for each possible selection, not just the one which will actually be chosen since this is unknown at the time of design. • Reprinted with corrections from The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 27, pp. 379–423, 623–656, July, October, 1948.
  15. 15. Development of the Internet
  16. 16. Web 2.0 Technologies • New architectures of participation and collaboration • Social media-social networking • Wiki-collaborations • Wisdom of the crowd • Web as platform
  17. 17. Web 2.0 Mass Customization • Economics of file- sharing • Mass customization • Personalization of services • Co-production of goods • You as co-designer • Customer integrated into value creation process
  18. 18. Growing Interconnectedness
  19. 19. Economics of Openness • Knowledge as a global public good • ‘Weightlessness’ of digital knowledge goods • ‘The Economy of Ideas’ - John Perry Barlow (1994) • ‘How Social Production Transforms Freedom and Markets’ – Yochai Benkler (2006)
  20. 20. Knowledge as Global Public Good • knowledge is non-rivalrous the stock of knowledge is not depleted by use and in this sense knowledge is not consumable; sharing with others, use, reuse and modification may indeed add rather than deplete value; • knowledge is barely excludable it is difficult to exclude users and to force them to become buyers; it is difficult, if not impossible, to restrict distribution of goods that can be reproduced with no or little cost; • knowledge is not transparent knowledge requires some experience of it before one discovers whether it is worthwhile, relevant or suited to a particular purpose. • knowledge at the ideation or immaterial stage considered as pure ideas operates expansively to defy the law of scarcity.
  21. 21. Weightlessness of Digital Goods Digital information goods approximate pure thought • Information goods especially in digital forms can be copied cheaply so there is little or no cost in adding new users. • Information and knowledge goods typically have an experiential and participatory element that increasingly requires the active co- production of the reader/writer, listener, and viewer. • Digital information goods can be transported, broadcast or shared at low cost which may approach free transmission across bulk communication networks. • Since digital information can be copied exactly and easily shared, it is never consumed
  22. 22. John Perry Barlow • Information is an activity. • ‘Information is a verb, not a noun; it is experienced not possessed; it has to move; it is conveyed but propagation, not distribution’. • Information is a life form. • ‘Information wants to be free; it replicates into the cracks of possibility; it wants to change; it is perishable’. • Information is a relationship.
  23. 23. Yochai Benkler • Cooperation and Human Systems Design • Commons-based information production and exchange • Freedom, justice, and the organization of information production on nonproprietary principles • The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (2006) 
  24. 24. Open Cultures/Open Education Emerging Knowledge Ecologies • MIT adopts OpenCourseWare (2001) • Budapest OA statement; NIH; ERC. • The Ithaca Report, University Publishing In A Digital Age (2007) • Harvard mandates open archiving (Feb 14, 2008)
  25. 25. Ithaka Report, 2007 • changes in creation, production and consumption of scholarly resources --‘creation of new formats made possible by digital technologies, ultimately allowing scholars to work in deeply integrated electronic research and publishing environments that will enable real-time dissemination, collaboration, dynamically-updated content, and usage of new media’ (p. 4). • ‘alternative distribution models (institutional repositories, pre-print servers, open access journals) have also arisen with the aim to broaden access, reduce costs, and enable open sharing of content’ (p. 4)
  26. 26. Wider Cultural Changes: Writer’s strike in Hollywood ‘Cheap production technology, no-barrier-to-entry distribution, and a Niagara of “product” (65,000 new videos are uploaded on YouTube daily) mean the entire Hollywood story-development complex is now in a daily competition with do-it-yourself writers. Hollywood product itself is remade, reduced to clips, bites, fractals, and mixes. Sitting through an entire feature film more and more feels like an unreasonable commitment. (We use DVRs to fast- forward, to pause, to hold for some other time— anything not to have to watch something from beginning to end.) The narrative is disposable.’ --Michael Wolff, Vanity Fair
  27. 27. Open 21st Century? • The present decade can be called the ‘open’ decade (open source, open systems, open standards, open archives, open everything) just as the 1990s were called the ‘electronic’ decade (e-text, e-learning, e-commerce, e-governance). Materu, 2004. • It is more than just a ‘decade’ that follows the electronic innovations of the 1990s; it is a change of philosophy and ethos, a set of interrelated and complex changes that transforms markets and the mode of production, ushering in a new collection of values based on openness, the ethic of participation and peer-to-peer collaboration. • a shift from an underlying metaphysics of production—a ‘productionist’ metaphysics—to a metaphysics of prosumption creating new forms of creativity and freedom
  28. 28. Open Education ‘the open provision of educational resources, enabled by information and communication technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for noncommercial purposes’ --UNESCO, 2002
  29. 29. The Emerging Open Education Paradigm US Committee for Economic Development • Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness (April 2006) • The Digital Economy and Economic Growth (2001) • Digital Economy: Promoting Competition, Innovation, and Opportunity (2001) • Promoting Innovation and Economic Growth: The Special Problem of Digital Intellectual Property (2004) • new collaborative models of open innovation, originating outside the firm, that results in an ‘architecture of participation’
  30. 30. Three Reports on OER • Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence Of Open Educational Resources (OECD, 2007) • Open Educational Practices and Resources (OLCOS, 2007) • A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities (2007)
  31. 31. OECD Report 2007 • ‘An apparently extraordinary trend is emerging. Although learning resources are often considered as key intellectual property in a competitive higher education world, more and more institutions and individuals are sharing digital learning resources over the Internet openly and without cost, as open educational resources (OER)’. (p. 9).
