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FLEA 2010 REVIEW UTILITIES SANITARY AND PLUMBING SYSTEMS
Introduction PLUMBINGP Is the art and technique of installing pipes,L fixtures & other apparatuses in buildings & for bringing the supply, liquids, substancesU &/or ingredients & removing them;M from the Latin plumbum for lead as pipesB were once made from lead.I refers to a system of pipes and fixtures installed in a building for the distributionN of potable water and the removal ofG waterborne wastes.
Introduction - history PRACTICE OF PLUMBING IN THE PHILIPPINESP Birth of plumbing profession traced back to the 17th centuryL as Spaniards established Walled City known as Intramuros as a model community.U In 1902, the PLUMBING TRADE was duly recognized by the government.M Master Plumber John F. Hass became the 1st Chief of Division of Plumbing Construction and Construction. A plumbing codeB based on the Plumbing Code of the US was incorporated into the Building Code for the City of Manila.I In 1935 the National Master Plumbers Association of theN Philippines (NAMPAP) was organized and registered with the SEC.G
Introduction - history PRACTICE OF PLUMBING IN THE PHILIPPINESP City Ordinance 2411 known as “The Plumbing Code for the City of Manila” was enacted with the consultation ofL NAMPAPU In 1954, the 3rd Congress of the Republic of the Philippines approved after the third reading House Bill No. 962. ThisM became Republic Act No. 1378. On June 28, 1955, R.A. 1378 known as the “Plumbing Code ofB the Philippines was signed by President Ramon Magsaysay.I In December 21, 1999 pursuant t Section 4 of R.A. 1378, Joseph Ejercito Estrada approved the Revised PlumbingN Code of 1999.G
Plumbing System - Fundamentals PLUMBING SYSTEMP System includes all potable water supply and distribution pipes, all plumbing fixtures and traps; all sanitary andL storm drainage systems; vent pipes, roof drains, leadersU and downspouts; and all building drains and sewers, including their respective joints and connections;M devices, receptacles, and appurtenances within the property; water lines in the premises; potable, tap, hotB and chilled water piping; potable water treating or usingI equipment; fuel gas piping; water heaters and vents for same.N SUPPLY DRAINAGEG PIPE FIXTURE PIPE
Plumbing System - Fundamentals PLUMBING SYSTEM COMPONENTSP WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEML SANITARY DRAINAGE AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMUM STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMB PLUMBING FIXTUREIN FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMG FUEL AND GAS PIPING SYSTEM
Plumbing System - Fundamentals PLUMBING CYLEP S U P P L Y DISTRIBUTION U S EL Water Mains, Pressure, PlumbingU Piping Storage Tanks Fixtures NetworksM S O U R C E COLLECTIONB Lakes, Rivers, Reservoirs Gravity, Piping NetworksI TREATMENT DISPOSALN Treated water returned to the Sewage Plants, Natural Sanitary and Storm Sewers original source PurificationG
Water Supply and Distribution System definition Carries water from the water source, street main or aP pump to the building and to various points in theL building at which water is used. COLD WATER SUPPLYU HOT WATER SUPPLYM WATERB plays an important part in the plumbing systemI Providing water is one of the most critical utility requirementN “Universal Solvent”G
Water Supply and Distribution System WATER CYCLE 3 MAJOR STAGESP EVAPORATIONLU CONDENSATIONMB PRECIPITATIONING
Water Supply and Distribution System SOURCES OF WATERP RAIN WATERL Collected from roofs of buildings and special water sheds and stored in cisterns or ponds.U ADVANTAGEM Water is soft & pure and is suitable for the hot water supply systemB DISADVANTAGEI Only a source during the wet seasonN Storage becomes a breeding place for mosquitoesG Roofs may not be clean
Water Supply and Distribution System SOURCES OF WATERP GROUND WATER The portion of the rainwater which has percolated into the earth toL form underground deposits called aquifers (water- bearing soil formation).U From springs and wells and is the principal source of water for domestic use in most rural areas.M ADVANTAGE Usually has an abundant supply;B requires less treatment because of natural filtering.I DISADVANTAGEN May have organic matter & chemical elements usually treatment is suggested.G
Water Supply and Distribution System SOURCES OF WATERP NATURAL SURFACE WATER A mixture of surface run-off and ground water. Surface sourcesL includes rivers, lakes, ponds and impounding reservoirs.U ADVANTAGE Usually easy to acquire and in large quantities.M Used for irrigation, industrial purposes and, when treated,B for community water supply.I DISADVANTAGE Contains a large amounts of bacteria, organic, & inorganicN substances; Purification & treatment is necessary.G
