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Remedy Publications LLC.
American Journal of Pharmacology
2018 | Volume 1 | Issue 1 | Article 10081
Prescribing Practice of Antibiotics for Outpatients in
Bangladesh: Rationality Analysis
OPEN ACCESS
*Correspondence:
Abu Syed Md Mosaddek, Department of
Pharmacology, Uttara Adhunik Medical
College, Dhaka, Bangladesh,
E-mail: Drmosaddek25@gmail.com
Received Date: 02 Aug 2018
Accepted Date: 08 Oct 2018
Published Date: 10 Oct 2018
Citation:
Laizu J, Parvin R, Sultana N, Ahmed
M, Sharmin R, Sharmin ZR, et al.
Prescribing Practice of Antibiotics for
Outpatients in Bangladesh: Rationality
Analysis. Am J Pharmacol. 2018; 1(1):
1008.
Copyright © 2018 Abu Syed Md
Mosaddek. This is an open access
article distributed under the Creative
Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution,
and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly
cited.
Research Article
Published: 10 Oct, 2018
Abstract
Background: Antibiotic prescribing practice by physicians has abruptly increased globally due to
increase in antibiotic usage and prevalence of drug resistances. Rational prescribing is mandatory
to reduce drug resistance. Rationality analysis of prescribing drugs can help to point towards
irrationality and can make a consensus among physicians for rational prescribing.
Objectives: The aim is to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic prescribing based on rationality, their
usages in various disease conditions among different level of private practitioners in Dhaka city.
Methods: This observational study was carried out with a self-designed standard questionnaire by
manual data collection over a 24 months period (01.01.2016 to 31.12.2017).The data were collected
from the patient’s prescription and directly interviewing the patients who were prescribed at least one
antibiotic during the study period. WHO/INRUD prescribing indicators were used and descriptive
statistics were applied to the collected data and analyzed using Microsoft Excel software.
Results: A total of 2,000 prescriptions were analyzed during the study period. Extreme aged patients
were prescribed more antibiotics. Commonly prescribed antibiotic groups were cephalosporin
(36.00%), macrolides (25.50%), quinolones (21.00%), penicillins (7.50%), and metronidazole
(10.00%). 55.25% prescriptions had complete information on dosage form, 65% had complete
direction for antibiotics use and 66.5% patients were completed full course of antibiotics. Although
81% prescriptions have no clinical test for using antibiotics, even though the percentages of patients
disease recovery were 66% and incompliance were 34%.
Conclusion: The study pointed a need for national guidelines for the treatment of common diseases
to maintain rationality in prescribing antimicrobial agents and a large surveillance on antimicrobial
prescribing appropriateness is warranted.
Keywords: Antimicrobial prescribing; Rationality; Surveillance
Introduction
Antibiotics are most extensively used drugs. Wide ranges of antibiotics are available to treat
various types of infections. The choice of antibiotics is available to treat various types of infections
[1]. Antibiotics have effectively prolonged the life expectancy and are currently the most commonly
prescribed drugs in hospitals, worldwide [2]. But excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics
renders increased drug resistance [3-5]. The rational use of antibiotics is a major health need.
Almost half of all antibiotics prescribed were found to be inappropriate based upon clinical and
financial criteria. Inappropriate use involves both over use and under use, which may be responsible
in part for raising global incidence of microbial resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics.
In a developing country like Bangladesh, the cost of health care is a key cause for concern. The
practitioners should be made aware of the importance of combination therapy in the treatment of
certain infections. So the chance of resistance development can be ameliorated to the most possible
extent. Many studies have implicated that the antibiotics are among the major group of drugs, which
cause Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) [6]. Many doctors in Bangladesh are prescribing antibiotics
irrationally without taking consideration the clinical test in most cases. Subsequently the patients
Jahanara Laizu1
, Roksana Parvin2
, Nasrin Sultana3
, Matia Ahmed4
, Rayhana Sharmin1
, Zinat
Rehana Sharmin1
and Abu Syed Md Mosaddek1
*
1
Department of Pharmacology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Bangladesh
2
Department of Pharmacology, Medical College for women and hospital, Bangladesh
3
Department of Community Medicine, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Medical College, Bangladesh
4­
Department of Physiology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Bangladesh
Abu Syed Md Mosaddek, et al., American Journal of Pharmacology
Remedy Publications LLC. 2018 | Volume 1 | Issue 1 | Article 10082
are not completing the complete dosage regimen of antibiotics, if
it is given in cold and general fever or even in other complicated
infectious diseases.
