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patterns of development.pptx

  1. Patterns of Development in Writing
  2. 1. Development by Description It is the most commonly used method of writing a paragraph. Its purpose is to present image or a picture.
  3. Subway by Gilbert Highet Standing in the subway station, I began to appreciate the place-almost to enjoy it. First of all, UI looked at the lighting: a row of meager light bulbs, unscreened, yellow and coated with filth, stretched toward the black mouth of the tunnel, as though it were a bolt hole in an abandoned coal mine. Then I lingered with zest, on the walls and ceilings: lavatory tiles which had been a white about fifty years ago, were
  4. Now encrusted with soot, coated with the remains of dirty liquid which might be either atmospheric humidity mingled with smog or the result of perfunctory attempt to clean them with cold water; and above them, gloomy vaulting from which dingy paint was peeling off like scabs from an old wound, sick black paint leaving a leprous white undersurface.
  5. Key points in Writing Description 1. Be alert with your senses. 2. Decide which single impression you will emphasize. 3. Select details that will help convey the desired description. 4. Don’t catalog. 5. Put things first.
  6. 6. Be brief but accurate. 7. Use vivid specific words. 8. Use comparisons. 9. Use a transitional devices as a guide post.
  7. 2. Development by Narration It is the most difficult to write compared to other types of paragraph development. It is also spiced up with picture words. Its events must be arranged according to order of time.
  8. The most embarrassing moment of my sophomore year was how I earned my nick name, Crash. It all started after school when I turned to the busiest street by the school. First, I pulled up right behind this truck at a stop sign. After a second, a fellow older student told me that I was really close and that I was going to hit the truck in front of me. At that moment I was trying to tell the kid that I was giving a ride to get back in the car because he was hanging out the window. Since I was distracted, I thought the long line of traffic had started to move, but it hadn’t. in a blink of
  9. An eye I hit the back of the truck in front of me. The devastation sunk in. I was so worried that the I damage the truck but all that I did was scratch his bumper. Lucky for him, then it came the time to look at my car. My car was ruined. The hood was buckled, the front end was pushed back, and my headlight were broken. Humiliated and scared, I drove my car home.
  10. Key Points in Writing Narrative 1. Know what to write. 2. Develop strong topic sentence. 3. Choose your materials. 4. Organize the events.
  11. 5. Consider your advice. 6. Use dialogue 7. Use figurative language. 8. Use narrative details.
  12. 3. Development by Comparison and Contrast Comparison means explaining how a thing is similar to another; Contrast explains that a thing is not like.
  13. There are many differences and likeness between my two brothers. Glenn, my eldest brother, was very rebellious as a teenager. For example, he would go out drinking all night with his buddies, and was always looking for trouble. Eric, who is older than me, but younger than Glenn, was not rebellious as a teenager. A couple of examples are the fact that Eric always put his academics ahead of everything and stayed out of trouble. They are both religious, but Glenn is a Catholic who speaks with anyone and everyone about his religion, and Eric is a Christian who lets you believe what you believe.
  14. Reminders in Order to Make an Effective Comparison 1. Things compared should belong to the same class. 2. Comparison should be based on the same set of measurement. 3. Dangling comparison should be avoided.
  15. 4. Use comparative degree in comparing two person , places or things. 5. The superlative is used for emphasis only when no comparison is intended.
  16. 4. Development by Definition This is a method that gives a satisfactory explanation of the meaning of a word.
  17. The iPhone 4 is a touchscreen 3G smartphone developed by Apple Inc. It is the fourth generation iPhone, and successor to the iPhone3Gs. It is particularly marketed for video calling, consumption of media and e-mail access. It was announced on June 7, 2010, at the WWDC 2010 held at the Mosone Center, San Francisco and was released on June 24, 2010, in United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Japan.
  18. 5. Development by Classification It is a systematic arrangement f things that are related and is based on principles or basis in order to come up with a well-organized data.
  19. There are three kinds of book owners. The first has all the standards sets and best sellers- unread, untouched. (This deluded individuals owns wood pulp and ink, not books.) the second has a great many books- a few of them read though, most of them dipped into, but all of them as clean and shiny as the day they were bought. ( This person would probably like to make books his own, but restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance.)
  20. The third has a few books or many-every one of them dog-eared and dilapidated, shaken and loosened by continual use, marked and scribbled from front to back. ( This man owns books.)
  21. General Principles in Giving Classification 1. Classification place related items into categories or groups. 2. Only plural subjects can be classified. 3. The categories should be coordinated, parallel and must be in the same rank in grammatical form and content. 4. Categories must not overlap.
  22. 6. Development by Cause and Effect In this method the writer explains how certain causes produce results or effects.
  23. Heavy rainfalls are one major causes of floods. The level of water in rivers or lakes rises due to heavy rainfalls. When the level of water rises above the river banks or dams, the water starts overflowing, which causes floods. The water overflows to the areas adjoining the rivers, lakes or dams, causing flood to deluge. The flood water causes havoc and great destruction in the areas where it flows. Flood occur more in the regions that get heavy rainfall.
  24. 7. Development by Analogy Analogy points out similarity and difference between things. It shows point-to-point comparison of two things.
  25. A book is like a single house. It is a mansion of many rooms on different levels, of different sizes and shapes, with different outlooks, rooms with different functions to perform. These rooms are independent, in part. Each has its own structure and interior decoration. But they are lot absolutely independent and separate. They are connected by doors and arches, by corridors and stairways. Because they are connected, the partial function which each performs contributes its share to the usefulness of the whole house. Otherwise the house would not be genuinely livable.
  26. 8. Development by Question and Answer This is used in argumentation and explanations.
  27. At the outset, the explorer confronts these fundamental questions which have perplexed thinkers since civilization begun on this planet. Do nations, like human beings, pass thru youth, middle life and old age to death? Or do they resolve endlessly, as some ancient writers thought, in a cycle- despotism, kingship, tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, democracy and mob rule or some succession forms? Or is it possible for a nation to stand still through countless ages, preserving what it believes to be an ideal arrangement of things.
  28. 9. Development by Example This method presents examples to support and make clear the topic sentence. This type is useful in developing argumentation and exposition.
  29. Colors can mean a lot of things. It can influence our emotions, our actions and the way we perceive things. Red, the warmest of all colors, means confidence, courage and vitality. Yellow symbolizes wisdom, happiness and intellectual energy. Pink symbolizes love and beauty. Green symbolizes life, fertility and nature. Blue symbolizes youth truth and peace.
  30. 10. Development by Process Analysis This paragraph development is concerned with “How” topics.
  31. CPR, or cardio-pulmonary resuscitation can be done in three simple steps. First check the victim for unresponsiveness. Second, if the victim is still not breathing normally, coughing or moving, begin chest compressions. Push down in the center of the chest 2 inches 30 times. Pump hard and fast at the rate of at least 100/minute, faster than once per second. Then tilt the head back and lift the chin. Pinch nose and cover the mouth with yours and blow until you see the chest rise. Give 2 breaths. Each breath should take 1 second. Continue with 30 pumps until help arrives.
  32. 11. Development by Problem and Solution It is where the information is presented as a problem or issue and solution that can be done to solve that issue.
  33. Drug abuse causes multiple problems for countries and communities. The medical and psychological effects are very obvious. Addicts cannot function as normal members of society. They neglect or abuse their families, and eventually require expensive treatment and hospitalization. However, the menace of drugs can be fought. Educations is the first battle. Children need to be told at home and in school about drugs. People need to be aware of the effects so that they can avoid this problem.