Water Supply and Distribution System USES OF WATERP NOURISHMENTL CLEANSING AND HYGIENEU CEREMONIAL USESM TRANSPORTATIONAL USESBI COOLING MEDIUMN ORNAMENTAL ELEMENTG PROTECTIVE USES
Water Supply and Distribution System PHYSICAL PROPETIES OF WATERP SURFACE TENSIONL The ability to stick itself together and pull itself togetherU HEAT ABSOPTION/CAPACITYM The ability to absorb heat without becoming warmerB CAPILLARITYI The ability to climb up a surface against the pull of gravityN DISSOLVING ABILITY Known as the “Universal Solvent”G
Water Supply and Distribution System WATER QUALITY PROBLEM AND THEIR CORRECTIONP PROBLEMS CAUSE EFFECTS CORRECTIONL 1. Acidity Contains carbon dioxide Corrosion of non-ferrous Passing the water through a bed ofU pipes Rusting & crushed marble or limestone to achieve alkalinity,M clogging of steel pipes or adding sodium silicate.)B 2. Hardness Presence of Clogging of magnesium and pipes Boiling Introduction ofI calcium salts Impaired laundry and water softeners made up ofN 3. Turbidity Silt or mud in cooking Discoloration Zeolite FiltrationG surface or in ground Bad taste
Water Supply and Distribution System WATER QUALITY PROBLEM AND THEIR CORRECTIONP PROBLEMS CAUSE EFFECTS CORRECTIONL 4. Color Presence of Discoloration of Chlorination orU Iron and manganese fixtures and laundry ozonation and file filtrationMB 5. Pollution Contamination by organic Disease ChlorinationI matter or sewageNG
Water Supply and Distribution System Water treatment and purification is any method that will remove one or more materials that makeP the water unsuitable for a given useL AERATION Water is sprayed into the air to release any trapped gases and absorbU additional oxygen for better taste.MBING
Water Supply and Distribution System COAGULATION - FLOCCULATIONP process by which small sediment particles which do not settle well combine together to form larger particles which can be removed by sedimentationL COAGULATION chemical process in which the coagulant reacts with the sediment to make it capable ofU combining into larger particles. FLOCCULATION physical process in which the sediment particlesM collide with each other and stick together.BING
Water Supply and Distribution System SEDIMENTATIONP suspended solids are removed from the water by gravity settling and depositionL water is passed through basins so sediments can settle through a period of timeUMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System FILTRATIONP water is passed through layers of sand and gravel in concrete basins in order to remove the finer suspended particles.LUMBI DISINFECTION/ CHLORINATIONN method of introducing a controlled amount of chlorine to the water in order to attain a desired degree of disinfection.G
Water Supply and Distribution System WATER TREATMENT PROCESSPLUMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System WELLSP Wells are holes in the earth from which a fluid may be withdrawn using manual or mechanical means such as drawL bucket, pump, etc. GENERAL TYPES OF WELLU SHALLOW WELL DEEP WELLMB TYPES OF WELL (ACCORDING TO METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION)I DUG WELLSN can be constructed with hand tools or power tools depth of about 15 meters (50 ft)G can have the greatest diameter that a space may allow
Water Supply and Distribution System DUG WELLPLUMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System DRIVEN WELLSP A steel drive-well point is fitted on one end of the pipe sectionL and driven into the earth. The point may be driven into the ground to a depth of up to 15 meters (50 ft).UMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System BORED WELLSP These are dug with earth augers are usually less than 30 meters (100 ft) deep. The diameter ranges from 2 to 30 inches. The wellL is lined with metal, vitrified tile or concrete.UMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System DRILLED WELLSP Requires more elaborate equipment depending on the geology of the site.L Used for drilling oil and can reach up to 1000 meters in depth.UMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System JETTED WELLSP Use extreme water pressure so as not to affect existing foundation in the vicinity. It makes use of a suction pump above,L while casing acts as the pump riser.UMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System PUMPS A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids or slurries.P A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action.L CLASSIFICATION OF PUMPSU RECIPROCATING PUMP Pump having a plunger that move back and forth within a cylinderM equipped with check valves. The cylinder is best located near or below the ground level.BING
