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Animal husbandry

  1. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY (Improvement of food resources) Meeta Masand Goklani
  2. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY  The branch of agriculture which deals with the feeding, shelter, health and breeding of domestic animals is called animal husbandry.  Husbandry word means - the care, cultivation, and breeding of animals.
  3. Various practices necessary for raising animals for food are :-  Proper feeding of animal  Proper shelter for animals  Prevention and cure of animal diseases.  Proper breeding of animals  Proper economic utilisation
  4. NEED FOR ANIMAL HUSBANDRY  To increase milk production  To increase egg production  To increase meat production  To increase fish production  For proper utilisation of animal wastes (biogas and manure)
  5. Indian cattle  Cow (Bos Indicus)  Buffalo (Bos bubalis)
  6. Cattle Farming  Raising of cattle for yield of milk by females and draught labour connected with agriculture like tilling, irrigation and carting by males.  Females- Milch Animals  Males- Draught animals
  7. Milch Breeds  Cows of these breeds are high milk yielders and  Bullocks are poor for draught purposes.  Some good milk giving indigenous breeds are:  Gir  Sahiwal  Red Sindhi
  8. Draught Breeds •Nageri •Malvi •Hallikar
  9. Dual purpose breeds/ General Utility Breeds  This breed of cattle are meant for both milk yield and draught works.  The cows are fairly good milkers and the bullocks are sturdy and are useful in draught works like ploughing the field, transport, cart pulling etc.  Important examples are Haryana and Ongole.
  10. Hariana
  11. Ongole
  12. Tharparkar
  13. Breeds of Buffalo
  14. Buffalo milk is superior to Cow’s milk
  15. Breeding of Cattle  Breeding of animals means controlled reproduction to obtain animals with desired characteristics like high yield milk as well as long lactation period of exotic breed, and on the other hand high disease resistance as well as acclimatization of local breeds.  Lactation period : is the period during which dairy (milch) animals produce milk, this is between birth of a youngone and the next pregnancy. Milk production depends, to some extent, on the duration of lactation period.
  16. Farm Management practices Grooming of Cattle Shelter of cattle Feeding of Cattle Health Care of cattle
  17. Grooming (i) Regular brushing of animals to remove dirt and loose hair. (ii) External parasites are removed. (iii) Washing of animals.
  18. Shelter  A good animal shelter not only increases the production of milk but also improves the health of animals as well. A good animal shelter should have the following characteristics :  (i) It should protect animal from heat, cold and rain.  (ii) It should be clean, dry airy and well ventilated.  (iii) It should be spacious so as to provide enough space for each animal to stay comfortably.  (iv) It should have a sloping floor for the hygienic disposal of animal excreta.
  19. Shelter of Cattle
  20. Feeding  The food is given to animals is called 'feed'.  The food requirements is of two types :  (A) Maintenance requirements which support the basic functions of life.  (B) Milk-Producing requirements which increase the milk-yield.
  21. FEED FOR DAIRY ANIMALS  Feed constitutes two main components :  (i) Roughage : It contain large amount of fibre which has low nutrient contents. It includes hay fibre silage, fodder and legumes like barseem, lucrene and cowpea.  (ii) Concentrate : It is a mixture of cereals like maize, oat, barley, jowar broken grams, rice polish, cotton seeds, gram bran, molasses and oilseed cake moistened in water. These are rich in proteins, highly palatable and easily digestible.
  22. Ration  The dairy animals require a balanced ration.  A ration is the amount of food, which is given to the animals during a day (24 - hour period).  Daily average feed of a cow  Roughage-15 to 20 Kg  Concentrate- 4 to 5 Kg  Water- 30 -35 litres
  23. Food Additives  Dairy animals also require minerals, vitamins and antibiotics. These are commonly called feed additives.  Protect the animal from disease.  Enhance milk yield.  Promote the growth of the animals.
  24. White Revolution  Dr. V. Kurien is the founder chairman of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), Gujarat in 1965 and started "Operation Flood" which was the world's largest dairy development programme in 1970, to provide milk to one and all.  Dr. Kurien is called the "Architect of India's Modern Dairy Industry" means huge increase in milk production by using improved high milk-yielding crossbreeds of milch animals. Also known as Father of White Revolution in India.
  25. Various Revolutions  White revolution :- Related to increase milk production.  Silver Revolution :- Related to increase egg production.  Blue Revolution :- Related to increase fish production.
