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Eliciting Non-Functional Requirements

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An overview of elicitation techniques to help business analysts elicit non-functional requirements.

Veröffentlicht in: Technologie
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Eliciting Non-Functional Requirements

  1. 1. How Do I Elicit Non-Functional Requirements? (Even when my business representative doesn’t understand them?)
  2. 2. In This Session You Will Learn  How vital non-functional requirements are  The value and definitions of several key non- functional areas  Practical techniques for eliciting these types of requirements.
  3. 3. Functional Versus Non-Functional  Functional Requirements: defines a function of a system or its components. A function is described as a set of inputs, behavior, and outputs.  Non-Functional Requirements (NFR): specify criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, generally architecturally significant requirements
  4. 4. NFRs Are A Huge Requirement Domain  Often referred to as the “-ility” requirements  The big ones are: Usability Availability Scalability Performance  But there are so many more such as…
  5. 5. Do I have to specify every category?  Probably not  Consider your  project, its preproduction and production environments  company’s plans for the product  company’s growth plans  customer’s sophistication  competition  Choose based upon your project’s considerations
  6. 6. NFRs Can Be Challenging  If you are uncomfortable with an NFR area, do your research before addressing the topic  Plan elicitation ahead to frame the NFRs well for the business  Once you’re ready, define the NFRs by interpreting them into business-relatable ideas
  7. 7. NFRs Can Be Challenging  Frame your questions as real-world scenarios using What if… Given, When, Then Drill down techniques
  8. 8. Is Your Technical Team NFR Friendly?  Reasons for resistance to delving into NFRs Not in the habit of planning ahead for NFRs May not plan for them at all There may be some unknowns that have to be cleared Team members may be at various levels of comfort with the different NFR areas  Recruit a champion to help you get NFR buy-in
  9. 9. Break through with  Doing your “homework” ahead of time  Priming questions sent ahead of your meeting  Volunteering to help discovery efforts  Bringing people together, such as operations and support  Emotional Intelligence  Scenario-based elicitation
  10. 10. Let’s talk about the “-ilities” Usability Availability Scalability Performance
  11. 11. Non-Functional Areas - Usability The degree to which a software can be used by specified consumers to achieve quantified objectives with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a quantified context of use
  12. 12. Non-Functional Areas - Usability  Who are our target user populations?  What is the common context for use of the software?  What are the most frequently performed tasks? What is the optimal time for each task? What is the longest acceptable time for each task? What are the alternative flows for each task?
  13. 13. Non-Functional Areas - Usability  What is the tolerance for user navigation errors?  How do we define and measure user satisfaction?  What is the target for ease of learning (intuitive)?  What is the longest tolerable wait between steps for the task?
  14. 14. Non-Functional Areas – Availability The proportion of time a system is in a functioning condition, expressed as 100% minus the percentage of time a system is unavailable
  15. 15. Non-Functional Areas – Availability
  16. 16. Non-Functional Areas – Availability  When the system is down, or sluggish, what does this mean to our customer?  How is our reputation affected if the system is unavailable more than our stated service level agreement (SLA)?  When the user is in the middle of a session and the DB or application goes down, how is the user affected? How is our reputation affected?
  17. 17. Non-Functional Areas – Availability  What are your employer’s and your customers’ tolerances for system unavailability or lack of reliability?  Is this function critical to the business, to the customer, to the technical team?  Do any other systems which may be critical to customer, business, or technical team rely on the system or its output?  If a certain module becomes unavailable, how does that affect the system’s availability?
  18. 18. Non-Functional Areas – Availability  If a certain piece of hardware is unavailable, what is the effect on the system and how does that affect our system’s availability?  What is the business’ or the customer’s tolerance for the system to be down for scheduled maintenance?  What are the contractual obligations specified for the client(s)?  What compliance requirements might affect our system’s acceptable availability? How can those be mitigated?
  19. 19. Non-Functional Areas - Scalability Refers to the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work or its potential to accommodate growth
  20. 20. Non-Functional Areas - Scalability  What is the projected user growth over the lifetime of the system?  What is the projected resource use per user over the lifetime of the system?  How large is an average user’s data set?  What is the demand for the CPU under normal working conditions?
  21. 21. Non-Functional Areas - Scalability  What would be considered a very heavy load day for users/data/computing?  What plan can we have in place in the event that we receive an unusually heavy load?  What monitors can we put into place to be advised when we are reaching a peak in users/computing/storage?  What would constitute a very high number of users accessing the system?
  22. 22. Non-Functional Areas - Scalability  What would constitute a high load on our CPUs?  What would constitute a high storage usage?  Who should be notified in the event of such large loads?  How many transactions per second can we expect in normal load and peak load?
  23. 23. Non-Functional Areas - Performance The amount of work accomplished by a computer system. It may involve one or more of the following:  Short response time for a given piece of work  High rate of processing work (throughput)  Low utilization of computing resources  High bandwidth  Short data transmission time
  24. 24. Non-Functional Areas - Performance  What are the time constraints does the user have when performing this task?  What if the system slows to the point that the users are unable to complete the task in a timely manner?  What if our system exceeds the contractually agreed upon SLA?
  25. 25. Non-Functional Areas - Performance What have we heard from the customer regarding response time from the existing system? When working on this task, how quickly will other users need to have access to the data? What will happen if the user does not receive a response to their submission within X seconds?
  26. 26. Non-Functional Areas - Performance  How many transactions per second should the system be able to handle in normal and peak usage times?  What constraints are there on CPU usage in normal and peak times?  What other systems are running on this server that may impact performance? How can that be mitigated?
  27. 27. Non-Functional Areas - Performance  What is our network bandwidth? How will that be impacted by our system at normal and peak times?  How quickly does the data need to be available for use by other users and/or systems?
  28. 28. In This Session You Will Learn  How vital non-functional requirements are  The value and definitions of several key non- functional areas  Practical techniques for eliciting these types of requirements.

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