Water Supply and Distribution System CENTRIFUGAL PUMPP It contains an impeller mounted on a rotating shaft. The rotating impeller increases the water velocity while forcing the water into aL casing thus converting the water’s velocity into higher pressure.UMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System TURBINE PUMPP A turbine pump has a vertical turbine located below groundwater levels and a driving motor located at groundLUMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System SUBMERSIBLE PUMPP Is basically a centrifugal pump complete with electric motors which are positioned underwater in a suitable bored hole that delivers theL water to the surfaceUMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System JET (EJECTOR) PUMPP Jet pumps are centrifugal pumps typically used for drawing water up from a well.LUMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System PISTON PUMPP Is a positive displacement reciprocating pump in which a plunger is driven backwards and forwards, or up and down by a mechanicalL working head.U Water is sucked into a sealed vacuum by use of a piston.MBING
Water Supply and Distribution System SUMP PUMPP Sump pumps are used in applications where excess water must be pumped away from a particular area.L a pump used to remove water that has accumulated in a water collecting sump pit,UMBING
Water Supply and Distribution System WATER STORAGE FOR DOMESTIC USEP OVERHEAD TANK/ GRAVITY SUPPLY TANKL Does not have any pressure concerns but relies on gravity to supply water toU fixtures below. Use in overhead feed systemM COMPONENTSB Supply PipeI Inlet Overflow PipeN Drip PanG Gate Valves
Water Supply and Distribution System CISTERNP Usually built of reinforced concrete underground and connected with a pump.L PNEUMATIC WATER TANKU Used in the air pressure system and often used with a pump.M Make use of pressure relieve valve to release excess pressure if necessaryBING
Water Supply and Distribution System HOT WATER TANKP Range Boiler Small hot water tank (30-60 cmL diameter; 180cm max length) Made of galvanized steel sheet,U copper or stainless steel Standard working pressure limit is 85 to 150 psiM Storage BoilerB Large hot water tank (60-130 cm in diameter; 5m max length)I Made of heavy duty material sheets applied with rust proof paintN Standard working pressure limit is 65 to 100 psi.G
Water Supply and Distribution System VALVES AND CONTROLSP FUNCTION OF VALVES Control of the water systemL - - Start or shut down a system Regulate pressureU - - Check backflow Control the direction of waterM TYPES OF VALVESB GATE VALVE (Full-way Valve)I Used mainly to completely close or completely open the water line (doesN not control flow of water). Wedge Shape or Tapered Disc ValveG Double Disc Valve
Water Supply and Distribution System GLOBE VALVE Controls the flow of water with aP movable spindle. Can reduce water pressure (throttling).L 3 typesU Plug Type Disc ValveMB Conventional Disc ValveIN Composition Disc ValveG
Water Supply and Distribution System CHECK VALVE Main function is to prevent reversal ofP flow (backflow) in the line.L 4 typesU Swing Check ValveM Lift Check ValveBI Vertical Check ValveNG Horizontal Check valve
Water Supply and Distribution System ANGLE VALVEP Used to make a 90° turn in a line.LU FOOT VALVE Located at the lower end of the pump. UsedM mainly to prevent loss of priming of the pumps.BI SAFETY VALVEN Used on water systems, heating systems, compressed air lines & other pipe linesG with excessive pressure.
Water Supply and Distribution System TYPES OF FAUCETSP COMPRESSION COCK Operates by the compression of a softL packing upon a metal sheet.U KEY COCK Operates with a round tapering plugM ground to fit a metal sheet.B BALL FAUCETI Constructed with a ball connected to the handle.N HOSE BIBBG A water faucet made for the threaded attachment of a hose.
Water Supply and Distribution System WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM The water service pipe, water distribution pipes, and the necessaryP connecting pipes, fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in orL adjacent to the structure or premises. PARTS OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMU SERVICE PIPEM The pipe from the water main or other source of potable water supply to the water distribution system of the building served.B WATER METERI Device used to measure in liters or gallons the amount of water that passes through the water service.N DISTRIBUTION PIPE/ SUPPLY PIPE A pipe within the structure or on the premises which conveys waterG from the water service pipe or meter to the point of utilization.
