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  3. 3. Sanga elders. The Sanga are an Indigenous ethnic group from the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Excerpt from Pungulume (2015) by Sammy Baloji (Sanga)
  4. 4. S. James Anaya (Apache and Purépecha ancestry) identifies indigenous peoples, nations, or communities as: “culturally distinctive groups that find themselves engulfed by settler societies born of the forces of empire and conquest.... They are indigenous because their ancestral roots are embedded in the lands in which they live, or would like to live, much more deeply than the roots of more powerful sectors of society living on the same lands or in close proximity…. They are peoples to the extent they comprise distinct communities with a continuity of existence and identity that links them to the communities, tribes, or nations of their ancestral past” (Indigenous peoples and international law, 2004 , p. 3). Special Rapporteur, to the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, 2008- 2014
  5. 5. INDIGENOUS POPULATION GLOBALLY “It is estimated that there are more than 370 million indigenous people spread across 70 countries worldwide..” https://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/ 5session_factsheet1.pdf
  6. 6. Land rights map
  7. 7. UNITED NATIONS WORKING GROUP ON INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS “'self-identification’ as indigenous or tribal is usually regarded as a fundamental criterion for determining whether groups are indigenous or tribal, sometimes in combination with other variables such as language or historical continuity in, and ancient connection to, a geographic location. In terms of individuals, the issue of subjective self-identification as indigenous must also respect the community’s right to define its own membership.” Working Paper by the Chairperson-Rapportuer, Mrs. Erica-Irene A. Daes, on the concept of “Indigenous people. pp. 12-13, 1996
  8. 8. INDIGENOUS IDENTITY – U.N. • Self-identification as indigenous peoples at the individual level and accepted by the community as their member • Historical continuity with pre-colonial and/or pre- settler societies • Strong link to territories and surrounding natural resources • Distinct social, economic or political systems • Distinct language, culture and beliefs form non- dominant groups of society • Resolve to maintain and reproduce their ancestral environments and systems as distinctive peoples and communities
  9. 9. INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS “Indigenous populations are communities that live within, or are attached to, geographically distinct traditional habitats or ancestral territories, and who identify themselves as being part of a distinct cultural group, descended from groups present in the area before modern states were created and current borders defined. They generally maintain cultural and social identities, and social, economic, cultural and political institutions, separate from the mainstream or dominant society or culture.” World Health Organization
  10. 10. ACROSS BORDERS • Haida – US and Canada • Mohawk – US and Canada • The Sámi - Northern Sweden, Norway, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula of Russia • The Tamil – India and Sri Lanka • Kurds – Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria • Mapuche – Argentia, Chile
  11. 11. VANISHING POINT (2013) • https://www.nfb.ca/film/vanishing_point/clip/van ishing_point_clip2/ • (snow bunting, peaceful, no factory)
  13. 13. • Decolonization centers and privileges Indigenous life, community, and epistemology (ways of knowing) • The aim of decolonialization is to re-inscribe histories and perspectives, which have been devalued through ‘radical exercises of un-thinking, de-disciplining, and re-educating’ • Decolonization cannot take place without contestation. It must necessarily push back against the institutions and relations of power that threaten Indigenous ways of being
  14. 14. Tuck and Yang have expressed a concern with the “ease with which the language of decolonization has been superficially adopted into education and other social sciences, supplanting prior ways of talking about social justice, critical methodologies or approaches which decenter settler perspectives” (2) “The easy adoption of decolonizing discourse by educational advocacy and scholarship, evidenced by the increasing number of calls to ‘decolonize our schools,’ or use ‘decolonizing methods,’ or, ‘decolonize student thinking’, turns decolonization into a metaphor” (1)
  15. 15. DECOLONIZATION “….the process of ‘decolonization’ should not place colonization as the central point of our culture, nor should it romanticize our indigenous past. These trains of thought perpetuate the point of view of the dominant culture of today. Rather, ‘decolonization’ should be a process of changing the way we view the world.” Isaac Giron “Decolonize Your Mind”
  17. 17. DECOLONIZATION IN THE ARTS STARTS WITH SOUTH AFRICAN ART SCHOOL PROTESTS • #RhodesMustFall was a protest movement that began on 9 March 2015, originally directed against a statue at the University of Cape Town (UCT) that commemorated Cecil Rhodes as well as other art and heritage items in the university art collection. • Rhodes was a racist mining magnate who died in 1962 • Students had been calling for the removal of the statue since the 1950s. • On 9 April 2015, following a UCT Council vote the previous night, the statue was removed. • "the fall of 'Rhodes' is symbolic for the inevitable fall of white supremacy and privilege at our campus” • Students actions included throwing human feces at the Rhodes statue, occupying UCT offices, and burning art, vehicles, and buildings, a Facebook page entitled 'Rhodes Must Fall' and use of the hashtag '#RhodesMustFall' on Twitter. • The campaign for the statue's removal received global attention and led to a wider movement to decolonize education at colleges and universities across South Africa.
