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68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 1
Engagement is a critical element of learning. If we can get people to pay attention
to what we’ve developed or what we’re saying and engage with us, the content,
and each other, learning follows.
Gaining and maintaining engagement in the physical classroom seems straightfor-
ward: If students look bored or inattentive, we adjust our training style on the fly
or call on people to recapture their attention. But in eLearning, especially self-
paced eLearning, driving engagement requires much more planning, monitoring,
and, most of all, creativity.
So how do we drive engagement in eLearning and mLearning? Sure, interactivi-
ties can help, but only if we design those interactivities effectively. Clicking the
“Next” button is not enough; students need interactions that convey and reinforce
information, not ones that increase their expertise in clicking, dragging, tapping, or
swiping. Students also need engaging content, an engaging (or at least not frus-
trating) interface, engaging media and visual design, and maybe a game here and
there. (Yes, it’s okay to have fun while learning. Really.)
In this eBook, 11 experts provide 68 tips for driving engagement in eLearning and
mLearning. We’ve grouped the tips into five categories, each looking at a different
element or approach for engagement: content, interface, interactivities, media
and visual design, and games. We finish with a sixth category on measuring en-
gagement and the resultant learning.
I hope you find some valuable nuggets of information in this eBook, and are able to
use many of the tips to help you create more engaging eLearning and mLearning!
Director of Online Events, The eLearning Guild
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 2
Cammy Bean, Vice President of Learning Design, Kineo
An instructional designer with over 15 years of experience, Cammy Bean has cre-
ated software simulations, new-hire orientations, product and technical training, and
learning games for a wide variety of clients. Cammy writes a popular blog on instruc-
Sean Bengry, Manager, Learning Strategy and Design, Accenture Academy
Sean Bengry manages the development of all eLearning aspects at Accenture Acade-
my, including delivery models, visual and graphic design, instructional design, process
design, compliance with accessibility, and needs assessment. Sean started his career
as an instructional designer, gaining skills in both instructor-led training and eLearn-
Tom Bunzel, Author of Tools of Engagement: Presenting and Training in a World
of Social Media
Tom Bunzel specializes in knowing what presenters need and how to make tech-
nology work. He worked as a technology coach for corporations including Iomega,
MTA Films, Nurses in Partnership, and the Neuroscience Education Institute, and
has taught at Learning Tree International, West LA College Extension, and privately
around Southern California doing presentation and video consulting. He is the au-
thor of several books, including Tools of Engagement: Presenting and Training in a World
of Social Media.
About Our Tipsters
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 3
Paul Clothier, Chief Learning Guru, TapLearn
Paul Clothier is a learning specialist, eLearning and mLearning designer, speaker, and
writer who has been in the technology training and learning field for over 25 years.
Paul’s articles on training and learning have been featured in numerous learning and
training magazines. He has a passion for mLearning design and user experience, and
designs learning content and apps for touch-screen mobile devices.
Sarah Gilbert, President, meLearning Solutions
At meLearning Solutions, Sarah specializes in electronic and mobile learning design
and development, creating unique learning experiences that improve retention,
influence behavior, and impact productivity. She also serves as the vice president
of communications for the Greater Atlanta Chapter of ASTD and is published in
The Book of Road-Tested Activities for innovative technical training. Sarah holds a
master’s degree in business management and continues her education online via
Twitter, YouTube, and blogs.
Amy Jokinen, Training & Development Specialist, Eide Bailly
Amy Jokinen holds a master of fine arts degree in screenwriting and an ASTD certifi-
cate in eLearning instructional design. In addition to her work at Eide Bailly, Amy is a
standup comedian in Fargo, ND.
