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Apple Marketing Analysis

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Apple Marketing Analysis

  1. 1. Jorge Gonzalez Nathan Ong Merveille Kazimoto Kelsey Pearson Grant Richman Apple Case Midterm Introduction Apple Inc., a manufacturer and designer of hardware devices, software, online-services and third-party digital content, has seen incredible growth since its inception in 1976. The company acquired its reputation under the leadership of its founder and CEO, Steve Jobs, who had a revolutionary vision to create products known for quality, design, and most importantly, innovation. Jobs led the company through the release of a series of breakthrough products such as the Mac, iPod, iPhone, and the iPad, all of which were game-changers within their respective industries. Apple’s products were known for the simple, minimalistic design of their hardware and software, with a focus on a uniquely practical user interface. Apple began to gain significant momentum in the marketplace with the introduction of the highly successful iPod in 2001. By 2007-08, Apple had achieved a leading position in the market of digital music players, selling over 100 million iPods and netting over five billion downloads from its iTunes music store. The following year, Apple introduced the revolutionary iPhone. With its unique touch-based interface and ability to host an unlimited number of third-party apps, the iPhone fundamentally changed the mobile platform. It was wildly successful, immediately becoming Apple’s number-one revenue generator. Soon after, Apple released the “best browsing experience yet” in the iPad, a tablet based on the same multi-touch interface seen on the iPhone. However, with the passing of Steve Jobs in 2011 as well as growing competition from Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and notably Samsung (the new leader in market share for smartphones), Apple must find a way to sustain its competitive advantage. Financial Analysis Net Sales Analysis:  Apple’s revenue structure has shifted from 2008-2012. In 2008, revenues from Mac and iPod products were the highest at 38.29% and 24.41%, respectively.  By 2012, revenues from “iPhone and Services” and “iPad and Related Products” were the highest at 51.42 percent and 20.71 percent, respectively. At the same time revenues from Mac and iPod sales were at an all time low.  As the dominant product in Apple’s portfolio (generating the most revenue), sales of the iPhone have a major effect on the company’s net sales. o This segment would be considered a “Red Ocean,” with a high amount of competition within the segment and many substitute products available to consumers. Net Sales Analysis by Product between 2008 and 2012  Mac net sales increased by over 162%  iPod net sales decreased by 61.35%  iPhone net sales increased by 1,194%  iPad net sales skyrocketed within 2 years by 654%
  2. 2. Marketing Strategy Apple’s marketing strategy is built upon the company’s emphasis on innovation, minimalist design of hardware and software, and more recently, luxury and style. STP of Apple: Marketing Strategy/ USP Apple is positioned as a premium brand that demands a high price but provides customers with an easy-to-use, high-quality, and beautifully designed product. The company is targeting a less price-sensitive customer that is more concerned with owning the best product. Apple prides itself most of all in “changing the world” by creating the most innovative, game- changing products that were also thoughtfully designed and optimized for their intended functions. 5Cs of Apple: Customers: Apple’s products appeal to a variety of groups with different demographics. Overall, its products are catered toward middle/upper-class customers who are youthful, tech- savvy and have a higher willingness-to-pay for premium products. Apple devices such as the iPad are further being integrated into the business community due to their ubiquity and familiarity with workers, who are often consumers as well. The iPad’s unique app-based platform allows companies to develop their own apps that cater specifically to functions that they need performed. Competition: Samsung, Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Blackberry, and Nokia have attempted to take market share away from Apple: Dell—Hardware Google—Technology Microsoft – operating systems Samsung—mobile phones *in ranking order High Quality Low Quality High Price 1. Apple 2. Google 3. Blackberry 4. Microsoft 5. Samsung 1. Palm Low Price 1. Dell 2. HP 3. Nokia
  3. 3. Collaborators:  Microsoft- collaborated to make Microsoft Office application compatible with Apple Products  LG- LCD Panels for iPhones  Samsung- Chips used in the iPhone.  TSMC- DRAM & Flash Memory  Music Companies- Partnered with music label companies and artists to release and sell on iTunes  Foxconn- Competitive pricing is enabled by the low production costs from outsourcing to FoxConn in China. Company: Strengths -Leading innovator in the market -Leaders in research and development -Strong brand awareness, representation, and reputation -Strong customer loyalty -Excellent marketing and advertising strategies -Positioned in an accelerating growth market -California based company, an American product Weaknesses -High price for products compared to other top companies -Doesn’t work well with all other (non-Apple) additional applications -Many changes in management, clash of different CEOs and company cultural norms -Main supplier issues -Steve Jobs was the leading innovator for Apple Opportunities -Continued growth and market interest in the tablet and iPhone appliances -No restrictions