  26. BREED  Breed is a group of animals within a species which have a common origin and possess some distinguishing characteristics that do not occur in other members of the species.  Breeds can be of three types:-  i) Indigenous breeds (Local or desi)  ii) exotic (Foreign)  iii) Hybrid (OFFSPRING OF CROSS BETWEEN INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC BREEDS )
  27. Characteristics studied for cross breeding  Lactation period  Reproductive period  Nutritional requirement  Tolerance to climatic conditions  Resistance to diseases  Health  Yield  Nature  Habits
  28. Cross Breeding Exotic or foreign Breed  High milk Yield  Long Lactation period Local or Indigenous breed  Disease resistance  Acclimatisation of local breed or tolerance of temperature
  29. MILCH COWS Exotic (Foreign) breeds  1. Holstein-Friesian from Holland  2. Jersey from USA  3. Ayrshire from Scotland  4. Brown-Swiss from Switzerland  5. Red Dane from Denmark
  30. Breeding  Cattle breeders select and mate best type of cattle for a particular purpose.  The breeding of cattle is done by two methods  (A) Natural Breeding  (B) Artificial Breeding
  31. Natural Breeding  (i) Random Breeding : Here some pedigree bulls are kept along with grazing cows.  (ii) Controlled Breeding : Breeding of native cows are crossed with supeior quality of imported bulls. Hybrid cows yield more milk and hybrid oxen are comparatively more active and energetic.  Some improved hybrids are Karanfries, Frieswal, KaranSwiss.
  32. Cross-breeds Cows  Karan-Swiss (Brown-Swiss × Sahiwal)  Karan-Fries (Holstein-Friesian × Tharparkar)  Friesian Sahiwal (Frieswal) (Holstein-Friesian × Sahiwal)
  33. Artificial Breeding : (Artificial insemination)  The introduction of semen (sperm) of a good breed male animal in the body (vagina) of a healthy female animal by artificial means is called artificial insemination.  Veterinary Research Institute of India (IVRI), Izatnagar(U.P.) is the important artificial insemination centre out of 6000 centres across the country.  The first experiment of artificial insemination was performed by Spallanzani in 1780 to obtain hybrid pups.
  34. Artificial Insemination
  35. Superovulation  Technique where a cow is made to ovulate more ova by injecting reproductive hormones.  Usually a cow releases only one ova in one estrous cycle but by injecting reproductive hormones the cow is made to release more ova’s.
  36. Stilbesterol  Sterile and immature cows can be induced to lactate through Stilbesterol.
  37. Embryo Transplantation  Developing embryo from superior breed is removed and transplated into another female (Surrogate mother) for further development. By this method both quality and production in the live stock can be improved.
  38. Cattle Diseases  A healthy animal can be recognised by its regular feeding, normal posture, a definite body temperature normal pulse rate and normal respiration rate.  The diseases adversely affect the milk production and may even cause death.
  39. Diseases caused by Parasites  External or internal parasites.  External parasites live on the skin and cause many skin diseases.  Internal Parasites like worms live within the body and may affect stomach and intestine.  Liver-fluke may affect the lives.
  40. Communicable diseases  They spread from diseased animals to healthy animals and even transmitted to human beings. Some common diseases of cattle are:  Foot and mouth disease  Anthrax  Rinderpest  Cow Pox  Salmonellosis
  41. Foot and mouth disease  is an infectious viral disease.  virus causes a high fever for approximately two to six days,  blisters inside the mouth and on the feet.  Excessive salivation, reduced appetite, soreness of mouth.  Limbs become shaky.  Most common disease of cattle.
  42. Anthrax  Caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.  Afflicts cattle, sheep, goat and pig.  Contagious and fatal  Animal shows swellings (pustules) on neck and different body parts.
  43. Rinderpest (Cattle plague)  Viral Disease.  Lesions in the mouth, high fever, excessive salivation, reddening of eyes and loss of appetite.  There is arching of back.  Initial constipation is followed by blood stained diarrhoea.
  44. Other diseases of cattle  Cow Pox - Caused by virus, characterised by appearance of small nodules and fever.  Salmonellosis – caused by bacteria.
  45. Prevention of diseases  (1) The animal-shelters should be spacious, airy and properly lighted.  (2) The animal-shelter should be cleaned regularly.  (3) Nutritive feed and fresh water should be provided.  (4) The animals should be compulsorily vaccinated to immunize them against infectious diseases.