  18. 18. DECOLONIZATION IN THE ARTS • Decolonize_________! • Museums, Art History, Curation, Graphic Design, the Canon etc. • At issue: How do we deal with the long history of Western colonial appropriation in the Arts? How do we “undo” or make visible vestiges of colonialism in the museum and other sites within the larger “institution of art”? How do we privilege Indigenous life, community, and epistemology (ways of knowing) in institutions that have been dedicated to Western art, culture and epistemologies?
  19. 19. DECOLONIZATION AS INSTITUTIONAL CRITIQUE • Critique is tied to institutions • Institutions govern our behaviors • Not wanting to be governed, like that
  20. 20. DECOLONIZE GRAPHIC DESIGN Ramon Tejada: https://ramongd.com/Decolonizing-graphic-Design_ Decolonizing Design Reader: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Hbymt6a3zz044xF_LCqGfTmXJip3c etj5sHlxZEjtJ4/edit
  22. 22. “AESTHETICS OF SURVIVANCE” GERALD VIZENOR (CHIPPEWA, US) Survivance Narratives of Native Presence (2008)
  23. 23. AESTHETIC THEORY: NAMING MOVEMENTS AND CATEGORIES OF ART Aesthetic theory = a critical interpretation of a body or group of artworks Aesthetic theory = a tool used to understand a specific art movement
  24. 24. “SURVIVANCE” A method for critically reading Native American literature a neologism which combines “survival, resistance and presence.” A term Vizenor borrowed from the legal concept of survivance which names the right to inheritance and more specifically the condition of being qualified to inherit a legacy i.e., in real estate, survivance is when a property owner makes a transfer of property to another but retains some future right to the property This term describes practices that rewrite ongoing colonial histories from the perspective of Indigenous experience, visual culture, oral history and knowledge.
  25. 25. Survivance is not the same as survival or subsistence. “Indigenous communities have not just survived; they have maintained ways of life, shared and passed on stories from generations past, resisted systems of oppression, preserved languages, and persisted through the challenges imposed by colonialism while protecting and sharing their cultural heritage.”
  26. 26. SUMMARY/ABSTRACT “Vizenor argues that many people in the world are enamored with and obsessed by the concocted images of the Indian—the simulations of indigenous character and cultures as essential victims. Native survivance, on the other hand, is an active sense of presence over historical absence, deracination, and oblivion. The nature of survivance is unmistakable in Native stories, natural reason, active traditions, customs, and narrative resistance and is clearly observable in personal attributes such as humor, spirit, cast of mind, and moral courage in literature.” Survivance Narratives of Native Presence (2008) book abstract
  27. 27. “Theories of survivance are elusive, obscure, and imprecise by definition, translation, comparison, and by catchword histories, but survivance is invariably true and just in native practice and cultural company.” Vizenor
  28. 28. SURVIVANCE: DEFINITIONS • “Native survivance is an active sense of presence over absence, deracination, and oblivion; survivance is the continuance of stories, not a mere reaction, however pertinent.” • “Survivance is an active sense of presence, the continuance of native stories, not a mere rection, or a survivable name.” • “Survivance stories are renunciations of dominance, detractions, obtrusions, the unbearable sentiments of tragedy, and the legacy of victimry.” • “Survivance is an active resistance and repudiation of dominance, obtrusive themes of tragedy, nihilism, and victimry.”
