• often used as a synonym to
• is defined as “a belief in the
existence of one god viewed as the
creative source of the human race
and the world who transcends yet
is immanent in the world”
(Merriam-Webster Dictionary 2014).
12. Monotheistic religions
• claim that there is only one God who
could have designed and created the
universe or may have directed all
events that led to the creation of
• There is one supreme God who is both
personal and moral, and who seeks a
total and unqualified response from
humans (Hick 1990).
14. Polytheistic religions
• common among early people
recognize many principal gods
among whom no one is
• include the ancient religions of
Egypt, Greece, and Rome
wherein people worship a
multitude of personal gods.
• asserts that there is no genuine
distinction between God and the
Two implications arise from this belief.
1. It contends that God is dwelling in the
universe as part of it.
2. The universe does not exist at all as a
reality but only as a manifestation of
• deny the existence of
• deny the possibility for
man to acquire knowledge
of the existence of God.
• sila ay naniniwala sa isang
• naniniwala sila sa maraming
diyos. Maaring sinasamba nila
ang araw, ang tubig, ang puno,
ang bato, ang buwan, at iba pang
mga bagay sa mundo.
• naniniwala sila na ang diyos ay
parte ng universe.
• hindi naniniwala sa diyos.
• imposible para sa kanila na
maka-acquire ng knowledge sa
existence ng diyos.
19. DEFINITION AND NATURE OF
• “an organized system of
beliefs, ceremonies, and rules
used to worship a god or a
group of gods” (Merriam-
Webster Dictionary 2014).
20. • The Latin word religio refers to
“something done with
overanxious or scrupulous
attention to detail” (Bowker
• probably been derived from the
Latin verb religare which means
“to tie together, to bind fast.”
• is the study of religious
faith, practice, and
the study of God and of
God's relation to the
23. CHARACTERISTICS OF RELIGION
Most scholars agree that every religion
has the same three basic elements:
1. Wisdom or Creed
• a set of truths that must be
accepted and agreed to by those
who wish to belong to the religion,
those who choose to be a follower or
24. • A creed is a summary of the
principle beliefs of a religion.
• e.g. The Nicene creed, Laws of
Manu, Ten Commandments
2. Worship or Cult
• Refers to the way of
worshipping, to the RITUALS
that are practiced by followers
of the religion.
25. • This is often a difficult element
to describe because it involves
so many diverse elements.
3. Works or Code
• Refers to the ethical values
and the system of moral
practice directly resulting from
an adherence to the beliefs.
26. EIGHT ELEMENTS OF RELIGIONS
1. BELIEF SYSTEM or WORLDVIEW
• Many beliefs that fit together in a
system to make sense of the
universe and our place in it.
• The belief system is shared, and
its ideals are practiced by a
27. 3. CENTRAL STORIES/MYTHS
• Stories that help explain the beliefs
of a group; these are told over and
over again and sometimes
performed by members of the group.
They may or may not be factual.
• Beliefs are explained, taught, and
made real through ceremonies.
28. 5. ETHICS
• Rules about how to behave; these rules
are often thought to have come from a
deity or supernatural place, but they
might also be seen as guidelines
created by the group over time.
6. CHARACTERISTIC EMOTIONAL
• Most religions share emotions such as
awe, mystery, guilt, joy, devotion,
conversion, inner peace, etc.
29. 7. MATERIAL EXPRESSION
• Religions use things to perform rituals or
to express or represent beliefs, such as:
statues, paintings, music, flowers,
incense, clothes, architecture, and
specific sacred locations.
• Religions see some things as sacred and
some not sacred (or profane). Some
objects, actions, people, and places may
share in the sacredness or express it.
30. ACTIVITY 1
In a yellow sheet paper, in your
own idea answer the following
1. What is the most important thing in
their life? Explain briefly.
2. What values (ex. honesty, simplicity,
God-fearing, etc.) of your parents
you want to follow? Why?
3. What is your idea about God?
31. ORIGINS OF RELIGION
Archaeologists believe that they
have discovered elements of religious
belief practiced by Homo sapiens
almost 60,000 years ago.
Apart from burying the dead,
various items such as foods, tools,
and other objects were placed inside
35. THE ORIGIN OF RELIGION
1. The Human Quest for Meaning
• Understanding our World and our
2. The Quest of Purpose
• The motivation to live a life which
promotes human wholeness in accordance
with the meaning discovered.
3. The Quest for Salvation
• The search to be free from the feeling of
disharmony deep within the human person.
37. Western Beliefs
• MONOTHEISTIC - believe in one God.
• Share a similar view of the world and concept
because they both sprang from Judaism (Islam and
• Humans must enter an interpersonal relationship
• Morality is based on learning the will of God,
understanding, and living it out individually and as
• Time is viewed as Linear, from beginning to end.
• The Bible (Christianity, Torah (Judaism), or Qur’an
(Islam) are the central books studied and lived by.
38. Eastern Beliefs
• POLYTHEISM- belief in more than one god.
• Main concern is to live a good, happier, and have
• Creation contains god within it. All elements of
creation from plants to animals have an animated
• Meditation is central to these faiths.
• Life is balanced.
• Holy books are not central to the belief and
• Time is viewed in cycles.
• There is a belief in reincarnations and rebirth.
• Things can be made better or worse through karma.
39. IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING RELIGION
• Understand the difference and see
similarities between nations and
culture both political and
• Appreciate our own belief by seeing
them alongside those of others.
• Work for Ecumenism through a
meaningful exchange of ideas
between religious groups.
40. SIMILARITIES OF RELIGIONS (THE
STRUCTURE OF RELIGIONS)
• Belief in a power greater than
• Holy places (Ex. Mecca, Vatican,
Bodh Gaya, River Ganges).
• Set of religious symbols by which
the religion is identified.
41. • Having a liturgy or observance of
• Having Sacred or Holy Writings
and list of rules.
• Number of important people,
founders, prophets, missionaries,
and historical people.
• Place of worship.
• Belief in the Golden Rule.
43. EXPLORING SPIRITUALITY
• “relating or affecting the human spirit
or soul as opposed to material or
physical things” (Oxford Dictionaries
• One author points out that it is quite
common for people to say that they
are “spiritual, not religious” (Grassie
• derived from the Latin word
spiritus, its verb root is
spirare which means “to
• Spirituality may be
manifested in quite a number
A person may believe in the
presence of an overwhelming
power greater than oneself or
perhaps a person can be fully
mindful of one’s purpose in life.
That person can also have a
feeling of oneness or a bond with
other living beings.
50. Religion Spirituality
Religion makes us vow Spirituality sets us free
Religion shows us fear Spirituality shows courage
Religion tells us the truth
Spirituality allows us to discover th
Religion separates from other religi
Spirituality unites them
Religion makes us dependent Spirituality makes us independent
Religion applies discipline Spirituality applies destiny or faith
Religion makes us follow its
Spirituality allows us to create
our own personal journey.
53. ACTIVITY 2
In a bond paper, prepare
character sketches of a
person who is spiritual but not
religious and a person who is
religious but not spiritual.