Water Supply and Distribution SystemP RISERL A water supply pipe that extends one full story or more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures.UM FIXTURE BRANCH The water supply pipe between the fixture supply pipe & the waterB distributing pipe.I FIXTURE SUPPLYN A water supply pipe connecting the fixture with the fixture branch.G
Water Supply and Distribution System COLD WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMP TYPES OF WATER DISTRIBUTION DIRECT (UPFEED)L INDIRECT - Down feed or Gravity SystemU - Hydro pneumatic System ( Air Pressure System) DIRECT (UPFEED)M Water is provided by the city water companies using normal pressure from public water mainBING
Water Supply and Distribution System DOWNFEED orP GRAVITY SYSTEML Water is pumped into a large tank on top of the building andU is distributed to the fixtures by means of gravity.MBING
Water Supply and Distribution System HYDRO PNEUMATIC SYSTEM/ AIR PRESSURE SYSTEMPL When pressure supplied by city water supply is not strong enoughUM Compressed air is used to raise and push water into the systemBING
Water Supply and Distribution System ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESP Upfeed SystemL 1. Eliminates extra cost of pumps & 1. Pressure from water main is tanks. inadequate to supply tall buildings.U 2. Water supply is affected during peak load hour.M Air Pressure SystemB 1. With compact pumping unit. 2. Sanitary due to air tight water 1. Water supply is affected by loss of pressure inside the tank in case ofI chamber. 3. economical (smaller pipe diam) power interruption.N 4. less initial construction & maintenance cost 5. Oxygen in the compressed air servesG as purifying agent. 6. Adaptable air pressure. 7. Air pressure serves zones of about 10 stores intervals.
Water Supply and Distribution SystemPL ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESU Overheadfeeed SystemM 1. Water is not affected by peak load hour. 1. 2. Water is subject to contamination. High maintenance cost.B 2. Not affected by power interruptions. 3. Occupies valuable space. 3. Time needed to replace broken parts 4. Requires stronger foundation and does not affect water supply. other structure to carry additionalI load of tank and water.NG
Water Supply and Distribution System Types of the Hot Water Distribution SystemsP Upfeed and Gravity Return SystemL With a continuing network of pipes to provide constantU circulation of water Hot water rises on its own &M does not need any pump for circulationB Hot water is immediatelyI drawn form the fixture any time Provided economical circulatingN return of unused hot water Larger pipe is installed at theG top of the riser & the diminishing sizes passes through the lower floors of the building
Water Supply and Distribution System Types of the Hot Water Distribution Systems Downfeed and Gravity Return SystemP Hot water rises on toL the highest point of the plumbing systemU and travels to the fixtures via gravity (closed pipe system)M Water distribution isB dependent on the expansion of hotI water & gravity. Larger pipe is installedN at the bottom of the riser & the diminishingG sizes passes through the upper floors of the building
Water Supply and Distribution System Types of the Hot Water Distribution SystemsP Pump Circuit SystemL For a more efficient circulation of hot water to the upper floor levels of multi-storey buildingsUMBING
Sanitary Drainage SystemP General Rules in designing the Sanitary system:L The pipes should take the shortest possible route toU the house sewer or the terminating point of the Sanitary systemM Control components such as clean-outs, traps, and vents, should be located strategically so as to ensureB efficient circulationI Subsystems of the Sanitary System:N Waste Collection SystemG Ventilation System
Sanitary Drainage System Waste Pipe conveys only wastewater or liquid waste free of fecal matter.P Vent PipeL used for ensuring the circulation of air in a plumbing system and for relieving the negative pressure exerted on trap seals.U TrapM a fitting or device designed and constructed to provide, when properly vented, a liquid seal which prevents the backflow of foulB air or methane gas without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through it.I StackN the vertical main of a system of soil, waste or vent pipings extending through one or more stories and extended thru theG roof. Branch any part of the piping system other than a main, riser or stack.
