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8D Training.PPT

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8D Training.PPT

  1. 1. Team Problem Solving Agenda
  2. 2. Name Years Service Current Position Team Problem Solving • Please introduce yourself:
  3. 3. Course Objectives This course will: • Introduce Tools for the 8 Step Team Problem Solving Process • Establish a team-oriented method for solving any problem using factual data • Establish a standard reporting format for problem resolution • Establish a “common approach” for communicating about problems
  4. 4. Why are you here ? Past problems have sometimes been addressed in a quick fix fashion without verification of the effectiveness of our corrective actions
  5. 5. The “quick-fix” approach Brainstorm some of the possible pitfalls of this approach to problem solving
  6. 6. What Failed? • Vague problem description • Problem solving process expedited • Lack of logical thought process • Root cause misidentified • Permanent actions not implemented
  7. 7. Preconceptions • We already tried that • It would not work here • It cannot be done • It’s good enough the way it is now • We are too busy to do that
  8. 8. The Disciplined Approach • 8 D problem solving is a matter of D I S C I P L I N E • Problem solvers accept R E S P O N S I B I L I T Y • Commitments and corrective action plans must be H E L D S A C R E D
  9. 9. The Team Problem Solving Process Objectives : • Improve quality, productivity, and customer satisfaction • Reduce cost • Permanently solve problems • Reduce number of repetitive problems • Monitor problem resolution activities
  10. 10. The Team Problem Solving Process Definition: • Systematic approach to problem solving using factual data • Method to achieve an orderly thought process that can be used to resolve any problem
  11. 11. “Without data, you are just another person with an opinion.” Speak with data
  12. 12. The Team Problem Solving Process: G8D D0: Prepare For The Global 8D Process D1: Establish The Team D2: Describe The Problem
  13. 13. The Team Problem Solving Process: G8D D3: Develop The Interim Containment Action (ICA) D4: Diagnose The Problem: Define And Verify Root Cause And Escape Point
  14. 14. The Team Problem Solving Process: G8D D5: Choose And Verify Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs) For Root Cause And Escape Point D6: Implement And Validate Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs)
  15. 15. The Team Problem Solving Process: G8D D7: Prevent Recurrence D8: Recognize Team And Individual Contributions
  16. 16. D0 Prepare For The G8D Process • Evaluate • Respond • Provide ERAs (Emergency Response Actions) • Begin
  17. 17. D1 Establish The Team • Cross functional team • Members with: – Expertise – Authority • Select 4 -10 team members
  18. 18. The Team Approach The team selected must be able to: • Define the problem • Find root causes • Implement and verify corrective actions • Prevent recurrence
  19. 19. Team Composition Leader Champion Recorder Members
  20. 20. Team Leader • Ensures the team performs its duties and responsibilities • Establishes meeting time and location • Directs meeting to follow established agenda • Starts and ends the meeting on time
  21. 21. Team Champion • Stake Holder in the team’s success • Functions like a facilitator: provides information and removes road blocks • Helps team reach their goals
  22. 22. Team Recorder • Takes notes during the meeting • Writes, publishes, and distributes minutes in a timely fashion • Works with team leader to establish logistics of the meeting
  23. 23. Team Members • Team members are responsible for : –respecting other’s ideas –keeping an open mind –being receptive to consensus decision making –listening actively to other team members
  24. 24. 90% of Problem Solving Time is Spent... • Solving the wrong problem • Stating the problem so it can’t be solved • Solving a countermeasure or cause • Stating problems too generally • Trying to get agreement on the solution before there is an agreement on the problem
  25. 25. D2 Describe The Problem “ A problem well-defined is a problem half-solved. ” • Describe the specific object and specific defect which resulted in a deviation from the standard
  26. 26. D2 Describe The Problem State the problem in specific terms: • Who: Identifies individuals associated with the problem • What: Describe the defect/object • When: Date / Process Step • Where: Geographic/location on part • How: Method of detection • How much ( How many): Quantity
  27. 27. D2 Describe The Problem • Fallacy: Avoid describing problems as symptoms – Some examples: • Noisy • Won’t work • Contaminated • Not to specification
  28. 28. Is This A Good Description Of The Problem? • Bill James reported that the flange which is welded to the inlet pipe is crooked. • Customer reports that the problem has resulted in several assemblies that could not be assembled to the manifold.