The study of prescribing pattern of antibiotics infers to monitor,
evaluate, and suggest modifications in the practitioner's prescription
habits, so as to make patient care reasonable and effective [7]. The
knowledge about antibiotic utilization patterns is necessary for a
constructive approach to problems that arise from multiple antibiotic
usages. It is extremely important that institutions and hospitals
should have an antibiotic policy and ensure that the best choices are
made by individual prescribers [8].
The aim of this study is to analyze and justify whether antibiotics
are being prescribed rationally or irrationally for outpatients as
well as to indicate the prevalence of most prescribed antibiotics in
Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods
The observational study was carried out in the department of
pharmacology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College (UAMC) during the
period January 2016 to December 2017. Fifty medical students (4th
year) of UAMC of the 2015 to 2016 academic year were divided into
5 groups. Each group was asked to collect 400 prescriptions of the
registered physicians, specialists and quacks (village health personnel)
from different area of Dhaka City. Total 2,000 prescriptions were
collected during their academic year.
Written consent was taken from each patient during this study.
Data were collected from the patients by random selecting the patients
who came to buy the drugs from the medicine shops. The patients
who were unconscious/mentally retarded, who were suffering with
psychiatric diseases and who were admitted into hospitals were
excluded from the study. Few questionnaires were excluded during
the data analysis because of inadequate information.
Results
From this study it was found that averagely 29% patients visited
Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) doctors, 63%
visited (Quack doctors) whereas only 8% visited Bachelor of Dental
Service (BDS) doctors. The highest percentage of patients paid a visit
to quack doctor and the lowest percentage of patients paid a visit to
BDS doctors shown in Table 1.
Among the patients 61% were male and 39% were female. In
this study, males were prescribed 22% more antibiotics than females
shown in Table 2.
Children aged from ‘0’ years to 15 years old took the highest
percentage of antibiotics (55.25%) followed by people aged above 60
years (33.25%) whereas young people aged 16 to 60 years took the
least percentage (11.50%) of antibiotics shown in Table 3.
The reasons for taking the antibiotics were due to suffering
from upper respiratory tract infections (32%), cold and fever (28%),
diarrhea (15%), STDs (4.50%), HTN (6.5%), UTIs (5%), Diabetes
(3%), lower respiratory infections (2%) and others diseases (4%)
(Table 4).
The average highest prescribed antibiotic groups were
cephalosporin (36.00%) macrolides (25.50%) quinolones (21.00%)
penicillins (10.00%) and metronidazole (9.80%) respectively (Table
5). This antibiotic was prescribed for the patients suffering mainly
from infections like Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI), Urinary Tract
Infections (UTI), Diabetes, etc.
Single antibiotic was prescribed in 28.50% of prescription whereas
two or more antibiotics were prescribed in 11.50% of prescriptions.
A 55.25% prescriptions contained complete information regarding
dosage form, 65.00% had complete direction for antibiotics use and
81.00% prescriptions had no laboratory clinical test for prescribing
antibiotics. A 66.5% patients completed full course of antibiotics and
the percentage of recovery from disease was 66% whereas significant
percentage of patients (34%) complained side effects after taking the
prescribed antibiotics (Table 6).