in market innovation -Ability to target market segment’s desires for innovation - Expansion to more international countries Threats -Economic instabilities -Other companies are catching up to Apple’s innovations -The start-up of foreign companies that are coming out with lower market prices -Product differentiation is decreasing with the increase of new product releases by competitors -Increase of government restrictions Context: More so than at any time in the past several years, Apple has had to deal with competition that has begun to close the gap of differentiation that Apple had created through its products. Continuing legal action between Apple and competitors has the potential to cost the losing side a significant dollar loss. In the international market (particularly Asia), Apple deals with entrenched loyalty to local brands offering similar products. Additionally, tariffs make already-expensive Apple products even less viable to consumers in developing markets like Brazil. The existing Apple products have come to a near plateau in developed markets, so Apple must rely on continued innovation, new products, and new markets in order to continue expansion.
  4. 4. 4Ps of Apple: Products: Mix of innovative products: iPod, iPhone, iPad, and Mac. Apple also utilizes an operating system that can be used across all Apple products. Price: The high prices of its products and services reinforce the company’s premium brand image. Apple sets the price of each product in its respective industry. Place: Convenience of online-shopping at apple.com. Apple products can also be purchased at third-party retail stores and Apple stores. The shopping experience at Apple stores is differentiated with remarkable customer service, the Genius Bar for product troubleshooting, and hands-on display of the company’s entire product line. Promotion:  Products have generally sold themselves  Traditional advertisements (TV, print, billboards, iPod people)  Word-of-mouth  Cult of Apple: Loyal customers who buy all Apple products upon release  Keynotes: Press conferences and events where Apple announces/unveils new products, product redesigns and upgrades. Keynotes generate buzz over products, which gives Apple free advertising until the products’ official release dates. Key Takeaway: The key aspects of Apple’s marketing strategy consist of innovation, design, and excellent customer service. Apple has developed itself around the success of these key marketing strategies. In order to maintain this success, Apple needs to continue to invest in research and development so it could continue being the leading innovator in the market segments. Individual Product Branding/Launch Strategy iPod Launch Strategy Product Role: Silver Bullet Strategy: Create a revolutionary product in the form of an incredibly portable digital music player based on the MP3 music format with a simple user-interface. Target Segment: The target segment for the iPod was tech-savvy young people who prioritized listening to music on the go. The product also had a psychographic segment of individuals with a passion for music and style, and it made a statement of youthfulness with its edgy, compact design
  5. 5. Implementation: Apple used strong marketing and advertising strategies to promote the iPod. This involved creating the “iPod People” campaign to iconize the product. The release of the iTunes store in 2003 further complemented the iPod. iTunes was an easy way to download and own songs for only 99 cents. Performance: Within the first six years, over 100 million iPods were sold, with a profit margin as high as 47.4%. By 2010, there had been over 10 billion iTunes downloads. Takeaway: The iPod was a key innovation that single-handedly boosted Apple’s profit margin and turned its downward trajectory toward an upward trend of success. Furthermore, it was the precursor to other innovations such as the iPod Touch, iPhone and the iPad. iPhone Launch Strategy Product Role: Expanded Apple into the mobile phone market, revolutionized the concept of the smartphone. Strategy: Introduce a new product into the mobile phone market with revolutionary touch-based interface and app-based platform. Target Segment: The iPhone targets the younger population that ranges from 18-35 years of age who are image-conscious, social, tech-savvy, and educated. Many of these individuals primarily use their phones to socialize, for school, and for work. Implementation: To bring Apple’s new product into the cellular device market, the company partnered with AT&T. The new product, the iPhone, had a unique “touch-based interface and a revolutionary operating system” that delivered nearly all of a computer’s functions in a package that also housed a phone and an iPod. Performance: In 2010, with the release of the iPhone 4, Apple had captured 17.4% of the smartphone market, with an 82% sales growth since 2008. The iPhone is currently the number- one revenue generator for the company, responsible for over 50% of Apple’s revenues in 2014. Takeaway: The iPhone successfully dominated the smartphone market and revolutionized the expectations for future smartphone products for both Apple and its competitors. iPad Launch Strategy Product Role: Bridge gaps between iPhone and MacBook, Third category device Strategy: To bridge the gap between the iPhone and MacBook laptops by introducing a new product optimized to browse the web, read publications, utilize apps, and watch videos. Target Segment: While still maintaining functional appeal to all Apple customers, the iPad helped open up Apple’s target segments to include education and entertainment for young children, college students, and companies.