Sanitary Drainage System House/Building DrainP part of the lowest horizontal piping of a plumbing system whichL receives the discharges from the soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside of a building and conveys it to the house sewer outsideU of the building.MB House/Building SewerI extends from the house drain at a point 0.60 meters from the outside face of the foundation wall of a building to the junction withN the street sewer or to any point of discharge, and conveying the drainage of one building site.G
Sanitary Drainage System CHANGES IN DIRECTION OF SANITARYP DRAINAGE LINESL Horizontal to Horizontal change in directionU use 45° wye branches, combination wye – 1/8 bendM branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweepBI Vertical to Horizontal change in directionN 45° wye branches or other approved fittings of equivalent sweepG
Sanitary Drainage SystemP Horizontal to vertical change in directionL use 45° or 60° wye branches, combination wye -1/8 bendU branches, sanitary tee or sanitary tapped tee branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweeps.M No fitting having more than one inlet at the same levelB shall be used (i.e., sanitary cross) Double sanitary tees may be used when the barrel of theI fitting is at least two pipe (2) sizes larger than the largest inlet, (pipe sizes recognized for this purpose are 51, 64, 76,N 89, 102, 114, 127, & 152 mm dia.)G
Sanitary Drainage SystemP MINIMUM SLOPE OFL SANITARY DRAINAGE LINESU Minimum slope or pitch of horizontal drainage pipe – 2% orM 20mm/m (¼” per foot).B Exception: Where it is impracticable due to depth of street sewer, adverse structural features and irregular building plans,I pipes 102 mm dia or larger may have a slope of not less than 1% or 10mm/m (1/8” per foot), approved by the AdministrativeN AuthorityG
Sanitary Drainage System Types of Permissible Traps:P The Common P-TrapL Used for lavatories, kitchen sinks, laundry tubs, & urinalsU Materials commonly used for theM P-trap: nickel, chrome plated brass, Galvanized malleable copper, & PVC.B The Deep Seal P-TrapI Water seal is about twice the size ofN The common P-trapG Used for extreme conditions because resealing quality is greater
Sanitary Drainage System The Stand TrapPL Used for fixtures such as slop sinks that are usually built low in theU ground, leaving very little space for a foundation & a trapM Serves as a water seal & structuralB support for the fixtureI The Running TrapN Used within the line of the house drainG
Sanitary Drainage SystemP The Drum TrapL Has a large diameter (around 0.16 m) Used for fixtures that discharge large amount of waterU (bathtubs, shower or floor drains)MBING
Sanitary Drainage System REQUIREMENTS:P Traps REQUIREDL Each plumbing fixture, except those with integral traps, shall be separately trapped with an approved-type waterseal trap.UM Only one trap shall be permitted on a trap arm (portion of a fixture drain between a trap and the vent)BI One trap, centrally located, may serve three single compartment sinks or laundry tubs or lavatories, adjacent to each other and in the sameN room, where their waste outlets are not more than 0.75 m apart.G
Sanitary Drainage System SIZE OF TRAPS:P The trap shall be the same size as the trap arm to which it isL connected.U Each fixture trap shall have a trap seal of water of not less than 51 mm and not more than 102 mm (except where a deeper sealM is found necessary by the Administrative Authority for special conditions.BING
Sanitary Drainage System INSTALLATION OF TRAPS: The vertical distance between a fixture outlet tailpiece and theP trap weir shall not exceed 0.60 m in length.L Horizontal Distance of Trap ArmsU TRAP ARM DIAMETER DISTANCE TO VENTM Note: In no case shall the 32 mm 0.76 m trap distance be less than 2 times the diameter of theB 38 mm 51 mm 1.07 m 1.52 m trap arm.I 76 mm 102 mm & larger 1.83 m 3.05 mN The developed length of the trap arm (measured from the top of closet ring to inner edge of vent ) of a water closet or similarG fixture shall not exceed 1.8 m. For trap arm 76 mm dia or larger, a cleanout is required for a change of direction of greater than 22 ½ °.