Discussion
Highest percentage of patients (63%) visited village health care
personel because of the presence at root level in Bangladesh where
patients found them easily, a lot of village doctor's practice there. Due
to low facilities and life status, very few MBBS doctors are found away
from Dhaka city that is reflected in the survey results. Quack doctors
Variable Frequency of prescriptions (%) n=2000
MBBS 580 (29%)
BDS 160 (8%)
Village healthcare personel (Quack) 1260 (63%)
Table 1: Prescriptions obtained from different health care professionals.
Gender distribution Frequency (%) n=800
Male 488 (61%)
Female 312 (39%)
Table 2: Gender variability of participants prescribed with antibiotics.
Age distribution (years) Frequency (%) n=800
0-15 442 (55.25%)
16-60 90 (11.25%)
>60 268 (33.50%)
Table 3: Age distribution of respondents prescribed with antibiotics.
Name of diseases Frequency (%) n= 800
Cold and fever 224 (28%)
Upper respiratory infection 256 (32%)
Diarrhea 120 (15%)
STDs 36 (4.5%)
HTN 52 (6.5%)
UTI 40 (5%)
Diabetes 24 (3%)
Lower respiratory infection 16 (2%)
Other diseases 32 (4%)
Table 4: Reasons for visiting doctors.
Name of prescribing antibiotics Frequency (%) n=800
Cephalosporin 288 (36.00%)
Macrolides 204 (25.50%)
Quinolones 168 (21.00%)
Metronidazole 80 (10.00%)
Penicillins 60 (7.50%)
Table 5: Prescribed antibiotic groups.
Abu Syed Md Mosaddek, et al., American Journal of Pharmacology
Remedy Publications LLC. 2018 | Volume 1 | Issue 1 | Article 10083
are abundant in village and patients have to pay minor fees for their
visit, as a consequence highest percentage of patients visited Quack
doctors.
Males were prescribed (61%) more antibiotics than females
(39%). Higher prevalence of antibiotics in males also had been
observed in previous studies conducted in Nepal and Bangladesh
[7,9]. Antibiotics prescription rates in this study were found to be
particularly high in the pediatric (55.25%) and geriatric populations
(33.50%) perhaps because these populations are more prone to
infections [10]. Furthermore, established guidelines suggest that
antibiotics should not be the choice of treatment in most diarrhea
cases and they should be used if infection with bacteria is observed
[11,12].
In our research it was found that cephalosporins accounted
36.00% of total antibiotic prescriptions which is high as compared
to the study conducted in Nepal and Turkey but low than India
[7,8,13]. The highest uses of antibiotics were cefixime, cefuroxime
and ceftriaxone for respiratory infections and other infections. This
probably explains why ceftriaxone and cefixime have abnormally high
resistances [14,15]. Acute respiratory tract infection was the condition
associated most frequently with prescription of antibiotic, a result
which substantiates findings from other Asian countries [8,16,17].
Results are also consistent with findings in China, where low-severity
illness was a major reason for giving children antibiotics [16]. This
is probably a result of aggressive marketing policies of Bangladeshi
Pharmaceutical Companies on the physicians combined with
inadequate knowledge of current treatment guidelines. The second
highest prescribed antibiotics were macrolides. The third highest
prescribed quinolones (21.00%) were levofloxacin, sparfloxacin and
ciprofloxacin which is high compared to study conducted in India
and Nepal [7,8].
In Bangladesh many doctors are not prescribing antibiotics
following the prescription guidelines of antibiotics. As a result,
sometimes antibiotics are being prescribed irrationally here to
give quick relief of the patients without taking consideration of the
patient’s disease condition. This is because antibiotics are the most
commonly used and misused drugs by patients and prescribers
[18]. Physicians prescribe maximum antibiotics for outpatients in
Bangladesh without clinical test (81%) and without giving complete
direction for antibiotic use (35%) but the percentage of patient’s
recovery from diseases were 66%. This is because of the physician’s
long service experiences as well as the broad spectrum nature of the
prescribed antibiotics. This kind of antibiotic prescription habit of
physicians may increase the misuse of antibiotics and resistance as
well. Hospitals also account for antibiotic misuse worldwide due to
non-evidence based practice [19-23]. Our survey based research also
reveals that significant percentage of patients receiving antibiotics
in Bangladesh which is relevant to the reports on antibiotic usages
in other parts of Asia, Europe or America because antibiotics are
considered as the second most prescribed drugs in the world, only
next to the drugs indicated for cardiovascular diseases [9,10,24-26].