Amy Leis, Program Manager, Janney Montgomery Scott
Amy Leis has over 15 years’ experience in training and development; her research
interests include adult learning theory and the intersection of technology, train-
ing, and social learning. Among Amy’s honors are an Award of Excellence from the
Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare for instructional design and project
management and the Janney Corporate Meritorious Service Award for her work as
an instructional designer. Amy holds a PhD degree in educational psychology with a
specialization in curriculum and design from Temple University.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 4
Susan O’Connell, Learning and Organizational Development Manager, Habitat for
Susan O’Connell has led and advised on strategic and cost-effective learning pro-
grams ranging from face-to-face to asynchronous eLearning for over 15 years. At
Habitat for Humanity International, she introduced blended and virtual learning
programs, increased online course completions, and replaced the organization’s
enterprise-wide learning management system. Susan holds a master of education
degree from the University of Georgia.
Kevin Siegel, Founder and President, IconLogic
Kevin Siegel has written more than 100 books, including Essentials of Adobe Captivate
5 and Adobe Captivate 5: Beyond the Essentials. Kevin spent five years in the US Coast
Guard as a photojournalist and has more than two decades of experience as a print
publisher, technical writer, instructional designer, and eLearning developer. He is a
certified technical trainer, has been a classroom instructor for more than 20 years,
and is a frequent speaker at trade shows and conventions.
Erik Summa, Content Developer and Instructional Designer, Janney Montgomery
Erik Summa holds a BFA degree in graphic design from West Chester University and
an MA degree in graphic design from the University of the Arts, London. In addition
to his work at Janney Montgomery Scott, Erik teaches part-time at the University of
the Arts in Philadelphia.
Deborah Thomas, President, SillyMonkey
Deborah Thomas consults on game-based and traditional learning, mLearning, and
eLearning. Among her many honors, Deborah received the 2011 Fun and Serious
Games Award for Europe, the 2009 Dugan Laird Award, and the 2009 ASTD Atlanta
E-Learning Excellence Award. She has contributed to several books and has served in
leadership roles for a number of organizations. Deborah holds a BA degree in jour-
nalism and education from the University of South Florida and numerous training
Two Days. Ten Sessions. Real Learning.
Read full descriptions online at
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July 18 & 19, 2013
eLearning Engagement and Interactivity: Tips and Techniques
Join us and learn to design eLearning and interactivities that drive learner engagement.
Looking for more tips on eLearning engagement
and interaction? Join our July Online Forum!
THURSDAY, JULY 18 FRIDAY, JULY 19
• Making Interactivity Count
• Applying Engaging Media in eLearning
• From Print to Screen: Create Your Own Interactive eBook!
• More Than an Event: Design Tips for More Engaging
• Engage the Learner: Techniques for Creating Highly
• Creating Engaging Characters and Dialogue for eLearning
• The Next Big Thing in Mobile: Interactive Video
• How to Create Simple Yet Engaging Mobile Alternate- and
• Three Ways to Create Compelling Content for the Adult
• The New Tools of Engagement: Building Community with a
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68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 5
Eighteen Tips for Creating Engaging
Engaging content is the foundation of any effective course, eLearning or
otherwise. Boring slides and overly long modules can lead to learner dis-
connect. How do you capture and keep learners’ attention to content?
Our experts have some suggestions.
In eLearning, we often associate engagement with interactivity, quizzing, and
games, but to be truly engaging, we must appeal to the learners’ natural curiosity
first. Give them something to be curious about. This is best achieved through an
instructional narrative: a story that drives the learning. Without it, the interactiv-
ity, quizzing, and games become busywork.
If you do not have engaging content, there really is no need to have engaging me-
dia … it’s like putting a caramel coating on a rotten apple. No matter how enticing
the outside is, or how it may attract, it’s still not going to be a good experience.
Looks good, tastes bad, and no one comes back.
Find the flow. A common mistake—especially in slide-based eLearning pro-
grams—is to just plop in information point after information point, while neglect-
ing to stitch the slides together with a narrative flow. This leads to disconnected
information overload. Find the story in your content and let it follow a natural
flow. This doesn’t mean each slide needs to tell the thrilling story of Jack and his
climb up the beanstalk while also sharing your content, but it does mean finding
the connection between the different points of information. Help learners see
why this information matters and how it is relevant to them. Find the thread that
holds everything together and find a way to tell a story with the content.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 6
Your brain processes new information by linking it to already existing informa-
tion. Use easily digestible and recognizable words and images. Too much jargon
or highly unusual images will disrupt the flow of learning because the user will
focus more on the odd language and less on the meaning of the content.