  6. 6. Implementation: The iPad introduced a new browsing experience of the web. Unlike the iPhone, the entire web page could be viewed via a high-quality 9.7-inch screen. Unlike the Mac computer, the functions are performed via the multi-touch functionality first introduced on the iPhone. Performance: Prices for the iPad ranged from $499 to $829, which were lower than consumer expectations. However, there was a fear that the iPad would cannibalize the market for other Apple products, including the iPhone, iPod, and Mac notebooks, by around 10 percent. Takeaway: Apple had a monopoly until products from other companies emerged. However, Apple had a patent competitive advantage, by establishing itself as the first truly major player in the tablet market. iPad Launch Strategy vs. iPod/iPhone Launch Strategy Unlike the iPod and iPhone, which held clear roles within the Apple product portfolio, the iPad entered the market in an awkward position between the iPhone and MacBook laptops. Consumers automatically questioned the need for such a niche product. Steve Jobs needed to convince customers that not only did they need the iPhone and a Mac, but also the iPad. The iPod and iPhone already held very practical uses that the consumers could derive themselves, but the need for the iPad needed to be explained, which is why Jobs constantly mentioned in his keynotes that the iPad was a better browsing platform out of the three devices. Furthermore, Jobs promoted the launch of exclusive iPad-only apps that would showcase its usability in different fields. Timeline of Product Roles from 2001-2010 2001-2003 The iPod helped Apple revolutionize its future products and create a competitive edge in the market place. With the introduction if the iPod came a wave of new costumers who weren’t already Apple Mac owners. The iPod capitalized even more of the music device product market when the iTunes store was introduced in 2003. Lastly, the iPod turned Apple into a recognizable brand, and ended up creating a high-level of brand loyalty. iPod • High relative market share • High growth rate Mac • Low relative market share • Low growth rate
  7. 7. 2007 The introduction of the iPhone increased Apple’s popularity. After the iPhone release, iPod sales dropped because the iPhone was a single device that served all of a customer’s needs, and absorbed every function that the iPod already performed. Because of this, the iPhone ended up taking away from iPod sales. In fact, the iPod showed a steep decline from a peak of 55 million units worldwide in 2008 to only 14 million units sold in 2014. That same year, Apple sold more than 10 times as many iPhones. 2010 In 2010, the iPad was introduced as Apple’s next game-changing product. The iPad introduced a new market, a “third device” for Apple consumers to own in addition to their iPhones and MacBooks. Apple convinced consumers that they need the iPad because “it offered the best browsing experience,” better than the iPhone and more portable than a laptop. The iPad was wildly successful, occupying 68% of the tablet computer market. Key Takeaway: Market segments are not stagnant, and they change with the varied changes in customer needs and desires. Not only do customer preferences change, but also there are drastic changes and iPhone • High relative market share • High growth rate iPod • Medium relative market share • High growth rate Macs • Medium relative market share • Medium growth rate iPhone • High relative market share • High growth rate iPad • High relative market share • High growth rate Macs • Medium relative market share • Medium growth rate iPod • Low relative market share • Low growth rate
  8. 8. advances in technology that Apple has to keep up with. Because of these variations and changes, it is inevitable that there would be preference changes with Apple products as well. Apple Watch Consumer Market Analysis Segmentation: Apple focused on the young to medium age-range (16-40 years old) in its segmentation for the Apple Watch. With a price ranging from $499 to $17,000, Apple is also aiming for a medium to high-income consumer demographic. Targeting: The typical profile for an Apple Watch owner is a tech-savvy, health-conscious, and stylish individual, particularly one with an existing suite of Apple products at home. In fact, the Apple Watch was designed to work in conjunction with the iPhone. Positioning:  Analyzing the competitors: The category of uber smart watches is fairly new, with electronic companies launching devices in 2014 and many of which catering to work with Android software. Taking the perceptual map of competitors in the market and their market analysis as seen above, it can be seen that companies like Motorola and LG have a fairly strong hold on consumers’ minds due to their vast extent of features and aesthetic looks that resemble a normal watch. However the extent of simplicity of use and accessibility of vast Apple accessories and design places it slightly above the scale in the segment. The greatest advantage of the Apple Watch is the wide range of options for personalization, as well as its seamless integration with other Apple products. However, the significant difference in price range between the Apple Watch and its competitors may not compel customers to buy it.