  29. 29. Why Is This Better ? • Bill James, Lordstown assembly line supervisor, reported that the flange which is welded to the inlet pipe is crooked to centerline. This condition is putting the bolt mounting holes out of alignment which prevented a straight-in bolt assembly. • The customer reported that the problem resulted in 14 bad muffler assemblies over a one day period.
  30. 30. Problem History • Determine “Key Measurable” identified with the problem • Obtain past data to quantify magnitude of the problem • If past data is not available, start collecting data prior to any improvements
  31. 31. Coordinate action plan to minimize the effects of the problem on the customer: • Quarantine all similar equipment • Implement 100% inspection • Issue Cell Alert D3 Develop The Interim Containment Action (ICA)
  33. 33. Implement Short Term Containment Action • Document all actions taken and verify their effectiveness • Remove when permanent actions have been implemented and verified
  34. 34. D4 Diagnose The Problem: Define And Verify Root Cause and Escape Point • Identify all potential causes which could explain why the problem occurred • Isolate and verify the root cause by testing each potential cause • Identify corrective actions to eliminate root cause • Isolate and verify the “Escape Point”
  35. 35. D4 Define the Root Cause • Solving a problem without identifying the root cause is called “shooting from the hip” • A likely outcome of shooting from the hip is recurrence of the problem
  36. 36. Root Cause Analysis Tools • Process Flow Chart • Process FMEA / Control Plans • Brainstorming • Pareto Chart • Cause and Effect Diagram • BOS Chart • 5 Why’s
  37. 37. Problem solving / Graphical Techniques •Flow chart •Check Sheet •Brain storming •Nominal group techniques •Histogram •Scatter diagram •Control chart •Process capability •Pareto chart •Cause & effect •Run Chart Problem Identification Problem Analysis
  38. 38. Flow Chart
  39. 39. Check Sheets Definition: • Simple data gathering technique for obtaining information about a process • A common type of check sheet logs the frequency of defects over a period of time • Also known as “Tally Sheets’ • Answers the questions, When & How many ?
  40. 40. Pareto Chart • Purpose Of A Pareto Chart A pareto chart is used to graphically summarize and display the relative importance of the differences between groups of data.
  41. 41. Pareto Chart (80:20)
  42. 42. Pareto Chart How To Construct A Pareto Chart A pareto chart can be constructed by segmenting the range of the data into groups (also called segments, bins or categories). For example, if your business was investigating the delay associated with processing credit card applications, you could group the data into the following categories: • No signature • Residential address not valid • Non-legible handwriting • Already a customer • Other
  43. 43. Pareto Chart Some Sample 80/20 Rule Applications • 80% of process defects arise from 20% of the process issues. • 20% of your sales force produces 80% of your company revenues. • 80% of delays in schedule arise from 20% of the possible causes of the delays. • 80% of customer complaints arise from 20% of your products or services. (The above examples are rough estimates.)
  44. 44. Histogram Purpose Of A Histogram A histogram is used to graphically summarize and display the distribution of a process data set.
  45. 45. Histogram
  46. 46. Histogram How To Construct A Histogram A histogram can be constructed by segmenting the range of the data into equal sized bins (also called segments, groups or classes). For example, if your data ranges from 1.1 to 1.8, you could have equal bins of 0.1 consisting of 1 to 1.1, 1.2 to 1.3, 1.3 to 1.4, and so on.
