GD/ SEMINAR- CHEMICAL
Submitted by- Anisha chahar
Submitted to – Dr . Shruti sharma
The capture and handling of wild animals plays a
prominent role in wildlife conservation and management.
On a regular basis, zoo veterinarian has to deal with
animal handling for various purposes.
For routine health check-up(veterinary care,
surgical intervention, hormonal implantation, or
For research purposes (assisted reproductive
techniques, blood collection, radio collaring).
For conservation and management (capture of
problematic animals, translocation ,
Devices of physical restraint are-
Traps- these are routinely used to capture mass population of
wild population of wild animals that are laid at places where
the animals frequently visit such as water pools.
Nets- variety of nets such as mist net, drive net or bait net can
be used to capture aggressive and injured animals.
Snares- can also be used to capture problematic animal but
the snares need to be monitored for long hours so that as soon
as animal is trapped in snares.
Limitation of physical restraint
It need long term planning.
It is very expensive to perform such as
hiring helicopter and other vehicle for
Individual subject animal from the group
cannot be tracked and anaesthetized.
It lead to serious stress in the animal, may
be prove fatal for animals.
Chemical restraint is a form of animal restraint
technique in which drug and chemical are used to
restrict the movement (walking , running, aggression)of
an animal and sometimes just to sedate or calm down
the animal .
In this method anaesthetic drugs are used to immobilize
an animal for the capturing.
Immobilizers – these are the drugs which are used to
capture and restraint the animal.
State of chemical restraint may vary from
immobilization, tranquilizers(calmness), to anaesthesia
(complete loss of consciousness).
It allow the examining and treating of sick
and injured animals.
It enables restraint of selected aggressive
animals within a group of animals.
Equipment required for chemical restraint are
easy to transport from one place to another.
Equipment that are used for the technique are
cheap as compared to physical restraint
Occasional failure of equipment at the
Undesirable and long term effect of drugs
on the animals.
Improper darting due to untrained
This technique cannot be used for the
Factors affecting the anaesthesia
Age -young and much older animal are more
sensitive to affect of drug in comparison to an
adult animal. Young animals require more and
older animals usually require less doses.
Size and body weight – the small size animal
with higher metabolic rate need higher doses.
Sex – males require higher doses than the
Species – there are species-specificity and
variation in drug response. Choice of drug, doses,
and animal response vary between species.
Physical condition- sick and malnourished or
debilitated animal require lower dose than a
healthy, well fed animal
Pregnancy – pregnant animal are more susceptible
to anaesthesia due to higher metabolic rate. However
animals in late pregnancy require more doses. The
pregnant ungulates has been sedate for the artificial
insemination and for ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis.
Season – time of year may have a profound effect on
response to specific drug such as Succinylcholine.
Characteristics of an ideal drug-
Readily available and economical.
Readily soluble in water, stable, in solution with long self
High therapeutic drug.
Fast acting with smooth onset of induction.
Non-irritating upon administration.
Safe to use in pregnant animals.
Safe for human in case of accidental exposure.
Short induction period.
Effect should be reversible.
Neuromuscular blocking drugs
These drugs act at the neuromuscular junction and paralysis
muscle from functioning.
There are three classes of neuromuscular blocking drug-
Due to narrow safety margin and risk of respiratory failure due
to paralysis of diaphragmatic muscles, these drugs are not
suitable for animals.
Examples –Succinylcholine , Nicotine sulphate.
Central nervous system
These drugs predominantly affect on the
Effect ranges from calmness, depression,
loss of pain to loss of conciousness .
In this category of drugs, some
drugs(diazepam) which act as tranquilizer
at a lower dose may work as anaesthetic,
although it is not recommended.
Produce calmness, loss of aggression, and loss of
Do not get immobilized fully and can be aroused by slight
Hence used in combination to increase the effect of other
These drugs have potency to work themselves
Can be used in combination with other drugs or can
be used alone.
It result in hypnotic like state.
Drug far better with respect to smooth induction,
good muscle relaxation and smooth recovery.
Various routes of drug administratio
Oral drugs can be mixed with
water and food.
Hand held syringes regular syringe,
Remotely projected syringes or
darts blow pipes, blow gun, gun,
Jab stick is a modified syringes that allows operator
keep away from animal while injecting drug .
The stick will be attached to with a syringe and atta
needle, drug will be administerd using pressure.
Projectile dart syringe dart has three components n
with sleeve, barrel of syringe, rear side stabilizer.
Blow pipes it is commonest dart projector made of P
or aluminium for darting. The length of blow pipe is
generally 1-2 metre.
Pistol pressure to fire the dart is built up by using ei
a foot pump or a carbon di oxide cartridge. It effecti
range varies from 20 to 25.
The preferred darting site are shoulder and hindquarter.
The muscles of the shoulder, biceps, triceps, are among the
best places for remote injection.
Better to avoid upper part of shoulder because dart needle
can become embedded in cartilage or scapula.
In skinny and emaciated animals, darts may strike spine of
scapula and result in fracture, hemorrhage or dart blockage.
In such animals hindquarters are the most suitable site for
For large herbivores such as the elephants hump muscles will
be most suitable place.