  9. 9. 4Ps of the Apple Watch Product Price Promotion Place - strong integration with a healthy lifestyle by keeping track of the user’s progress, monitoring their fitness, and providing goals (Apple, 2015) - watch comes in three collections and features two case sizes - vast variety of straps - $499 to $17000 - cutting edge, high quality, and high value product - international scale by Tim Cook - uses social media - detailed video on Youtube shows specification of the watch - internet advertising - word of mouth to appeal to the younger market - embracing individuality - Apple store - general retailers - online market Apple Pay Apple Pay is a mobile payment and digital wallet service by Apple that allows users to make payments using the iPhone 6, iPhone 6 Plus, Apple Watch-compatible devices (iPhone 5 and later models), iPad Air 2, and iPad Mini 3. Apple Pay becomes another brand that consumers will think of when they purchase, similar to a PayPal experience today. While the consumer has to indicate which account he/she is using to buy, the overriding wallet account is always Apple Pay. This allows Apple to accrue customer loyalty and grow their perceptions of security protection. Different banks and credit cards offered promotions to entice users to the “cool factor” of Apple Pay. Wells Fargo, for example, offered $10 to its debit card customers and $20 to its credit card customers who made a purchase with Apple Pay up until January 1, 2015. Visa offered a promotion to its clients for sharing their first Apple Pay purchase on Twitter, Facebook, or Instagram, which entered them into daily contest for a $500 Visa gift card. MasterCard teamed up with Gwen Stefani to promote Apple Pay, providing customers with rewards like private performances and unique experiences. Chase offered a limited time incentive to entice its users to sign up for Apple Pay, providing a free David Guetta album to users who added a Chase Visa card to Apple Pay between certain dates. Though in its early days, Apple Pay has already started facing competition in the mobile payments industry, particularly the Merchant Customer Exchange (MCX) which is forging a competing system known as CurrentC. Several members of CurrentC, big names such as Best Buy and Walmart, have initially rejected Apple Pay as a result of exclusivity deals. CVS Pharmacy and Rite-Aid subsequently disabled all NFC payment systems in favor of CurrentC as well. In addition to this, getting retailers equipped to actually accept Apple Pay transactions is another major challenge that Apple has to deal with.