  47. 47. Cause and Effect Diagram • Also known as “Fishbone Diagram” and “Ishikawa Diagram” • Diagram of the causes contributing to a particular problem • Focus is on the problem and root causes rather than solutions • Tool for organizing brainstorming ideas
  48. 48. How to use the Cause and Effect Diagram Step 1: Write the problem inside a box on the right-hand side of the writing surface. (“Head” of the fish) Step 2: Draw a major horizontal arrow from the left hand side of the chart leading into the box. (“Backbone” of the fish)
  49. 49. How to use the Cause and Effect Diagram Step 3: Add major 5 M categories Man Machine Methods Materials Measurements
  50. 50. How to use the Cause and Effect Diagram Step 4: Draw slanted arrows from the categories to the horizontal arrow (“Ribs” of the fish) Step 5: Place the brainstorming ideas under the appropriate categories Note: Ideas may belong in two or more categories
  51. 51. Cause and Effect Diagram
  52. 52. Scatter Diagrams A SCATTER DIAGRAM IS USED FOR: 1. Validating "hunches" about a cause-and-effect relationship between types of variables (examples: I wonder if students who spend more time watching TV have higher or lower average GPA's?; is there a relationship between the production speed of an operator and the number of defective parts made?) 2. Displaying the direction of the relationship (positive, negative, etc.) (examples: Will test scores increase or decrease if the students spend more time in study hall?; will increasing assembly line speed increase or decrease the number of defective parts made?;) 3. Displaying the strength of the relationship (examples: How strong is the relationship between measured IQ and grades earned in Chemistry?; how strong is the relationship between assembly line speed and the number of defective parts produced?;)
  53. 53. Scatter Diagrams STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING A SCATTER DIAGRAM: Collect two pieces of data (a pair of numbers) on a student, process, or product. Create a summary table of the data. 1. Draw a diagram labeling the horizontal and vertical axes. It is common that the "cause" variable be labeled the horizontal (X) axis and the "effect" variable be labeled the vertical (Y) axis. The values should increase up the vertical scale and toward the right on the horizontal scale. The scale on both the X and Y axes should be sufficient to include both the largest and the smallest X and Y values in the table. 2. Plot the data pairs on the diagram by placing a dot at the intersections of the X and Y coordinates for each data pair. 3. Interpret the scatter diagram for direction and strength.
  54. 54. Scatter Diagrams Interpreting the direction: Data patterns may be positive, negative, or display no relationship. A positive relationship is indicated by an ellipse of points that slopes upward demonstrating that an increase in the cause variable also increases the effect variable. A negative relationship is indicated by an ellipse of points that slopes downward demonstrating that an increase in the cause variable results in a decrease in the effect variable. A diagram with a cluster of points such that it is difficult or impossible to determine whether the trend is upward sloping or downward sloping indicates that there is no relationship between the two variables. Interpreting the strength: Data patterns, whether in a positive or negative direction, should also be interpreted for strength by examining the "tightness" of the clustered points. The more the points are clustered to look like a straight line the stronger the relationship.
  55. 55. Scatter Diagrams
  56. 56. Scatter Diagrams
  57. 57. Process FMEA • Identify part function and potential failure modes • Identify causes of failure and potential effects • Identify corrective action
  58. 58. Control Plans • Determine quality characteristics to be controlled • Determine inspection frequency • Determine gauging • Identify application of SPC techniques • Identify reaction plans when defects are found in the process
  59. 59. Brainstorming A method for a team to creatively and efficiently generate ideas on any topic Scrap PPM
  60. 60. Brainstorming How to use Brainstorming: • State problem • Each team member, in turn, gives an idea. No ideas are criticized! • Write each idea on a flipchart • Team does not stop and discuss any of the ideas during the session
  61. 61. Brainstorming • Ideas are generated in turn until each person passes indicating that the ideas are exhausted • Review written ideas for clarity • Discard any duplicate ideas or combine similar ideas
  62. 62. Brainstorming Scrap PPM • Bad seam weld • Low recoil • Set-Up • Machine Capability • Incomplete Seam Weld • High Compression • Low Compression
  63. 63. Ask Why Five Times ? ? ? ? ? • Effective in driving the problem solving process toward root cause • Generates understanding of cause and effect