In a study in Vietnam in 1997, researchers discovered that more
than 70% of patients were prescribed with inadequate amounts of
antimicrobials for serious infections. In Turkey, 15% to 20% of all
prescribed drugs were antibiotics. In China, researchers found that
63% of antimicrobials selected to treat proven bacterial infections
were simply the wrong choice. The same is true even for the countries
like Canada and the United States which developed their antibiotic
usage control mechanisms. In these countries, it is estimated that
physicians also over-prescribe antibiotics (50%) [13].
Conclusion
Because of irrational use of antibiotics leads to the spread
of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and develops complicated
health problems, our findings have important implications for
public education and the enforcement of regulations regarding the
prescription of antibiotics in Bangladesh. The study also urges the
physician to be more professional and careful when antibiotic is
prescribed for the outpatients. Effective strategies should be taken by
the Government of Bangladesh to reduce the use of antibiotics which
could include the development of policies to support the judicious
use of antibiotics, strengthen the control of antibiotics selling and to
implement educational campaigns for rational prescribing.
References
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Variable Response pattern Frequency n =800 Percentage (%)
Pattern of antibiotics Single antibiotic 570 71. 25%
Prescription Information on dosage form
Multiple antibiotics 230 28. 75%
Complete 442 55.25%
Incomplete 300 37.50%
Not mentioned 58 7.25%
Information about the direction for antibiotic use
Complete direction 520 65%
Incomplete direction 280 35%
Laboratory clinical test for prescribing antibiotics
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Without test 648 81%
Completion of full antibiotic course
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No 268 33.50%
Patient’s compliance
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Abu Syed Md Mosaddek, et al., American Journal of Pharmacology
Remedy Publications LLC. 2018 | Volume 1 | Issue 1 | Article 10084
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Pprescribing practice-of-antibiotics-for-outpatients-in-bangladesh-rationality-analysisp-1983

  • 1. Remedy Publications LLC. American Journal of Pharmacology 2018 | Volume 1 | Issue 1 | Article 10081 Prescribing Practice of Antibiotics for Outpatients in Bangladesh: Rationality Analysis OPEN ACCESS *Correspondence: Abu Syed Md Mosaddek, Department of Pharmacology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E-mail: Drmosaddek25@gmail.com Received Date: 02 Aug 2018 Accepted Date: 08 Oct 2018 Published Date: 10 Oct 2018 Citation: Laizu J, Parvin R, Sultana N, Ahmed M, Sharmin R, Sharmin ZR, et al. Prescribing Practice of Antibiotics for Outpatients in Bangladesh: Rationality Analysis. Am J Pharmacol. 2018; 1(1): 1008. Copyright © 2018 Abu Syed Md Mosaddek. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Research Article Published: 10 Oct, 2018 Abstract Background: Antibiotic prescribing practice by physicians has abruptly increased globally due to increase in antibiotic usage and prevalence of drug resistances. Rational prescribing is mandatory to reduce drug resistance. Rationality analysis of prescribing drugs can help to point towards irrationality and can make a consensus among physicians for rational prescribing. Objectives: The aim is to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic prescribing based on rationality, their usages in various disease conditions among different level of private practitioners in Dhaka city. Methods: This observational study was carried out with a self-designed standard questionnaire by manual data collection over a 24 months period (01.01.2016 to 31.12.2017).The data were collected from the patient’s prescription and directly interviewing the patients who were prescribed at least one antibiotic during the study period. WHO/INRUD prescribing indicators were used and descriptive statistics were applied to the collected data and analyzed using Microsoft Excel software. Results: A total of 2,000 prescriptions were analyzed during the study period. Extreme aged patients were prescribed more antibiotics. Commonly prescribed antibiotic groups were cephalosporin (36.00%), macrolides (25.50%), quinolones (21.00%), penicillins (7.50%), and metronidazole (10.00%). 