1. Development by Description
It is the most commonly used method of writing a
paragraph. Its purpose is to present image or a picture.
by Gilbert Highet
Standing in the subway station, I began to
appreciate the place-almost to enjoy it. First of all, UI
looked at the lighting: a row of meager light bulbs,
unscreened, yellow and coated with filth, stretched
toward the black mouth of the tunnel, as though it
were a bolt hole in an abandoned coal mine. Then I
lingered with zest, on the walls and ceilings: lavatory
tiles which had been a white about fifty years ago, were
Now encrusted with soot, coated with the remains of
dirty liquid which might be either atmospheric humidity
mingled with smog or the result of perfunctory attempt
to clean them with cold water; and above them,
gloomy vaulting from which dingy paint was peeling off
like scabs from an old wound, sick black paint leaving a
leprous white undersurface.
Key points in Writing Description
1. Be alert with your senses.
2. Decide which single impression you
3. Select details that will help convey
the desired description.
4. Don’t catalog.
5. Put things first.
6. Be brief but accurate.
7. Use vivid specific words.
8. Use comparisons.
9. Use a transitional devices as
a guide post.
2. Development by Narration
It is the most difficult to write compared to
other types of paragraph development. It is
also spiced up with picture words. Its
events must be arranged according to
order of time.
The most embarrassing moment of my sophomore
year was how I earned my nick name, Crash. It all started
after school when I turned to the busiest street by the
school. First, I pulled up right behind this truck at a stop
sign. After a second, a fellow older student told me that I
was really close and that I was going to hit the truck in front
of me. At that moment I was trying to tell the kid that I was
giving a ride to get back in the car because he was hanging
out the window. Since I was distracted, I thought the long
line of traffic had started to move, but it hadn’t. in a blink of
An eye I hit the back of the truck in front of me. The
devastation sunk in. I was so worried that the I damage
the truck but all that I did was scratch his bumper.
Lucky for him, then it came the time to look at my car.
My car was ruined. The hood was buckled, the front
end was pushed back, and my headlight were broken.
Humiliated and scared, I drove my car home.
Key Points in Writing Narrative
1. Know what to write.
2. Develop strong topic
3. Choose your materials.
4. Organize the events.
5. Consider your advice.
6. Use dialogue
7. Use figurative language.
8. Use narrative details.
3. Development by Comparison and Contrast
Comparison means explaining how
a thing is similar to another;
Contrast explains that a thing is not
There are many differences and likeness between my
two brothers. Glenn, my eldest brother, was very rebellious
as a teenager. For example, he would go out drinking all
night with his buddies, and was always looking for trouble.
Eric, who is older than me, but younger than Glenn, was not
rebellious as a teenager. A couple of examples are the fact
that Eric always put his academics ahead of everything and
stayed out of trouble. They are both religious, but Glenn is a
Catholic who speaks with anyone and everyone about his
religion, and Eric is a Christian who lets you believe what
Reminders in Order to Make an
1. Things compared should belong to
the same class.
2. Comparison should be based on
the same set of measurement.
3. Dangling comparison should be
4. Use comparative degree in
comparing two person , places or
5. The superlative is used for
emphasis only when no
comparison is intended.
4. Development by Definition
This is a method that gives a satisfactory
explanation of the meaning of a word.
The iPhone 4 is a touchscreen 3G smartphone
developed by Apple Inc. It is the fourth generation
iPhone, and successor to the iPhone3Gs. It is
particularly marketed for video calling, consumption of
media and e-mail access. It was announced on June 7,
2010, at the WWDC 2010 held at the Mosone Center,
San Francisco and was released on June 24, 2010, in
United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany and
5. Development by Classification
It is a systematic arrangement f things that are
related and is based on principles or basis in
order to come up with a well-organized data.
There are three kinds of book owners. The first
has all the standards sets and best sellers- unread,
untouched. (This deluded individuals owns wood pulp
and ink, not books.) the second has a great many
books- a few of them read though, most of them
dipped into, but all of them as clean and shiny as the
day they were bought. ( This person would probably
like to make books his own, but restrained by a false
respect for their physical appearance.)
The third has a few books or many-every one of them
dog-eared and dilapidated, shaken and loosened by
continual use, marked and scribbled from front to back.
( This man owns books.)
General Principles in Giving
1. Classification place related items into
categories or groups.
2. Only plural subjects can be classified.
3. The categories should be
coordinated, parallel and must be in
the same rank in grammatical form
4. Categories must not overlap.
6. Development by Cause and Effect
In this method the writer explains how
certain causes produce results or effects.
Heavy rainfalls are one major causes of floods.
The level of water in rivers or lakes rises due to heavy
rainfalls. When the level of water rises above the river
banks or dams, the water starts overflowing, which
causes floods. The water overflows to the areas
adjoining the rivers, lakes or dams, causing flood to
deluge. The flood water causes havoc and great
destruction in the areas where it flows. Flood occur
more in the regions that get heavy rainfall.
7. Development by Analogy
Analogy points out similarity and difference
between things. It shows point-to-point
comparison of two things.
A book is like a single house. It is a mansion of many
rooms on different levels, of different sizes and shapes, with
different outlooks, rooms with different functions to
perform. These rooms are independent, in part. Each has its
own structure and interior decoration. But they are lot
absolutely independent and separate. They are connected
by doors and arches, by corridors and stairways. Because
they are connected, the partial function which each
performs contributes its share to the usefulness of the
whole house. Otherwise the house would not be genuinely
At the outset, the explorer confronts these fundamental
questions which have perplexed thinkers since civilization begun
on this planet. Do nations, like human beings, pass thru youth,
middle life and old age to death? Or do they resolve endlessly, as
some ancient writers thought, in a cycle- despotism, kingship,
tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, democracy and mob rule or some
succession forms? Or is it possible for a nation to stand still
through countless ages, preserving what it believes to be an
ideal arrangement of things.
9. Development by Example
This method presents examples to
support and make clear the topic
sentence. This type is useful in
developing argumentation and
Colors can mean a lot of things. It can
influence our emotions, our actions and the way
we perceive things. Red, the warmest of all
colors, means confidence, courage and vitality.
Yellow symbolizes wisdom, happiness and
intellectual energy. Pink symbolizes love and
beauty. Green symbolizes life, fertility and
nature. Blue symbolizes youth truth and peace.
CPR, or cardio-pulmonary resuscitation can be done
in three simple steps. First check the victim for
unresponsiveness. Second, if the victim is still not breathing
normally, coughing or moving, begin chest compressions.
Push down in the center of the chest 2 inches 30 times.
Pump hard and fast at the rate of at least 100/minute,
faster than once per second. Then tilt the head back and lift
the chin. Pinch nose and cover the mouth with yours and
blow until you see the chest rise. Give 2 breaths. Each
breath should take 1 second. Continue with 30 pumps until
11. Development by Problem and Solution
It is where the information is presented as
a problem or issue and solution that can be
done to solve that issue.
Drug abuse causes multiple problems for countries
and communities. The medical and psychological effects are
very obvious. Addicts cannot function as normal members
of society. They neglect or abuse their families, and
eventually require expensive treatment and hospitalization.
However, the menace of drugs can be fought.
Educations is the first battle. Children need to be told at
home and in school about drugs. People need to be aware
of the effects so that they can avoid this problem.