  29. 29. SURVIVANCE DEFINE (CON’T) • “Survivance is a practice, not an ideology, dissimulation, or a theory. The theory is earned by interpretations, the critical construal of survivance in creative literature…” • “Survivance, then, is the action, condition, quality, and sentiments of the verb survive, “to remain alive or in existence,” to outlive, persevere with a suffix of survivancy.” • “Thus, survivance is not a static object or method but a dynamic, active condition of historical and cultural survival and also of political resistance,”
  30. 30. EXAMPLES OF SURVIVANCE IN THE MEDIA ARTS A film made in the Haida language (Edge of the Knife) A digital artwork which translates traditional beadwork to the digital realm (Four Generations) A videogame which tells a traditional story (Never Alone) A database or Wesbite collection of oral histories from Inuit midwives (Women Health Bodies)
  31. 31. MEDIA ARTS + SURVIVANCE “In a media arts context, survivance also incorporates experimentation with medium in order to represent Indigenous worldviews” Wanda Nanibush (Anishinaabe, Canada) “Indigenous media is in search of new tools with which to reclaim perception and locate histories, relationships, and understandings.” Fred Myers
  32. 32. JOLENE RICKARD (TUSCARORA): VISUAL SOVEREIGNTY Tuscarora photographer and curator Jolene Rickard’s (1995) conceptualization of visual sovereignty: “identifying in art practice the possibilities of claiming virtual territory over and against the claims of the dominant, hegemonic structures of settler states and dominant art forms. “
  33. 33. “Indigenous cultural formations can be discussed from multiple locations (perspectives can be colonial, reservation based, sovereign, national, postcolonial, cultural, or diasporic), and they are created from multiple locations as well. What can we learn from these artists who plumb inherited traditions while appropriating global culture?” Rickard, “Visualizing Sovereignty in the Time of Biometric Sensors,” p. 471
  34. 34. T S U H É I D E I S H U G A X T U T A A N P A R T 1 ( 2 0 0 6 ) N I C H O L A S G A L A N I N ( T L I N G I T / U N A N G A Z , U S ) • David “Elsewhere” Bernal, a Peruvian-American dancer, performs his trademark blend of “twisting” and “popping” – contemporary dance • The traditional Tlingit song Tsu Heidei Shugaxtutaan (“We will again open this container of wisdom that has been left in our care”) plays on the soundtrack • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ue30aKV1L F8
  35. 35. ARTIST INTENTION TSU HÉIDEI SHUGAXTUTAAN STATEMENT “Tsu Héidei Shugaxtutaan translates to “We will again open this container of wisdom that has been left in our care. “ The work is named for the song being danced in by the non-Tlingit dancer. Galanin suggests opening containers of wisdom to create connection between generations as contribution to living culture. This work embodies celebration of culture and the necessity of contribution over consumption. In this early work Galanin explores song, dance, language, as intersecting streams to carry cultural continuum. The work asserts Tlingit song and dance as contemporary and relevant, blending them seamlessly with contemporary song and dance as a beacon for what is possible when culture is allowed to grow and expand to navigate new circumstances. Rather than a juxtaposition of time or place, the video expands both by weaving together image, sound and motion.”
  36. 36. THE INK OF THE EARTH (2019) RA JESH WANGAD WARLI MASTER PAINTER VR PROJECT Warli land and way of life is being threatened by development which also has an environmental impact. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IbFz mxLQcxk
  37. 37. WARLI OR VARLI PEOPLE • The Warli or Varli are an Indigenous tribe of western India, living in mountainous as well as coastal areas along the Maharashtra- Gujart border and surrounding areas. They practice their own animistic beliefs, life, customs and traditions, and as a result of acculturation have adopted many Hindu beliefs. The Warli speak the unwritten Varli. • The Warli are known for their unique painting style
  38. 38. MOBILIZE CAROLYN MONNET (ALGONQUIN-FRENCH CANADIAN ) “Guided expertly by those who live on the land and driven by the pulse of the natural world, Mobilize takes us on an exhilarating journey from the far north to the urban south. Over every landscape, in all conditions, everyday life flows with strength, skill and extreme competence. Hands swiftly thread sinew through snowshoes. Axes expertly peel birch bark to make a canoe. A master paddler navigates icy white waters. In the city, Mohawk ironworkers stroll across steel girders, almost touching the sky, and a young woman asserts her place among the towers. The fearless polar punk rhythms of Tanya Tagaq underscore the perpetual negotiation between the modern and traditional by a people always moving forward.” • https://vimeo.com/256666978 Edited in a way that seems to speed-up the film and at times the film is sped up Lots of camera movement or movement within an image Throat singing soundtrack matches speed of film Matches her notion of people always moving forward/an active presence Traditional and modern Emotional response?
  39. 39. ALTARES/CHRINE (2019) COLECTIVO LOS INGRÁVIDOS (TEHUACÁN, MEXICO) “ALTARES is an audiovisual shrine composed of small temples that contain images of ancient deities.” https://vimeo.com/user15819885 “Colectivo Los Ingrávidos (Tehuacán, Mexico) arises from the need to dismantle the audiovisual grammar that the aesthetic-television-cinematic corporatism has used and uses to effectively guarantee the diffusion of an audiovisual ideology by means of which a continuous social and perceptive control is maintained over the majority of the population. Politically charged yet involved with the sublime Los Ingrávidos inhabit poetic realms that few dare to tread.”