55.25% prescriptions had complete information on dosage form, 65% had complete direction for antibiotics use and 66.5% patients were completed full course of antibiotics. Although 81% prescriptions have no clinical test for using antibiotics, even though the percentages of patients disease recovery were 66% and incompliance were 34%. Conclusion: The study pointed a need for national guidelines for the treatment of common diseases to maintain rationality in prescribing antimicrobial agents and a large surveillance on antimicrobial prescribing appropriateness is warranted. Keywords: Antimicrobial prescribing; Rationality; Surveillance Introduction Antibiotics are most extensively used drugs. Wide ranges of antibiotics are available to treat various types of infections. The choice of antibiotics is available to treat various types of infections [1]. Antibiotics have effectively prolonged the life expectancy and are currently the most commonly prescribed drugs in hospitals, worldwide [2]. But excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics renders increased drug resistance [3-5]. The rational use of antibiotics is a major health need. Almost half of all antibiotics prescribed were found to be inappropriate based upon clinical and financial criteria. Inappropriate use involves both over use and under use, which may be responsible in part for raising global incidence of microbial resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics. In a developing country like Bangladesh, the cost of health care is a key cause for concern. The practitioners should be made aware of the importance of combination therapy in the treatment of certain infections. So the chance of resistance development can be ameliorated to the most possible extent. Many studies have implicated that the antibiotics are among the major group of drugs, which cause Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) [6]. Many doctors in Bangladesh are prescribing antibiotics irrationally without taking consideration the clinical test in most cases. Subsequently the patients Jahanara Laizu1 , Roksana Parvin2 , Nasrin Sultana3 , Matia Ahmed4 , Rayhana Sharmin1 , Zinat Rehana Sharmin1 and Abu Syed Md Mosaddek1 * 1 Department of Pharmacology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Bangladesh 2 Department of Pharmacology, Medical College for women and hospital, Bangladesh 3 Department of Community Medicine, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Medical College, Bangladesh 4­ Department of Physiology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Bangladesh
  • 2. Abu Syed Md Mosaddek, et al., American Journal of Pharmacology Remedy Publications LLC. 2018 | Volume 1 | Issue 1 | Article 10082 are not completing the complete dosage regimen of antibiotics, if it is given in cold and general fever or even in other complicated infectious diseases. The study of prescribing pattern of antibiotics infers to monitor, evaluate, and suggest modifications in the practitioner's prescription habits, so as to make patient care reasonable and effective [7]. The knowledge about antibiotic utilization patterns is necessary for a constructive approach to problems that arise from multiple antibiotic usages. It is extremely important that institutions and hospitals should have an antibiotic policy and ensure that the best choices are made by individual prescribers [8]. The aim of this study is to analyze and justify whether antibiotics are being prescribed rationally or irrationally for outpatients as well as to indicate the prevalence of most prescribed antibiotics in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods The observational study was carried out in the department of pharmacology, Uttara Adhunik Medical College (UAMC) during the period January 2016 to December 