  10. 10. Leadership Jobs’ vs. Sculley’s Strategies Jobs’ Strategies Strategy: Steve Jobs was obsessed with producing high-quality products and revolutionary design. In creating his products, Jobs emphasized technical elegance, industrial design and “ease of use; user-friendly” functionality. Jobs hired British designer Jonathan Ive, who became the head of Apple’s in-house Industrial Design group and was chiefly responsible for the beautiful design of the company’s products. Jobs vocally and ideologically opposed the group- think mentality, once saying that “it’s better to be a pirate than join the navy.” Steve Jobs’ mentality established a company culture among employees focused on “changing the world.” Furthermore, Jobs focused on pushing the company to innovate, also famously saying that “innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower.” His strong drive towards innovation is what has ultimately differentiated Apple most from its competitors. Along with an emphasis on innovation, Jobs further restructured Apple by outsourcing manufacturing to Taiwan and scaling down the distribution system by ending relationships with smaller outlets. He increased direct Apple sales by launching a new website to increase direct sales of Apple products and creating unique retail stores, as well as a build-to-order manufacturing strategy. Rationale: Jobs was focused on differentiating Apple by emphasizing design and user-interface. He began with designing the Macintosh to be the best personal computer, something that was easy to use and appealed to the everyday consumer. The theme of ease-of-use for the everyday consumer continued on with the iPod, iPhone, and iPad. Jobs wanted to eradicate any trace of groupthink because he felt that it was counterproductive to the company’s drive to innovate and “think different.” Results: Under Jobs’ leadership, several revolutionary products were brought to market:  The iPod/iTunes revolutionized how people listened to and purchased music  The iPhone basically created the mobile platform (apps etc.) and invented the idea of the smartphone.  The iPad revolutionized how people browsed the web Because of Jobs’ emphasis on creativity and innovation, not only did Apple actually innovate more than any of its competitors, but it also spent the least on R&D (2.24% of revenues in 2011, which equals $2.4 billion) in comparison to its competitors (Microsoft: 12.93% of 2011 revenues, totaling $9.0 billion) (Google: 13.62% of revenues totaling $5.1 billion). Apple became the most valuable public company of all time, reaching a peak market cap of $700 billion in February 2015. Sculley’s Strategies Strategy: Sculley redesigned Apple’s business strategy under Jobs by attempting to reduce costs. Products were no longer high-priced because Sculley transitioned Apple into producing a low-cost product with a mass-market appeal in order to directly compete with IBM.
  11. 11. Rationale: Sculley believed that high cost of products prevented future growth for a company. Lower prices would open up a new target segment that was more price-sensitive but still wanted to experience Apple’s innovations and style. In other words, Sculley rationalized that affordability was more important to customers. Results: Sculley’s strategy was a blatant failure that resulted in “dismal sales and declining net income.” The brand image and mystique of Apple had nearly disappeared. With the face/brains, of Apple gone, Microsoft leapt ahead with its GUI based operating system. Is Apple the same without Jobs? Apple will never be the same without Steve Jobs, its chief visionary and innovator. Jobs was a leader and personality that defined Apple’s culture of innovation and “thinking differently,” one who had the vision to create products that would change the world. Ultimately, this is what would set Apple apart from its competitors, which began competing with Apple by creating their own versions of Apple’s revolutionary products. Under the leadership of Tim Cook, the company’s new CEO, Apple has seen continued success, and in the eyes of consumers, it still has the same mystical, revolutionary brand image that Jobs had left behind. The question of whether Apple will still be able to be revolutionary, however, is a difficult one to answer. In the years since Jobs’ passing, Apple has continued to grow in both sales and profitability, becoming the highest-valued company on Earth and reaching revenues that it had never seen before. Much of this continued success can be attributed to Jobs’ pride and joy, the iPhone. The legacy that Jobs left behind in the form of the revolutionary products that he spearheaded will continue to maintain Apple’s financial success in the near future. Furthermore, Apple still has Jony Ive, the company’s Chief Design Officer. Ive has been responsible for much of the beautiful design of Apple’s products, a key focus in Apple’s product strategy. As long as Ive remains with Apple, beautiful design will continue to be a major aspect of the company’s USP. For this reason, we would still buy Apple stock right now, betting on the continued growth of the company’s already-successful product portfolio. Future Plans for Apple Future Business Options for Apple Management Strategy Problem/Question:  How show Apple respond to the constant pressure of advancing competitors?  Where is Apple’s future growth going to come from? Mission:  Apple’s main mission is to maintain a competitive edge in the market. Objective:  Apple’s goal is to improve the positioning of its computer and cellular devices, become the leading competitive brand for those devices, and continue to be the leading brand for music devices Company Problems/Issues:  The market segment that Apple is competing in is growing exponentially, so Apple must be sure to keep up with the changing technology market