  46. Poultry Farming
  47. POULTRY FARMING  Poultry is the branch of animal husbandry concerned with rearing of birds for eggs and meat.  It includes chickens (fowls), ducks, geese turkeys, guinea-fowls, peafowls, pigeons and quails.  The egg laying poultry bird is called egger or layer,  while the one reared for obtaining meat is called chicken or broiler.  India is the 5th largest country in the world of poultry prodution after China, Russia, USA and Japan.  Indian state with maximum broiler and egg production is Andhra Pradesh.
  48.  The cross-breeding programmes between Indian (e.g. Aseel) and exotic (e.g. Leghorn) breeds for variety improvement are focused on to develop new varieties for the following desirable traits :-  (i) number and quality of chicks.  (ii) dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production  (iii) summer adaption capacity or tolerance to high temperature  (iv) low maintenance requirements  (v) reduction in the size of the egg-laying bird with ability to utilise more fibrous cheaper diets formulated using agricultural by products.
  49. CROSS BREEDING - Hybridization between an Indian breed like Aseel and a foreign breed like Leghorn has been done to bring about desirable traits in the improved variety. INDIAN ASEEL EXOTIC LEGHORN
  50. Poultry Breeds :-  Indigenous breeds Exotic breeds Cross breeds  Aseel or Indian game White Leghorn IBL - 80  Ghagus Rhode Island Red B-77  Bursa Light Sussex HH-260  Brahma Black Minorcha  Cochin Plymouth Rock  Chittagong Anstralorp
  51.  Differences between layers and broilers  Layers Broilers  1. Layers are egg laying birds. 1. They are maintained for getting maintained for getting eggs. meat.  2. They start producing eggs at the age 2. They are raised upto 6-7 weeks in of 20 weeks poultry farms and then sent to market for sale.  3. They need feed rich in vitamins, 3. They require feed rich in proteins, fats minerals and micronutrients and vitamin A and K  4. They required enough space and adequate 4. They require conditions to grow fast with lighting for proper growth low mortality
  52. LAYERS BROILERS Layers are egg laying birds. Layers are females They are maintained for getting maintained for getting meat. Some broilers are male and some are female. Layer should be able to produce more number of large sized eggs, without growing too much. Broiler should yield more meat and hence should be able to grow well. Layers consume less feed. They need feed rich in vitamins Broilers consume more feed. . They require feed rich in proteins, fats minerals and micronutrients and vitamin A and K Layers grow slower. Broilers grows faster.
  53. Egg and Broiler Production  There are two basic targets of poultry farming :-  (i) obtaining more and more eggs,  (ii) getting flesh  Broiler chickens are feed with vitamin-rich supplementary feed for good growth rate and better feed efficiency.  The housing, nutritional and environmental requirements of broilers are somewhat different from those of egg layers.  The ration for broilers is protein rich with adequate fat. The level of vitamin A and K is kept high in the poultry feeds.  Vegetarian eggs are infertile eggs, produce by without presence of cock.
  54. Poultry care (management practices) :-  For good production of poultry birds  Maintenance of temperature and hygienic conditions in poultry housings  Poultry feeds  Prevention and control of diseases and pests.
  55. Diseases of poultry (chickens)  Viral diseases - Ranikhet, Fowpox, Dermatities, Bird Flu.  Bacterial diseases - Fowl cholera, Fowl typhoid  Fungal diseases - Mycotic, candidiasis, Aspergillosis.
  56. Prevention of Poultry disease
  57. Control of diseases :  (1) Vaccination  (2) Proper cleaning sanitation and spraying of disinfectants at regular intervals.  The Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Uttaranchal prepares vaccine against Ranikhet disease.
  58. Fish Production (PISCICULTURE)  The rearing and breeding of fish scientifically by man in ponds, lacks is, known as pisciculture/fish farming/fishery.  Fish and other sea-foods are the source of animal protein and are consumed by a large section of our population.  Fish liver oil is particularly rich in vitamin-A and vitamin-D.
  59.  Total fish production in India - 7th rank is world  Marine fish production in India - 10th rank in world  Aquaculture production in India - 2nd rank is South-East Asian countries.