2017. Fifty medical students (4th year) of UAMC of the 2015 to 2016 academic year were divided into 5 groups. Each group was asked to collect 400 prescriptions of the registered physicians, specialists and quacks (village health personnel) from different area of Dhaka City. Total 2,000 prescriptions were collected during their academic year. Written consent was taken from each patient during this study. Data were collected from the patients by random selecting the patients who came to buy the drugs from the medicine shops. The patients who were unconscious/mentally retarded, who were suffering with psychiatric diseases and who were admitted into hospitals were excluded from the study. Few questionnaires were excluded during the data analysis because of inadequate information. Results From this study it was found that averagely 29% patients visited Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) doctors, 63% visited (Quack doctors) whereas only 8% visited Bachelor of Dental Service (BDS) doctors. The highest percentage of patients paid a visit to quack doctor and the lowest percentage of patients paid a visit to BDS doctors shown in Table 1. Among the patients 61% were male and 39% were female. In this study, males were prescribed 22% more antibiotics than females shown in Table 2. Children aged from ‘0’ years to 15 years old took the highest percentage of antibiotics (55.25%) followed by people aged above 60 years (33.25%) whereas young people aged 16 to 60 years took the least percentage (11.50%) of antibiotics shown in Table 3. The reasons for taking the antibiotics were due to suffering from upper respiratory tract infections (32%), cold and fever (28%), diarrhea (15%), STDs (4.50%), HTN (6.5%), UTIs (5%), Diabetes (3%), lower respiratory infections (2%) and others diseases (4%) (Table 4). The average highest prescribed antibiotic groups were cephalosporin (36.00%) macrolides (25.50%) quinolones (21.00%) penicillins (10.00%) and metronidazole (9.80%) respectively (Table 5). This antibiotic was prescribed for the patients suffering mainly from infections like Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI), Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), Diabetes, etc. Single antibiotic was prescribed in 28.50% of prescription whereas two or more antibiotics were prescribed in 11.50% of prescriptions. A 55.25% prescriptions contained complete information regarding dosage form, 65.00% had complete direction for antibiotics use and 81.00% prescriptions had no laboratory clinical test for prescribing antibiotics. A 66.5% patients completed full course of antibiotics and the percentage of recovery from disease was 66% whereas significant percentage of patients (34%) complained side effects after taking the prescribed antibiotics (Table 6). Discussion Highest percentage of patients (63%) visited village health care personel because of the presence at root level in Bangladesh where patients found them easily, a lot of village doctor's practice there. Due to low facilities and life status, very few MBBS doctors are found away from Dhaka city that is reflected in the survey results. Quack doctors Variable Frequency of prescriptions (%) n=2000 MBBS 580 (29%) BDS 160 (8%) Village healthcare personel (Quack) 1260 (63%) Table 1: Prescriptions obtained from different health care professionals. Gender distribution Frequency (%) n=800 Male 488 (61%) Female 312 (39%) Table 2: Gender variability of participants prescribed with antibiotics. Age distribution (years) Frequency (%) n=800 0-15 442 (55.25%) 16-60 90 (11.25%) >60 268 (33.50%) Table 3: Age distribution of respondents prescribed with antibiotics. Name of diseases Frequency (%) n= 800 Cold and fever 224 (28%) Upper respiratory infection 256 (32%) Diarrhea 120 (15%) STDs 36 (4.5%) HTN 52 (6.5%) UTI 40 (5%) Diabetes 24 (3%) Lower respiratory infection 16 (2%) Other diseases 32 (4%) Table 4: Reasons for visiting doctors. Name of prescribing antibiotics Frequency (%) n=800 Cephalosporin 288 (36.00%) Macrolides 204 (25.50%) Quinolones 168 (21.00%) Metronidazole 80 (10.00%) Penicillins 60 (7.50%) Table 5: Prescribed antibiotic groups.