  64. 64. How to use Ask Why 5 Times • Why did the shock leak? – Because the rod seal ID and rod OD were worn • Why were the components worn? – Because the seal was packed with sand and grit • Why was the seal packed with sand and grit? – Because of contamination on bins
  65. 65. How to use Ask Why 5 Times • Why is there contamination in the bins? – Because the bins are not washed • Why are the bins not washed? – Because a washer has not been purchased
  66. 66. Verify Potential Causes • Potential causes selected are tested to verify that they are a root cause • Root cause of the problem is found when you can turn the problem “on” and “off”
  67. 67. “Have we done it ?” HOW TO KNOW WHEN WE’VE FOUND THE ROOT CAUSE OF A PROBLEM Test Questions Yes/No DEAD END: You ran into a dead end when asking, “What caused the proposed root cause ?” _______ CONVERSATION: All conversation has come to a positive end. _______ FEELS GOOD: Everyone involved feels good, is motivated and uplifted emotionally. _______ AGREEMENT: All agree it is the root cause that keeps the problem from resolving. _______ EXPLAINS: It fully explains why the problem exists from all points of view. _______ BEGINNINGS: The earliest beginnings of the situation have been explored and understood. _______ LOGICAL: The root cause is logical, makes sense and dispels all confusion. _______ SPECIFIC: Your statement gets to the exact point of the trouble without generalizations. _______ CONTROL: The root cause is something you can influence, control and deal with realistically. _______ HOPE: Finding the root cause has returned hope that something constructive can be done about the situation. _______ WORKABLE: Suddenly, workable solutions, that deal with all the symptoms begin to appear. _______ STABLE: A stable, long-term, once-and-for-all resolution of the situation now appears feasible. _______
  68. 68. Root Cause Verification Tools • Check Sheets • Run Charts • Process Capability • Design of Experiments
  69. 69. T w in T ube Paint / Pack Rew orkable D efects Audit Sum m ary Log Sheet Shift: First Nam e: Evelyn C offey D ate: August 8,1997 Part Num ber G SH0005 G SH0016 ASH0004 C ustom er Ford Ford Ford Incorrect Paint D aub 0 0 0 B ushing O ff C enter 0 0 300 B ad Paint 2 0 0 T otal Parts Rew orked 2 0 300
  70. 70. Optimization • The most important stage • Focuses on the reduction of variation • Statistical processes are used to focus on: – centering the process – the main effects of the independent variables – identifying optimum levels for the “vital few”
  71. 71. Controls • Preventative and Reactive controls are put in place • Process controls are the last thing that should be done when analyzing a manufacturing process
  72. 72. Design of Experiments • Establish cause and effect relationships between several different variables and the outcome being studied • Evaluate the interaction of two or more variables
  73. 73. D5 Choose And Verify Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs) For Root Cause And Escape Point • Decision Analysis helps you select the optimal corrective action from several options
  74. 74. Decision Analysis Process 1. Separate criteria into “must have” or desirable 2. “Must have” criteria are mandatory and measurable 3. Rank “desirable” criteria using problem solving techniques
  75. 75. Decision Analysis Process 4. Analyze potential solutions for risk. Ask, “What could possibly go wrong if the solution is implemented”? 5. Determine probability of the risk and the seriousness if it does occur. 6. Select high probability and high seriousness solutions
  76. 76. Decision Analysis Process • Test selected corrective action • Verify corrective action will permanently eliminate the root cause without introducing any new effects • Use a pilot test to verify corrective actions
  77. 77. D6 Implement And Validate Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs) • Develop a timeline to implement corrective actions • Timeline should include: – schedule – milestones – activities – resources – responsibilities
  78. 78. D6 • Track progress and effectiveness of both containment and permanent actions • Remember, if you cannot prove the problem is fixed, you cannot say it is fixed
  79. 79. D7 Prevent Recurrence • Determine where similar circumstances could result in the same problem • Fix the system that allowed the problem to occur – Update Control Plans / FMEA / Drawings – Create Work Instructions – Training
  80. 80. D8 Recognize Team And Individual Contributions • Calculate the cost savings as a result of the solution of the problem • Document additional benefits to resolving the problem $$
  81. 81. D8 In addition to congratulating team members, remember to recognize outside vendors or customers who were involved in resolving the problem Congratulations Team !!!