  12. 12.  There has been an increase in the number of competitors, and these competitors have closed the distance between their products and Apple’s  There is a tandem management and perception issue associated with the loss of Steve Jobs as a visionary and as a figurehead Business Strategy Options Option One: Pause  Stop and take time to reposition management without the need for Steve Jobs’ leadership and power ideas Pros Cons  Encourages Apple employees to innovate which will help break Apple’s “reliance” on Jobs for the “next big thing”  Will show that Apple is more than just Jobs, and that Apple can still be a leading competitive company without his help  Removes the “Steve Jobs” iconology of the Apple brand, Apple relies heavily on its unique brand position  Does little to address current threats posed by rising competitors Option Two: Product Expansion “Up,” not “Out”  Increase vertical growth of innovation instead of expanding outward and stretching its resources too thin  Instead of creating more innovations and products, Apple could focus on upgrading their pre-existing systems.  “Refurbishing” older products  Building innovation based on already-existing products  Instead of tailoring the products for personal/individual use, Apple could expand to help businesses, organizations, or educational uses (Similar to Google and Microsoft)  Outsource more services Pros Cons  Will lower the costs of research and development  Will have better and faster operating systems within current product lines  Breaks up some responsibilities like marketing development  Loses the “innovation” of new products, USP  Loses brand positioning  Doesn’t follow Steve Jobs’ revolutionary image of the company  Breaks one of the core value ideas by keeping sources internal  Focuses predominantly on market maintenance and turns away from growth, a purely defensive strategy
  13. 13. Option Three: Innovation  Diversification growth strategy  Continue finding the “next big thing”  Continue to make revolutionary improvements to current product lines.  Capitalized on Apple’s strength of innovation and diversify into other markets Pros Cons  Apple does the best (in terms of profit) when it comes out with new products and continues to innovate  Continue being known as a leading innovator  Already have strong brand representation  Ride off customer loyalty  Continue using companies strong R&D and marketing skills  Will have possible long term benefits  High research and development costs  High marketing costs  Risk of failure would have a greater impact on company image  Greater frequency of failure Recommended Strategy The recommended strategy for Apple to take in order to maintain its growth in the future is to continue to focus on innovation. There exists an assumption among many consumers that Apple’s ability to innovate died with Steve Jobs. It is imperative for Apple to disprove this assumption and maintain its brand image as a company that, more than anything, innovates and creates revolutionary products. Innovation has defined Apple through the years and has been the main differentiating function for the company. In order for Apple to continue to “wow” consumers with game-changing products, the company must take advantage of its immense amount of assets and continue to invest in R&D, and, most importantly, in new thinkers who could take the company in new directions. Is Apple’s advantage in the iPhone and iPad categories sustainable in the near future? Apple’s advantages in the iPhone and iPad categories are very sustainable in the near future. Apple essentially had the first-mover advantage when bringing both of these products to market; before the iPhone and iPad, there were no remotely comparable smartphones or tablets. Both were revolutionary products that defined their respective segments and have a very loyal customer base (the “Cult of Apple”), especially the iPhone. Importantly, Apple has a consistent, uniform multi-touch user interface and operating system that is seen in both the iPhone and iPad. Customers who are familiar with this interface (many of whom have been using Apple’s mobile operating system through several generations of Apple products) will be more inclined to stick with it, rather than making the big switch to Android, for example. Furthermore, Apple also designed a very seamless integration of different functions across devices. It is easier to have a “family” of Apple products that communicate with each other. For
  14. 14. example, the same documents, photos, and music could be easily accessed from any device through iCloud. In a sense, Apple has created a structure of interdependency between its devices, locking customers in. According to USA Today households that own an Apple product own an average of three. Overall, there are 1.6 Apple devices per household. Since 2007, iPhone sales have seen a strong rise, from 1.4 million units sold globally in 2007 to nearly 170 million units worldwide in 2014. The first and second quarters of 2015 have already seen sales of 135 million units worldwide. (See exhibit below) The upward trend of sales shows that 2015 might see the highest iPhone unit sales to date.The iPhone’s market share in the urban Chinese market has seen a significant spike from November 2014’s 18.1% to 27.6% in February 2015, thanks in part to growth in China Mobile’s 4G network. The iPhone’s proven success in China is notable because China is a growing, large-volume market. Beyond individual consumers, Apple is cementing the iPad’s foothold in the corporate community

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