  • 3. Abu Syed Md Mosaddek, et al., American Journal of Pharmacology Remedy Publications LLC. 2018 | Volume 1 | Issue 1 | Article 10083 are abundant in village and patients have to pay minor fees for their visit, as a consequence highest percentage of patients visited Quack doctors. Males were prescribed (61%) more antibiotics than females (39%). Higher prevalence of antibiotics in males also had been observed in previous studies conducted in Nepal and Bangladesh [7,9]. Antibiotics prescription rates in this study were found to be particularly high in the pediatric (55.25%) and geriatric populations (33.50%) perhaps because these populations are more prone to infections [10]. Furthermore, established guidelines suggest that antibiotics should not be the choice of treatment in most diarrhea cases and they should be used if infection with bacteria is observed [11,12]. In our research it was found that cephalosporins accounted 36.00% of total antibiotic prescriptions which is high as compared to the study conducted in Nepal and Turkey but low than India [7,8,13]. The highest uses of antibiotics were cefixime, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone for respiratory infections and other infections. This probably explains why ceftriaxone and cefixime have abnormally high resistances [14,15]. Acute respiratory tract infection was the condition associated most frequently with prescription of antibiotic, a result which substantiates findings from other Asian countries [8,16,17]. Results are also consistent with findings in China, where low-severity illness was a major reason for giving children antibiotics [16]. This is probably a result of aggressive marketing policies of Bangladeshi Pharmaceutical Companies on the physicians combined with inadequate knowledge of current treatment guidelines. The second highest prescribed antibiotics were macrolides. The third highest prescribed quinolones (21.00%) were levofloxacin, sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin which is high compared to study conducted in India and Nepal [7,8]. In Bangladesh many doctors are not prescribing antibiotics following the prescription guidelines of antibiotics. As a result, sometimes antibiotics are being prescribed irrationally here to give quick relief of the patients without taking consideration of the patient’s disease condition. This is because antibiotics are the most commonly used and misused drugs by patients and prescribers [18]. Physicians prescribe maximum antibiotics for outpatients in Bangladesh without clinical test (81%) and without giving complete direction for antibiotic use (35%) but the percentage of patient’s recovery from diseases were 66%. This is because of the physician’s long service experiences as well as the broad spectrum nature of the prescribed antibiotics. This kind of antibiotic prescription habit of physicians may increase the misuse of antibiotics and resistance as well. Hospitals also account for antibiotic misuse worldwide due to non-evidence based practice [19-23]. Our survey based research also reveals that significant percentage of patients receiving antibiotics in Bangladesh which is relevant to the reports on antibiotic usages in other parts of Asia, Europe or America because antibiotics are considered as the second most prescribed drugs in the world, only next to the drugs indicated for cardiovascular diseases [9,10,24-26]. In a study in Vietnam in 1997, researchers discovered that more than 70% of patients were prescribed with inadequate amounts of antimicrobials for serious infections. In Turkey, 15% to 20% of all prescribed drugs were antibiotics. In China, researchers found that 63% of antimicrobials selected to treat proven bacterial infections were simply the wrong choice. The same is true even for the countries like Canada and the United States which developed their antibiotic usage control mechanisms. In these countries, it is estimated that physicians also over-prescribe antibiotics (50%) [13]. Conclusion Because of irrational use of antibiotics leads to the spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and develops complicated health problems, our findings have important implications for public education and the enforcement of regulations regarding the prescription of antibiotics in Bangladesh. The study also urges the physician to be more professional and careful when antibiotic is prescribed for the outpatients. Effective strategies should be taken by the Government of Bangladesh to reduce the use of antibiotics which could include the development of policies to support the judicious use of antibiotics, strengthen the control of antibiotics selling and to implement educational campaigns for rational prescribing. References 1. Rubin RP. A brief history of great discoveries in pharmacology: in celebration of the centennial anniversary of the founding of the American Society of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Pharmacol Rev. 2007;59(4):289-359. 2. Park SH. Is Antibiotic resistance microorganism becoming a significant Variable Response pattern Frequency n =800 Percentage (%) Pattern of antibiotics Single antibiotic 570 71. 25% Prescription Information on dosage form Multiple antibiotics 230 28. 75% Complete 442 55.25% Incomplete 300 37.50% Not mentioned 58 7.25% Information about the direction for antibiotic use Complete direction 520 65% Incomplete direction 280 35% Laboratory clinical test for prescribing antibiotics With test 152 19 Without test 648 81% Completion of full antibiotic course Yes 532 66.50% No 268 33.50% Patient’s compliance Recovery from diseases 528 66% Incompliance 272 34% Table 6: Prescription and usages pattern of antibiotics.
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