Design all four elements of the ARCS model (attention, relevance, confidence,
satisfaction) into the communication, delivery, and follow up of your program.
Most people know they should design these elements into the content and
program. Take a little extra time to also design ARCS into your communications
about the program to generate interest and motivation before the program and
then after the program to maintain that interest and follow-through on confi-
dence and satisfaction.
Get your subject-matter experts (SMEs) to tell you a story. Often we’re handed
really dry PowerPoint decks from which to start building our eLearning pro-
grams. Your challenge, should you choose to accept it, is to turn that dry content
into something interesting and engaging. For me, it’s all about finding the story,
so take the time to sit down with your SMEs and have them tell you the story of
their content. Don’t have them just read the words in the deck to you out loud;
have them narrate it to you and tell you the story of each slide. Often it’s the
examples and anecdotes that the SME doesn’t include in the slide deck that make
the content come alive. If you can record this conversation or type really quickly,
all the better. The language the SMEs use—in that conversational tone—can then
be the basis for the writing you do and the storyboards you create.
Your learners should be able to recognize themselves in the hero of your instruc-
tional narrative and care about his/her outcome. But spend as much time think-
ing about the villain as you do about the hero. The villain in your story can be a
very effective instructional tool.
Engagement can exist outside of interaction. Just think of your favorite movie
or book: When you were watching it or reading it, did you really need to click on
something, talk to someone else, or receive feedback to be engaged?
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 7
An eighth grader should be able to navigate your module and understand the
concepts. Your subject-matter experts (SMEs) are just that—experts—and have
more knowledge than your audience. Your module is for the people who want to
learn about the topic, not the SMEs. SMEs can give you information and advice,
but ultimately it’s up to you to determine the level of difficulty of your content.
Insert widely known pop-culture references into your module when trying to
teach the viewer something complex. People will make associations with your
material and your reference, making it easier for them to remember later.
Keep it lean. When someone hands you that 112-slide PowerPoint package and
expects you to turn it into a short and engaging eLearning experience, what do
you do? First, sit down with the subject-matter expert (SME) and get him or her
to commit to the three to five learning objectives this course needs to cover.
These objectives are the things the learner needs to be able to do at the end of
the day; these are the real takeaways of the course. Now, map each and every one
of those content slides back to one of those learning objectives. If the content
doesn’t map to an objective, cut it. Do this exercise with your SME so he or she
can see where the content that supports the learning objectives really is. At the
end, you should have a focused experience. Have SMEs participate in this cutting
exercise so they can see what’s truly valuable. If they still love all their content,
put it in a PDF for people to read on their own time if they want to go deeper.
Adult learners will tune out if they feel information, ideas, or actions are being
imposed on them. Even if you are designing compliance content, learn as much
about how your topic relates to your audience as you can, then invite them to see
the value of the content for their situation.
To help you find a story around which to craft your instructional narrative, care-
fully consider the “big-picture why” of the training. In the grand scheme of things,
what is the learning supposed to achieve? Why?
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 8
Many people start with a focus on the information they want to share. Instead,
focus on what you hope people will do with or because of the information. Pres-
ent the information in that context to better engage with the learner.
eLearning lessons are great … but is there really such a thing as too much of good
thing? Actually, yes. Overly long eLearning lessons can lead to learner distraction
and fatigue. Consider keeping the maximum play time for each lesson to between
three and five minutes.