Sanitary Drainage SystemP REQUIREMENTS: Clean-outs REQUIREDL at the upper terminal of every horizontal sewer or waste lineU at each run of piping more than 15 meters (50 feet) in totalM developed length at every 15 m (50 ft) of total developed length or a fractionB thereof additional clean-out shall be provided on a horizontal line with anI aggregate offset angle exceeding 135° inside the building near the connection between the buildingN drain and the building sewer or installed outside the building at the lower end of the building drain and extended to grade.G
Sanitary Drainage SystemPL Clean-outs NOT REQUIREDU on a horizontal drain less than 1.5 m in length unless such line is serving sinks or urinals.M on short horizontal drainage pipe installed at a slope of 72 deg or less from the vertical line (or at an angle of 1/5 bend)BING
Sanitary Drainage SystemP VENTILATIONL Portion of the drainage pipe installation intended to maintain aU balanced atmospheric pressure inside the systemMB Vent Pipe- a pipe or opening used for ensuring theI circulation of air in a plumbing system and for relieving the negative pressure exerted on trap seals.NG
Sanitary Drainage System VENTS Main Types:P Main Soil & Waste VentLU the ‘backbone’ of the entire sanitaryM system Connected to the Main Soil & WasteB Stack The portion where waste does notI travel through Continues to the roof; the portionN penetrating the roof is called the Vent Stack Through Roof (VSTR)G
Sanitary Drainage System Main VentP the principal artery of the ventingL system to which vent branches are connected.U a.k.a. ‘Collecting Vent Line’ serves as support to the Main Soil &M Waste VentBING
Sanitary Drainage System Individual Vent or Back VentPLUMBI a pipe installed to vent a fixture trap, thatN connects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates in the open air.G
Sanitary Drainage SystemP Unit, Common, or Dual VentLUMBIN an arrangement of venting so installed that one vent pipeG serve two (2) traps.
Sanitary Drainage System Relief VentPL a vertical vent line that providesU additional circulation of air between the drainage and vent systems or toM act as an auxiliary vent on a specially designed system such as aB “yoke vent” connection between the soil and vent stacks.ING
Sanitary Drainage System Yoke or By-pass VentPLU a pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack below the floor andM below horizontal connection to an adjacent vent stack at a point aboveB the floor and higher than the highest spill level of fixtures for preventingI pressure changes in the stacks.NG
Sanitary Drainage System Circuit VentPLUMB a group vent pipe which starts in front of theI extreme (highest) fixture connection on a horizontal branch and connects to the vent stack.N a.k.a. ‘Loop Vent’G Serves a battery of fixtures
Sanitary Drainage System Looped VentPL a vertical vent connection on aU horizontal soil or waste pipe branch at a point downstreamM of the last fixture connection and turning to a horizontal lineB above the highest overflow level of the highest fixtureI connected thereN Used in spaces without partitionsG
Sanitary Drainage System Wet VentP that portion of a vent pipe through which wastewater alsoL flows through.UMBING
Sanitary Drainage SystemP Local VentL a pipe or shaft to convey foul airU from a plumbing fixture or a room to the outer air.MB Dry VentIN a vent that does not carry liquid or water-borne wastes.G
Sanitary Drainage System Stack VentPL the extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drainU connected to the stack.M Vent StackB the vertical vent pipe installedI primarily for providing circulation of air to and from any part of the soil, wasteN of the drainage system. The uppermost end above the roof has traditionally beenG referred to as Vent Stack Through Roof (VSTR).
Sanitary Drainage System REQUIREMENTS:P Vents REQUIREDL Each trap shall be protected against siphonage and back-pressureU through venting.M Vents NOT REQUIREDB on a primary settling tank interceptor which discharges through a horizontal indirect waste pipe into a secondary interceptor. TheI secondary interceptor shall be properly trapped and vented.N Traps serving sinks in an island bar counter. Such sink shall discharge by means of an approved indirect waste pipe into aG floor sink or other approved type receptor.
Sanitary Drainage System SANITARY SYSTEM PROBLEMS:P Trap Seal Loss - Direct effect of the Minus & Plus Pressure inside the system dueL to inadequate ventilation of traps - Attributed to the following conditions:U Siphonage- direct and momentumMBING
Sanitary Drainage System Back PressurePLUMB Evaporation- caused by extreme temperatures, idlenessI Wind Effects- strong winds blow the trap seal Retardation of flowN - Due to the effect of atmospheric pressure and/or gravityG Deterioration of the Materials - Due to the formation of acids
Sanitary Drainage SystemPLUMBI Indirect Waste Pipe – is a pipe that does not connect directly with theN drainage system but conveys liquid wastes by discharging into a plumbing fixture, interceptor orG receptacle directly connected to the drainage system.