  60. Types of fish-farming  (A) On the basis of nature of source of fishes :  (i) Capture fisheries  (ii) Culture fisheries  (B) On the basis of nature of water sources :  (i) Marine fisheries  (ii) Inland fisheries  (C) On the basis type of fishes :  (i) Fin fisheries  (ii) Shell fisheries
  61. Capture fisheries  Fish is caught directly from their natural resources
  62. Culture fisheries  Fish is cultivated in artificial water bodies called breeding ponds.
  63. Culture Fisheries
  64. On the basis of nature of water sources : (i) Marine fisheries - Fish production in marine (sea) water. (ii) Inland fisheries - Fish production in fresh water system and brackish waters like estuaries and lagoons (where sea water gets mixed with fresh water).
  65. On the basis type of fishes :  (i) Fin fisheries - includes capturing and management of true fishes.  (ii) Shell fisheries - includes capturing and management of crustaceans (prawns, crabs) molluscs (oysters, mussels) and seaweeds.  Oysters are also cultivated for the pearls they make, like mullets, bhetki and pearl spots.
  66. Mariculture Culture of marine fishes, shell fishes and sea weeds. As marine fish stocks are getting deplected, the demand for more fish can only be met by mariculture.
  67. Marine Fisheries  India's marine fishery resources include 7500 km of coastline and the deep seas beyond it.  Marine fishes such as pomphret, mackerel, tuna, sardines, Bombay duck, hilsa, salmon, Eel.  These are caught by various methods :-  (i) Fishing nets (ii) Fishing boats (iii) Echo- Sounders (iv) Use of Satellites
  68. Inland Fisheries :  It includes fisheries in canals, ponds, reservoirs and rivers and brackish water.  Main fresh water fish culture systems are :-  (i) Composite fish culture or polyculture  (ii) Paddy-cum-fish culture
  69. Composite fish culture  In this culture, a combination of five or six species is used, in a single fishpond  These fishes have different food habits and do not compete with each other for food.  These fishes utilize food available in different parts of ponds.  e.g. Catla is a surface feeder, Rohu feeds in the middle (column feeder),  Mrigal and Common Carp feed at the bottom and Grass Carp and silver carp feed on aquatic plants in the pond.
  71.  On problem with such composite fish culture is that many of these fish breed only during monsoon. Other major problem in fish farming is the lack of availability of good quality seeds.  To overcome this problem, these fishes are bred in different ponds using hormonal stimulation.  This has ensured the supply of fish seed in desired quantities.
  72. Varieties of fishes  Indigenous fresh water fishes  e.g. Catla, Rohu, Mrigal  Exotic fresh water fishes  e.g. Silver Carp, Common Carp, Grass Carp  Marine fishes  e.g. Bombay duck, Pomphret
  73. BEE- KEEPING (APICULTURE)  Apiculture is the process of rearing of honey bees in the artificial hives, for the production of honey at commercial level.  Speices of Honey Bees :  (a) Indigenous species :  (i) Apis dorsata - Rock bee or Giant bee  (ii) Apis indica - Indian bee  (iii) Apis florae - Little bee  (b) Exotic species  (i) Apis mellifera - Italian bee
  74. Honey bee colony and social organization  Honey bees are social and polymorphic insects.  Their living place is called beehive or hive which has small compartments-combs.  In a colony, there are three types of bees which are structurally and functionally different from one another, so polymorphism is associated with division of labour. These types are :-  1. Queen  2. Drones  3. Workers
  76. Importance of apiculture  (a) Products of honey bees :  (i) Honey :  - It is produced by the worker from collected nectar.  - It is formed of laevulose, dextrose, maltose, minerals (rich in iron and calcium), enzymes.  - It has medical importance, used against disorders of digestion, dysentry, vomiting and stomach and liver problems. Also used as antiseptic.  (ii) Bee wax - used is cosmetics, paints, ointments.  (iii) Bee venom - used to cure gout and arthritis.  (iv) Royal jelly - used as tonic to heart patients  (b) Honey bees are chief cross-pollinating agents.  (c) It provides additional income generating activity to the farmers.
  77. Pasturage  Quality of honey depends on the plants (flora) available for the collection of nectar and pollen.  Common flora are - Mango, Coconut, Almond, Tamarind, apple, Litchi, cotton, Shisham. Mahua, Coriander berseem.  Apiary or Bee hive :  - An artificial and movable bee hive, called apiary.  Swarming : Is the mass emigration of the bees of a bee hive to settle down elsewhere in order to form a new hive.
  78. Sericulture  Is the rearing of silk worms for the production of raw silk.  Silk worm - Bombyx mori