1. Organizational Development and Change
Chapter six : Group - Level Diagnosing
By : Sher Bahader Khan Mashriqi
Management Science Department
Hazara University Mansehra (KPK)
3. SCOPE OF THE PRESENTTION
Short Review of the Presentation
To clarify the concept of group level diagnosis
Define diagnosis and explain the diagnostic process
discovers underlying causes of problems at group level of analysis.
To present an open system comprehensive diagnostic
model for group levels.
Questions & Answers
5. Essential terminologies:
Organization Design: is a process for shaping the way organization are structured
and run. It involves many different aspects of life at work, including team formations,
shift patterns, lines of reporting, decision-making procedures, communication
channels, and more.
Group: generally consist of several individual who come together to accomplish
a particular task or goal.
What is Diagnosis?
Diagnosis is the process of understanding how the organization is currently functioning
and it provides the information necessary to design change interventions.
Organization design is clearly the major input in to group design. It consist of the design
components characterizing the large organization with in which the group is embedded with
the technology, structure and measurement system and human resources systems as well as
the organizational culture.
Technology can determine characteristics of the group task. Structure system can specify
the level coordination required among groups.
The human resources and measurement systems, such as performance
appraisal and reward systems, play an important role in determining
team functioning. Collecting information about the group's organization
design context can greatly improve the accuracy of diagnosis.
10. This is the explanation about: Five Major Components
1) Goal Clarity
•involves how well the groups understand its objectives.
• in general goals should be moderately challenging; there should be
a method for measuring and as well as monitoring and feeding back
information about goal achievement.
•And the goal should be clearly understood by all members.
2) Task Structure
Is concern with how the group’s work is designed.
Has two key dimensions:
1) Coordination of members efforts.
2) and regulation of their task behaviors
1) Coordination dimension involves the degree to which group task are structured
to promote effective interaction among group members.
2) The regulation dimension involves the degree to which members can control
their own task behaviors and relatively free from external controls such
supervision, plans and programs. Self regulation generally occurs
when members can decide on such issues as task assignments,
work methods, production goals and membership.
12. This is the explanation about: Five Major Components
3) Group Composition
Is concern with the characteristics of group members.
Members can differ on a number of dimension having relevance to group
behavior. Demographic variables such as age, education, experience,
interpersonal skills can affect how people behave and relate to each other
in groups. Demographics can determine whether the group is composed of
people having task relevant skills and knowledge, including interpersonal skills.
People's internal needs also can influence group behaviors.
Individual difference in social needs can determine whether
group membership is likely to be satisfying or stressful.
13. This is the explanation about: Five Major Components
4) Team/Group Functioning
Is underlying on the basis of group life.
How members relate to each other is important in the group because the
quality of relationship can effect tasks performance. In some groups, for example
interpersonal competition and conflict among members result in their providing
little support and help for each other.
Conversely groups may become too concerned about sharing
good feelings and support and spend too little time on task
In organization development considerable effort has been invested to help
work group members develop healthy interpersonal relations,
including ability and a willingness to share feelings and perceptions about
members‘ behaviors so that inter-personal problems and task difficulties can
he worked through and resolved.
Group functioning therefore involves task-related activities, such
as giving and seeking information and elaborating, coordinating,
and evaluating activities; and the group-maintenance function,
which is directed toward holding the group together as a cohesive
team and includes encouraging, harmonizing, compromising,
setting standards, and observing.
15. This is the explanation about: Five Major Components
Are basically members’ beliefs about how the group should perform its task and
include acceptable levels of performance. Norms have driven from interaction
among members and serve as guide to group behavior.
Once members agree on performance norms, either implicitly or explicitly, then
members routinely perform tasks according to those norms.
And this lead to the output that is the Group effectiveness
Group effectiveness- is the capacity of a group to accomplish
the goals or objectives administered by an authorized personnel or
So group effectiveness has two dimensions:
Performance and quality of work life So, by group effectiveness we cover
performance and as well as the quality of work life.
Performances are measured in the term of group ability to control or reduce cost
and increase productivity and improved quality.
And addition effectiveness is indicated by group members’ quality of work life.
It concern with work satisfaction, team cohesiveness,
and organization commitment.
The diagnostic model shows that group design components must fit inputs if groups are to be
effective in terms of performance and the quality of work life. Research suggests the following
fits between the inputs and design dimensions:
When we talking about the diagnosing groups, So, this the second major phase in the general model of planned change based on the open system theory.
Open system theory is that organization interacting with the external environment so all those organizations who are interacting with the external system, so that means they are in the open system.
When we are talking about large organizations have groups and departments they are large.
Diagnosis of large groups can follow some of the dimensions and relational fits applicable to organizational level diagnosis.