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Chemical disasters

A chemical accident is the unintentional release of one or more hazardous substances which could harm human health or the environment. Chemical hazards are systems where chemical accidents could occur under certain circumstances. Such events include fires, explosions, leakages or releases of toxic or hazardous materials that can cause people illness, injury, disability or death.

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Chemical disasters

  1. 1. CHEMICAL DISASTERS • A chemical accident is the unintentional release of one or more hazardous substances which could harm human health or the environment. Chemical hazards are systems where chemical accidents could occur under certain circumstances. Such events include fires, explosions, leakages or releases of toxic or hazardous materials that can cause people illness, injury, disability or death.
  2. 2. CHEMICAL DISASTERS • While chemical accidents may occur whenever toxic materials are stored, transported or used, the most severe accidents are industrial accidents, involving major chemical manufacturing and storage facilities. The most significant chemical accident in recorded history was the 1984 Bhopal disaster in India, in which more than 50,000 people had died after a highly toxic vapour, (methyl isocyanate), was released at a Union Carbide Pesticides factory.
  3. 3. Chemical disasters may arise in number of ways • Process and safety systems failures - Human errors - Technical errors - Management errors • Induced effect of natural calamities • Accidents during the transportation • Hazardous waste processing/ disposal • Terrorist attack
  4. 4. EFFECTS • Chemicals can affect the skin by contact or the body either through the digestive system or through the lungs if air is contaminated with chemicals, vapours, mist or dust. There can be an acute (immediate) effect, or a chronic (medium to long-term) effect from the accumulation of chemicals or substances in or on the body.
  5. 5. TOXIC POLLUTION • When chemicals are released into our environment and disrupts the balance of our ecosystems, threatening our health, polluting the air we breathe and contaminating our food. • There are many sources of chemical pollution. Our technological advances have made us a species largely reliant on chemicals and these chemicals are toxic to life and our environment.
  6. 6. SOURCES OF CHEMICAL POLLUTION • Agriculture • Transportation • Industry • Anthropogenic activities
  7. 7. Pesticides • The crop plants are infected by many disease causing organisms called as pests. • They cause damage to crops, humans and other animals. • The insects, mice and other animals, unwanted plants, fungi, micro organisms such as bacteria and viruses.
  8. 8. Contd… • The term pesticide refers to a substance or mixture of substances that is meant to prevent, destroy, repel or mitigate any pest. • It includes the insecticides, fungicides and other substances that re used to control the pests. • Some examples includes cockroach sprays, insect repellents, tick sprays and powders.
  9. 9. Effects of pesticide pollution • The soil becomes deficient in micronutrients. • Deficiency of carbon content in soil results in decrease in water and nutrient holding capacity. • Increased usage of pesticides have caused disorders of endocrine system, particularly the thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary glands, kidneys, etc..
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES • The greatest benefit of using pesticides is controlling the population of pest species. • Pesticides help in eliminating the disease vectors to plantation. • Application of pesticides to crops leads to agricultural augmentation i.e., the plants are able to grow more healthily, as the pests can neither feed nor lay eggs on them and cause damage.
  11. 11. DISADVANTAGES • Pest resistance • Toxic effects • Effects of pesticides on humans
  12. 12. PRECAUTIONS • Always read the label on the pesticides container and follow the instructions while using it. • The pesticide should be kept out of reach of children. • Smoking should be avoided while spraying. • The body should be properly clothed from head to toe to avoid exposure of the body to the harmful chemicals. • Hands should be thoroughly washed after using the pesticides.

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