Always remember there is a human being who will be sitting at that computer,
working his or her way through that content you have so lovingly crafted. Pre-
tend you’re having a conversation with that person in a coffee shop, and then
write it that way! Forget the passive, intellectual academic speak of learning
objectives and corporate communications. Instead, make your learning experi-
ence a personal one and talk directly to the learner. When we feel like an online
experience is a conversation, we tend to pay more attention. So instead of saying
“This lesson covers three tips for writing better emails,” say “Let’s look at three
tips you can use to write better emails.”
People tend to remember information and experiences that trigger an emotional
response. To make your learning modules memorable, use humor to engage the
audience. Select audio and visual examples that play to a range of emotions.
Before starting a project, it’s really important to know your target audience
(technical skills, age, the resolution of the audience’s computer monitors, and so
on) and design the learning module with them in mind.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 9
Ten Tips for Creating an Engaging
The importance of a good interface really can’t be overemphasized. If
learners can’t easily find their way around your eLearning, they’ll be-
come frustrated and give up. And if they can’t adjust the font size to one
they can easily read, they may be unable to progress. So how can you
create engaging interfaces?
When designing user experiences for mobile learning, make sure the navigation
and user interactions are intuitive and obvious. Navigating the application or con-
tent should take very little thought. All the thinking should be focused on the learn-
ing interaction or content. An iPhone user expects to find a “back” button at the
top left. Touchscreen users expect to move to the next page of information with a
left swipe. Stay consistent with the navigation the user expects. Creating custom
navigation behavior that causes the user to stop and think will get in the way of the
mLearning experience. Navigation should be as intuitive and invisible as possible.
Don’t forget about accessibility! You might decide to use the PDF format to
easily lock in a certain look and feel. However, keep in mind that users cannot as
easily adjust text size in PDFs as they can with an eBook. Readers might need
to zoom in for readability, and this can result in a loss of the design you’d origi-
nally planned. An eBook format allows your learners to set up font size and style
within their own eReaders to best suit their needs.
Consider how people hold a mobile device when designing the user experience
and navigation. Whenever possible, for smartphones, make the navigation one-
handed, which means portrait orientation. This will provide the fastest and easiest
way for users to navigate when mobile. Creating mLearning interactions or con-
tent that require landscape orientation means users must use two hands, which
means to use it they must be less mobile or stationary. For larger smartphones or
“phablets,” one-handed operation is problematic. Always consider the device size
and usage context before designing the navigation or user interactions.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 10
Every learning module should start with these four slides: A slide asking view-
ers to turn on their computer speakers (if the module uses audio), a title slide, an
agenda (the topics you’ll be covering in your module), and a slide on how to use
the navigation system.
Smartphone users have very little tolerance for scrolling content. Avoid content
scrolling if at all possible. If you must have it, then require no more than one
screen of scrolling. When content does not fit on one screen, place it on another
page, so the user can swipe for more. Swiping the screen or tapping navigation
buttons is much easier, and more intuitive, than scrolling.
We know how important it is to focus on small chunks of just-in-time content
for mobile learning. When it comes to eBooks, the table of contents is critical.
Make sure you’ve tagged the headers and clearly labeled your sections. Although
eBooks are potentially lengthy as a whole, a good navigation system can help
learners quickly find specific information.
Good usability and simple navigation invariably means you must sacrifice some
content or feature. It’s better to have fewer buttons and push advanced features
into the background than to overwhelm the screen. Avoid the tendency to give
the user all available options on the first screen. It’s better to have only a few but-
tons, with an “Options” or “More” button that leads to other functions, than to
crowd the screen with buttons for all possible options. mLearning design neces-
sitates being frugal with screen real estate.
When designing interactions for mobile learning on a touchscreen device, make
gestures and navigation as close to real life as possible. Invoke swipe to move
to the next or previous screen; pinch or un-pinch to zoom out or in; twist two
fingers to rotate an image. The closer the gesture is to physical reality, the easier
it will be for the user to navigate, interact, and enjoy.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 11
Whenever possible, try to make learning modules personal. You can achieve this by
simply asking people to enter their names and then using these names to give them
motivational support later in the module, when their attention spans are waning.
