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Fish, Fisheries & Ecosystems: Reconciling management objectives

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Fish, Fisheries & Ecosystems: Reconciling management objectives

  1. 1. Fish, Fisheries & Ecosystems: Reconciling management objectives. Mark Dickey-Collas @DickeyCollas
  2. 2. ICES an intergovernmental science organisation Provides independent, transparent, quality assured evidence for marine management Holds world leading centre of North Atlantic data, managed to international standards Coordinates the biggest ship- based monitoring & biological sampling programme in the Atlantic Runs a curiosity driven science programme preparing for future societal evidence needs
  3. 3. A knowledge provider to decision makers Providing best available, scientific advice & cooperate with international & national authorities. Over 240 fish stocks, bycatch advice, deep sea impact, marine protected areas and roughly 25 specific requests per year.
  4. 4. Focused knowledge building ICES science plan 2018
  5. 5. Where are we with fisheries management? State of European fish stocks & fisheries
  6. 6. Using FAO catch data, thus including data poor Biomass of fish stocks in relation to objectives
  7. 7. The situation is changing
  8. 8. What brought about this change? Managers codified more knowledge & constructed a framework http://www.fao.org/3/a-v9878e.htm 1992
  9. 9. Legislation for European framework International agreements and policies: • UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS 1982) -MSY • UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED, 1992) -precautionary approach • UN Straddling Fish Stocks Agreement of 1995 (UNFSA 1995) - precautionary approach & MSY • Convention on Biological Diversity (UN CBD, 1992) - ecosystem approach • Johannesburg Declaration of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD UN 2002)- ecosystem approach & MSY Important for EU CFP reform 2002 – harvest control rules introduced for largest fisheries.
  10. 10. 10 10Trade and Agriculture Directorate | Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) | www.oecd.org/tad | tad.contact@oecd.org 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Individual effort quotas (IEQ) Non-transferrable individual quotas Individual transferrable quotas (ITQs) Harvest control rules Total allowable catch (TAC) Management or recovery plans Use of stocks management instruments has increased since 2005 Less stocks managed with:More stocks managed with: % countries reporting change in number of stocks managed with:
  11. 11. Frameworks set out in management plans
  12. 12. Management plans in the ICES area are tested using simulations e.g. simulations of Atlantic mackerel management strategy at different fishing mortalities
  13. 13. So it appears that we have everything sorted, but let’s look at the EU Common Fisheries Policy (2014) And that’s just one policy • The EU Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP) • Blue Growth Strategy (BG) • EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) 2008 • Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) directive 2014.
  14. 14. EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) descriptors • step wise process • Good Environmental Status (GES) • normative values
  15. 15. All of these require that decision making should be evidence based… Enter into the arena the researcher/scientist, again… But their role is not to decide between objectives or set the targets for society’s values
  16. 16. ICES workshop on balancing economic, social & institutional objectives • Similar high order objectives in EU, US & Canada • Often in the preamble of legislation & not operational • Usually require trade-offs to reconcile objectives -
  17. 17. Is it all about economics or jobs? Allemansrätten – the right to experience nature “In Sweden, public access to natural resources & the preservation of cultural values are core goals. More attention is given to these goals than maximizing the commercial economic value of marine resources.”
  18. 18. Conservation & fisheries objectives bycatch mixed fisheries competition for space fleet dynamics ecosystem impacts equitable processes SOLUTION: ecosystem approach to fisheries management
  19. 19. Why ecosystem based management (EBM)? to promote biodiversity conservation, and explore consequences of trade-offs in the management of marine ecosystems Marshak et al. 2016 In law, e.g. USA, Russia, Canada, Norway, EU, Int. treaties etc
  20. 20. Mandates for EBM in Atlantic https://atlanticresource.org/aora/sites/default/files/Gallery Files/Publications/2018-03_EA2OHS_mandates_report.pdf There are adequate, extant mandates to execute EBM. In all jurisdictions, nearly all of the ocean uses, goods and services, pressures, and stressors have some mandate coverage. There is no legal basis hindering EBM, and the potential benefits emphasize the urgency and need for greater implementation.
  21. 21. Components of EBM Source Ingrid van Putten (CSIRO)
  22. 22. ICES – fisheries benthic impact Landing Value SAR Benthic Impact (kg’s) (EUR) (swept area ratio) (per habitat) Example: Fishing Footprint…
  23. 23. ICES economic trade-offs Value landed when 10% of lowest fished area removed (2012-2015) http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2017/Special_requests/eu.2017.13.pdf Spatial analysis of economic value of seabed impact Process included exploration of concepts with stakeholders
  24. 24. Be careful though… Priorities for EBFM are subjective, Top 5 from list of 26 Science Literature Fishing industry 1 Consider Ecosystem Connections Sustainability 2 Appropriate Spatial & Temporal Scales Develop Long -Term Objectives 3 Adaptive Management Stakeholder Involvement 4 Use of Scientific Knowledge Use of All Forms of Knowledge Long et al. 2016. Key principles of ecosystem-based management: Fishers perspective
  25. 25. EBM means you should account for ecosystem dynamics too • Carrying capacity & productivity • Density effects • Shifts in distributions & behaviour
  26. 26. Shift of productivity of herring and other forage fish in ≈1993 North Sea herring Modelled biomass of North Sea forage fish with zero fishing Clupea harengus Trisopterus esmarkii Ammodytes marinus Sprattus sprattus Clausen et al 2018. J Applied Ecology
  27. 27. Changes in distribution. www.ices.dk/community/groups/Pages/WKFISHDISH.aspx Data analysis - surveys ● presence/absence ● relative abundance trends ● centre of gravity Review information on change in distribution Consider published drivers
  28. 28. Social indicators • Well-being • Values Hicks et al 2016 Biedenweg et al 2016 • Agency • Inequality
  29. 29. Top pressures on the ecosystem http://www.ices.dk/community/advisory-process/Pages/Ecosystem-overviews.aspx
  30. 30. Engaging as a researcher in EBM • It will take much longer than expected, always frustrating, may not succeed resulting in great pain. • The dialogue/discourse will challenge our academic training; and we must learn how to work deliberately with what we perceive as imperfection. • Establish equitable partnerships; listening to others underpins our capacity to connect, build trust, adapt and evolve. • The drive for simple communication may result in misleading answers but as everyone is always busy, you need to reduce the workload on partners. Inspired by Beth Fulton, Rosa Barciela, Marta Ballesteros, Poul Degnbol
  31. 31. Data for science for society - principles Findable - data have a doi (either another source or minted by ICES) and be described in a data catalogue (either outside or in an ICES database) with ISO standards metadata. Accessible - there must be a link or defined provision of the resource. Access rights be clear, and could include a data usage license. Prefer the data resource conforms to the ICES data policy. Interoperable - data should reference international standards and units. Have a clear vocabulary and internationally recognised download formats. Reusable - auxiliary data (manuals and protocols) that describe the methods used must be included. Including the evidence of how the data were collected and reported.
  32. 32. Shifting arena for science Holsman et al 2017 & ICES

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • First, since 2005, use of stock management instruments has increased widely

    Almost 2/3 of countries in the survey report more stocks managed through management or recovery plans;

    Over 40 % of countries report more stocks under total allowable catch limitations as well as under harvest control rules;

    The use of individual catch and effort quotas has increased much more modestly.

    18% of countries report more stocks under ITQs

    But the use of non transferrable individual quotas and individual effort quotas has increased in less than 15% of countries and has decreased in about as many countries.