  32. 32. OpenCourseWare • MIT OpenCourseWare has reached 35 million people and another 14 million in translation • OpenCourseWare Consortium ‘is a collaboration of more than 100 higher education institutions and associated organizations from around the world creating a broad and deep body of open educational content using a shared model.’
  33. 33. Global Power/Knowledge Systems • Openness seems also to suggest political transparency, an ethic of participation, collaboration through social media and the norms of open inquiry, indeed, even democracy itself as both the basis of both the logic of inquiry, the creation of value and the dissemination of its results
  34. 34. (i) Criticisms of the major reports on Open Education (a) Critique of underlying ‘engineering’ concept of information (as opposed to knowledge) and therefore also underlying notion of skills; (b) Problem of ‘structured ignorance,’ ‘information overload,’ ‘misinformation,’ disinformation’; (c) Lack of context claims for open education in order to understand of fundamental changes to liberal political economy; (d) Relation of OE to traditional goals of education policy to notions of freedom, equality, access and distribution of public goods.
  35. 35. (ii) Criticisms of the ideological nature of the ‘open society’ (a) Contextualizing Popper in the Cold War, state phobia of late 1940s, rise of neoliberalism, links to Hayek and LSE; (b) Differences and dangers of ‘openness’: open society/institutions vs open markets; preservation of cultural differences; Ameri-English as global lingua franca; asymmetical power relations; rise of the ‘information utility’ and new forms of ‘information imperialism’; (c) ‘Societies of Control’ (Deleuze, 1992) vs Open Society: 1. Historical, 2. Logic, 3. Program
  36. 36. (iii) Criticisms of Benkler and limitations of liberal political economy (a) ‘open governance’ in an era of globalization – ‘openness does not mean deregulation’ (b) Need to understand system failures – of closed and open systems (c) state & corporate surveillance e.g., UK community cards, House of Lords (d) the problems of the digital self (e) issues of privacy (f) Problems of IP: copyright; WTO & GATS etc.
  37. 37. (iv) An ontology of openness? (a) A specific debate in Web environments – semantic framework & knowledge representations of a model of reality – see Paola Di Maio ‘Open Ontology’ (b) Principle of openness: An ontology should be open and available to be used by all potential users without any constraint, other than (1) its origin must be acknowledged and (2) it should not to be altered and subsequently redistributed except under a new name (c) Cooksey (2005) on Open Source philosophy & Deleuze: Deleuze’s postion as ‘a radical, non-essentialist realism that encompasses the virtual as real’ (as opposed to ‘actual’) (d) Manuel DeLanda’s (2005a,b) development of Deleuze & open source philosophy http://opensourcephilosophy.org/index.php?title=Main_Page (e) Giorgio Agamben, The Open, trans. Kevin Attell, (Stanford: Stanford University, 2004) – explores difference between humans and animals, through an investigation of Heidegger.
  38. 38. ‘Open To, Open(ness), and the Open as Exposure and Appearance in the Presence of Dasein’ • The words that surround this concept are many: gap, space, unconcealed, plainly seen, in public notice or view, unenclosed, without cover, opportunity, without obfuscation, free from obstruction, access or passage, affording unrestricted access or entry, bare, exposed, revealed, vulnerable, not finished or completed, disclose, available, to spread out, expand, unfold. • the sense of open as the act of opening to • the quality of being in a state of openness • the open in which things may emerge (ground for world) Source: Cooksey (2005)
  39. 39. Open Source as a Philosophical Topic • Thinking the open in a deeply engaged way is pressing to the coming century as thinking liberty was to the eighteenth century in Europe and the Americas. Its common use in phrases ranging from “an open mind” to “being open to” is matched by professional and academic language such as “open systems,” “open societies,” “open development models,” and “open access” … [and] “open university” Source: http://opensourcephilosophy.org/index.php?title=Open_Source_Philosophy

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