When delivering content, don’t constrict a user to a specific font size. Whenever
possible, let the user choose font size for onscreen text, particularly when there
is a large amount of content. The font size that works well for you might not be
the optimum for your users. Provide choice whenever possible.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 12
Three Tips for Using Interactivities to
Interactivities can create a richer experience in eLearning, but only if
those interactivities are meaningful to the learners. These three tips
discuss designing and implementing effective interactivities.
Forget clicking! Interaction doesn’t just happen with your hands and by click-
ing a mouse or touching a screen. Find a way to build true interactivity into your
courses—the kind of interactivity that happens in the brain. We call it “think-
ing”! (Or call it “cognitive interaction” if you want to sound really smart to your
clients.) A simple strategy for doing this is to add moments of thoughtful reflec-
tion to your programs. Ask the learners how this content relates to their own
work, whether they’ve done something like this before, or how it makes them
feel. Ask them how they’re doing on this skill right now, and perhaps give them a
self-rating scale to complete. By getting learners to stop and think, you help them
internalize the content and make it their own.
Activities should support the same cognitive level as the learning objective. For
example, if your objective is for people to apply a concept to a variety of diverse
situations, an activity recalling the definition of the concept may not be very
effective unless you follow it with an activity where learners then apply that
concept to a variety of diverse situations.
iBooks Author is my favorite tool to easily incorporate engaging interactivities in
your eBook. Widgets such as Gallery, Media, Review (questions), Interactive Im-
age, and 3D make it easy to add tremendous value to existing text-only content.
Take a look at the book Life on Earth by E. O. Wilson (available in the iBookstore)
for a fantastic example of the possibilities of using these elements in eBooks.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 13
Twenty-five Tips for Using Media and
Visual Design Effectively
Does it matter where you put the graphics on your pages? What about
the pictures themselves—does it matter where the image’s eyes are
looking? Could it affect learning if you use a serif font? The answer to all
of those questions is yes. Let our tipsters guide you through this surpris-
ingly complex area.
Keep your visual design as simple as possible. Imagine you are trying to convey
the same message to your friend with a pencil and napkin. Start there.
I picked up a tip somewhere to lay out graphics to the left of the text. Graphics
will gain attention better than text, but you don’t generally want people to skip
the text. In western cultures where people read left to right, the eye will auto-
matically be drawn to the right and so they will look at the graphic on the left and
then their eyes will automatically be drawn over to the right where the text is.
When it comes to adding audio to an eLearning lesson, voiceover audio has been
shown to improve the learner experience. However, consider not using back-
ground music throughout the presentation, because music is often considered a
Add a QR code to handouts to make them more smartphone-friendly.
Borrow techniques used in comic books and graphic novels to tell your story visu-
ally. If you can show it, you won’t need to tell it, and it’s always better to show it.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 14
Think about your audience and design your characters accordingly. For example,
if your learning module is intended for a conservative corporate workforce, don’t
use images of people in jeans and sneakers. Dress your characters to fit the part.
Think of the person, place, or thing that is the main focus, and represent that
visually. For example, if I say the word “truck” to you, do you think of the letters
t-r-u-c-k? No, an image of what you would call a truck comes to your mind. This is
the part of the brain we are tapping into.
To share video, embed HTML code into blogs and Meetup.
Your eLearning presentation should include text captions (callouts) and
voiceover narration. However, the voiceover narration should never match the
text shown on the screen. Having the two match can lead to learner distraction
because learners try to figure out if they should be reading the text on the screen
or listening to the voiceover.
With eBooks, you have so much more opportunity to create engaging content
than in print. Incorporate media (video and audio), images, 3-D models, and HTML
elements to truly immerse your learner in the content. Tools such as iBooks
Author (Apple), Sigil (Google), and Calibre help you create rich information and
convert it into formats (for example, MOBI and EPUB) for multiple devices.