Sanitary Drainage System DISPOSAL PHASE- the final stage of the plumbing process; whereP used water and water-carried wastes are brought to various disposal outletsL SEPTIC TANKS Definition:U A watertight covered receptacle designed and constructed toM receive the discharge of sewage from a building sewer,B separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter and store digested solids through a period of detention, and allowI the clarified liquids to discharge for final disposal SLUDGE- solid organic matter that are denser than water andN settle at the bottom of the septic tankG SCUM- lighter organic material that rise to the surface of the water EFFLUENT- liquid content of sewage
Sanitary Drainage SystemPL Bacteria in septic tankU to encourage decomposition:M Aerobic bacteria- relies on oxygen to survive Anaerobic bacteria- can survive in places withoutB oxygenING
Sanitary Drainage System COMPARTMENTS: have a minimum of 2 compartments:P First compartment: not less than 2/3 capacity of the totalL capacity of tank; not less than 2 cum liquid capacity; shall be at least 0.9 m width and 1.5 m long; Liquid depth not lessU than 0.6 m nor more than 1.8 m. Secondary compartment: maximum capacity of 1/3 totalM capacity of tank; minimum of 1 cum liquid capacity In septic tanks having over 6 cum capacity, the secondaryB compartment should be not less than 1.5 m in length. maintain a slope of 1:10 at the bottom of the digestion chamberI to collect the sludge and make it easily accessible from the manholeN MANHOLES:G with at least two (2) manholes, 508 mm in min dimension; one over inlet, other over outlet. Wherever first compartment exceeds 3.7 m in length, an additional manhole required over the baffle wall.
Sanitary Drainage SystemP SIZES OF PIPE INLET & OUTLET & THEIR VERTICAL LEGS:L Inlet and Outlet pipes – diameter size not less than the sewerU pipe Vertical legs of inlet and outlet pipes – diameter size not less thanM the sewer pipe nor less than 104.6 mm. LENGTH AND LOCATION OF INLET & OUTLET:B Shall extend 101.6 mm above and at least 304.8 mm below theI water surface Invert of the inlet pipe shall be at a level not less than 50.8 mmN above the invert of the outlet pipe.G
Sanitary Drainage System AIR SPACE:P Side walls shall extend 228.6 mm above liquid depth. Cover of septic tank shall be at least 50.8 mm above the backL vent openings.U PARTITION (between compartments):M An inverted fitting equivalent in size to the tank inlet, but in no case less than 104.6 mm in diameter, shall be installed in the inletB compartment side of the baffle with the bottom of the fitting placed midway in the depth of the liquid. Wooden baffles areI prohibited.N STRUCTURE:G Shall be capable of supporting an earth load of not less than 14.4 kPa
Sanitary Drainage SystemP CAPACITY:L The capacity of septic tanks is determined by the number of bedrooms or apartment units in dwelling occupancies; by theU estimated waste/sewage design flow rate for various building occupancies; or by the number of fixture units of all plumbingM fixtures; whichever is greater. The capacity of any one septic tank and its drainage system shallB also be limited by the soil structure classification in its drainage field.IN LOCATION: Should not be located underneath the houseG At least 15 meters from the water distribution system
Sanitary Drainage System CLASSIFICATION OF SEWERS:P Combination Public SewersL Oldest variety Carries both storm & sanitary wastesU Storm SewersMB Sanitary SewersI Carries regular sanitary wastes only Terminates in a modern sewage disposal plant forN treatmentG Built at a depth of 3 meters (tributaries)
Storm Drainage System 3 Major Systems ofP Collecting Storm Water:L The Independent SystemU a.k.a. ‘the Separate System’M Brings collected water directly to the water reservoirsBING
Storm Drainage System The Combined SystemP Combines storm waterL with sanitary wastesUMBING
Storm Drainage System The Natural SystemP Without using any roof gutters or downspoutsL Also when rainwater is collected in cisternsU Storm Drain LocationsMBING
Storm Drainage System Roofing Elements to Collect Rainwater:PL The Gutter Usually located along theU entire perimeter of the roofM The DownspoutB Located every 8 to 10 metersI & at every corner of the roof (but, to avoid clogging of pipes,N it is best to locate them every 4 to 6 m)G
Storm Drainage SystemP The Strainer or Roof DrainL Drain designed to receive water collecting onU the surface of a roof and to discharge it into a downspout. Designed to prevent clogging.MB The ShoeI At the bottom of the roof leader to direct rain-N water towards the nearest catch basinG
Storm Drainage System The Catch BasinP Downspouts should terminate in a catch basin (can serve more than oneL downspout) Delivers water to the sewers in the street via gravityU Area-Drain-Catch-Basin: also collects surface waterMBIN The Storm LineG Connects to each catch basin