Most clip-art characters are scalable. Don’t be afraid to go for the close up to
convey emotion visually.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 15
In Susan Weinschenk’s great little book, 100 Things Every Designer Needs to Know
About People, she shares a research tidbit about how we pay more attention to
onscreen pictures of people when they are looking right into our eyes. It’s that
emotional, human connection that pulls us in and keeps us there. So find pictures
that pull people in by looking right into their eyes.
When selecting text colors for eLearning, note that red is considered an irritant.
People learn through a mixture of auditory, visual, and kinesthetic approaches
(which means through hearing, seeing, and hands-on physical activities). Plan
your modules so they include a blend of audio, visuals, and interactivity to ad-
dress each user’s learning preferences. If design limitations require you to focus
on one approach over another, incorporate more interactivity. Stimulating visu-
als should be your second priority, followed last by audio.
To reach more followers, create “mirror blogs” for engaging content on
Like any good thing in life, we usually don’t notice it until something is wrong. I
call this the “eLearning ninja” effect. Like a ninja, whom you will never notice un-
less he chooses to reveal himself or has made a mistake and you discover him, we
need to embody this with our eLearning content and media. The learner should
never know we were there; however, they will absolutely notice if we make a
mistake in verbal or visual communication.
Create interactive elements that are short, targeted bits of information sup-
porting a specific concept in your eBook. Some of the most useful interactive
elements in an eBook are short embedded videos, images, and audio clips. Place
these strategically to support and add value to the surrounding content. Remem-
ber that when it comes to interacting with the content in your eBook, the learner
will expect to see consistent functionality throughout.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 16
As humans, we base our expectations on appearance, whether we deny it or not.
To put it bluntly, we’re superficial people. Think about it: How quickly do we form
expectations on someone by how they dress or present themselves? Similarly, if
learners notice that something is off with the visual presentation, you’ve already
got them thinking about something other than the content you want them en-
Use PowerPoint or AuthorStream to create narrated video for YouTube.
When designing a more visual learning module that requires custom animations
or that uses digital characters to convey content, first create storyboards. This
will help streamline your content and help you iron out any potential problems
you might run into before going to the computer.
When selecting fonts, consider using a sans-serif font (such as Verdana) over
a serif font (such as Times New Roman). Most sans-serif fonts are considered
easier to read on a computer screen than most serif fonts.
When writing and formatting the text of your eBook, especially for multiple
devices, simpler is better. Plan and tag your header styles in advance. Also, when
using anchors and links, thoroughly test to be sure they are all working properly.
Mark Coker’s Smashwords Style Guide provides some good information on com-
mon formatting mistakes (available for free in various reading formats at
When creating modules containing dry material, get creative with the delivery
of the content. Use custom video, animation, music, or create a game to hold the
viewers’ attention. Keeping viewers guessing will ensure they don’t miss a single
slide of your module.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 17
Output your narrated PowerPoint to a video file (WMV) to post it on YouTube.
“Interactivity is in the mind, not the mouse.” Although we will substitute mouse
for finger when it comes to mobile learning, there is an excellent point here when
it comes to engagement. A lot of touching the screen and swiping around doesn’t
necessarily mean you’re engaging a learner. When someone is engaged, it is a
state of mind. Asking a well-phrased question with a supporting image that al-
lows a learner to think deeply can be just as effective as using video or an interac-
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 18
Eight Tips for Using Games for Learning
How do you develop a solid basis for game-based learning … and how do
you make the games addictive? These eight tips provide a look at the ef-
fective use of games in learning.
Design a game from an existing instructor-led-training class one step at a time.
The next time you teach that class, use the participants to build your question/ac-
tion cards. During the review sessions, simply break the class into teams and ask
them to write questions to stump the other teams. If you do this enough times,
you will have great questions to use for your action cards in a game-board format.
Try turning an existing course into a game. First, review the course content. Next,
select a board game with which you are familiar and deconstruct it. Look at the
board and the actions. What moves the players forward or backward? What
rewards are built into the game? How do players gain or lose points? How do
players win? What is the goal of the game? Then look at the learning components
of your course. What is the goal of the learning? What happens when learners do
things correctly when applying this knowledge? What happens when they don’t?
Not every course is perfectly suited for game-based learning. Qualify your game-
based learning project by aligning objectives to performance-based goals and
sync the game to the delivery mechanism. Usually, it isn’t wise to create a game if
the content changes often (unless you build a game that allows you to easily up-
load or update assets). And while budget can restrict the type of game you create,
money doesn’t need to be a showstopper. A game can be designed for any budget.
Content is king. Game-based learning events should always begin with strong
learning objectives and solid content. You should start the project with analysis
and design, and then think about the type of game you want to build.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 19
The basic concept that makes games fun to play are the built-in core compul-
sions. You can use core compulsions to drive your game design. Add the compul-
sions to the course in the form of game mechanics: Will the players take turns?
What are the action points? Will your game use action cards? Will players try to
capture or eliminate pieces? Does your game use dice to move the players for-
ward and backward? Is there a good learning component that allows you to build
in a risk and reward system? Is there a reason to build in resource management?
Build in a reason to win by using victory-condition mechanics such as game goals,
loss avoidance, piece elimination, puzzle guessing, races, structure building, terri-
tory control, or victory points.
Alternate reality games (ARGs) are games that use the real world as a platform
for a narrative and often involve multiple forms of media and gameplay elements.
ARGs are most commonly noted for the high level of player involvement, which
drives the game story and can affect the pacing and events of the narrative. Also,
rather than being driven by an artificial intelligence, some game designers inter-
act directly with the players.
Alternate reality games (ARGs) are usually very complex, but you can design
them as very simple games by using your company intranet, email, chat, and
interoffice mail. Build a backstory and send the group a message via email that
leads the users to find the question or the answer. Then keep track of the points
when they return the answer.
Alternate reality games (ARGs) have their own terminology. Here are the
• Puppetmaster (PM): The puppetmaster is usually involved in designing or
running an ARG. Puppetmasters remain “behind the curtain” while a game
is running to observe and react to player actions. One or more individuals
might comprise the puppetmaster.
• The Curtain: A metaphor for the separation between puppetmasters and
players. The curtain refers to the various forms of media that keeps play-
ers from directly interacting with puppetmasters. For example, voicemail
boxes, characters’ email addresses, blogs, and social media.
68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 20
• Rabbithole: The rabbithole marks the first website, contact, or puzzle that
launches the ARG. A rabbithole could be something as simple and brief as
a URL or QR code on a poster, or a set of numbers displayed on a website.
Examples include The Beast, which had posters with unknown telephone
numbers on them, or a mysterious game update notification for the Potato
• This Is Not a Game (TINAG): TINAG sets the ARG form apart from other
games, dictating that the game does not behave like a game. Phone numbers
found in the ARG, for example, should actually work, and the game should
not provide an overtly designated play space or rule set for the players.
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68 Tips for eLearning Engagement and Interactivity 21
Four Tips for Measuring Engagement
You’ve got strong content. But how do you make sure it’s effectively
engaging and teaching the students? Our experts share some tips for
measuring engagement and learning.
During your live virtual sessions, build in a variety of interactivities every two to
three minutes and be sure to monitor how many people are participating. If you
are not seeing the full participation you want, throw some ad-hoc questions into
the chat area. If you have audio interactivity, ask someone to unmute and share
verbally. You need to constantly monitor whether your audience is engaged be-
cause once you lose their attention, you might not get it back.
When creating quizzes in your eLearning courses, consider having no more than
five-to-ten questions per quiz. Any more and you run the risk of making the
eLearning course more about the quiz than the lesson.
Use the Klout plug-in in the Chrome browser to monitor influencers on the back-
When adding questions to an eLearning quiz, consider keeping the question
types either true/false or multiple choice. These two question types have been
proven better when it comes to Section 508 compliance for learners with dis-