  40. 40. TAMBO (2014) + BIRDS IN EARTH (2018) MAR JA HEL ANDER (SÁMI, FINL AND) • Inserting the Sámi body into the polar landscape, claimed by settler colonialism • Trambo (excerpt) is a portrait of an indigenous Sámi woman wandering on a snowy mountain. She is dragging a big trampoline, a burden she hopes will bring a bit of joy to the monotonous journey of life. The trampoline is a reference to the modern age, but it can also be seen as a prison. • Birds on Earth (excerpt) Sámi dance students, Birit and Katja Haarla, dance through the villages and lost woods of Sámi land all the way to the south, to Helsinki. It examines the deeper questions of the ownership of Sámi land. • https://vimeo.com/285996592 • https://www.av-arkki.fi/works/eatnanvulos-lottit-maan-sisalla-linnut/ • https://vimeo.com/646497364
  41. 41. TIERRA (2013) REGINA JOSÉ GALINDO (MAYA, GUATEMALA) In Tierra the artist explores the connection between the exploitation of human lives and natural resources. The video shows the artist standing naked and motionless in a field while an excavator digs an enormous ditch around her, leaving only the small piece of land on which the artist is standing. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= eSRqMMieSIA
  42. 42. “The origin of the performance Tierra was testimony I heard at the genocide trial of (military dictator) Ríos Montt (1982-83). A military officer, a protected witness, recounted how the army rolled into the Indigenous communities (the lxil/Maya) with backhoes to make huge ditches where they would throw the bodies of Indigenous people, many of them still alive. Later, the lands where the massacres occurred were divvied up. War, violence, resources—it was all connected. A performance is not enough to express empathy, or rage, before a tragedy of that magnitude. But we do what we can.”
  43. 43. S P A N I A R D S N A M E D H E R M A G D A L E N A , B U T N A T I V E S C A L L H E R Y U M A ( 2 0 1 3 ) C A R O L I N A C A Y C E D O ( M U I S C A , C O L O M B I A )  Reclamation of language/land  Aesthetic technique: ?  https://vimeo.com/1518061 27
  44. 44. W O L F N AT I O N , 2 0 1 8 A L A N M I C H E L S O N ( M O H AW K < M E M B E R O F T H E S I X N AT I O N S O F T H E G R A N D R I V E R ) . Webcam footage of red wolves, a critically endangered indigenous species, transformed into a meditation linking their eradication with that of the Lenape Munsees, known as the Wolf Tribe. Drawn from the Native tradition of wampum belts—woven sashes of purple and white shell beads carrying solemn messages, Wolf Nation affirms an indigenous worldview and solidarity across species https://vimeo.com/577193771
  45. 45. SNOW WHITE (2001) BERNI SEARLE (AFRICAN AND GERMAN-ENGLISH ANCESTRY SOUTH AFRICA) Projected onto two screens and filmed from different angles, we see Searle kneeling in a pool of light, almost indistinguishable from the black floor and background. White flour falls from above - quietly, like the first snow - and gradually brings her body into focus, defining it and then enlarging and elaborating on that form. Eventually Searle reclaims her bodily form back by wiping the flour off, onto the floor and then starts noisily, ritualistically, to make dough from the flour, now wet with water that we hear dripping from above. It is a work about claiming the self on one's own terms
  46. 46. SNOW WHITE (2001) (BERNI SEARLE, AFRICAN AND GERMAN- ENGLISH ANCESTRY SOUTH AFRICA) • As a mixed-race person growing up during apartheid in South Africa, Searle was categorized as "Coloured," a label that she later rejected and challenged through her art post-apartheid • For Searle, this process of (re)construction involves a conscious tactic of continuous insertion and erasure of her body. • Oguibe, a Nigerian-born curator and points out that while Searle’s work is esthetically beautiful, it is also an entry into the complex history of Africa. For example, he explains, “being ‘whited-out.’ as enacted in Snow White, refers to the official policy of “erasing” indigenous populations in settler colonies.” • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=np-Gcc0Tvqo
  47. 47. MY FATHER’S COLOR PERIODS (2012) HIWA-K (KURD, IRAQ) “’Tonight the film will be broadcast in color’ - a rumor spread in 1979 among people who believed that the state-owned TV station would show the film in color despite of the fact that the TV´s were still black & white. Unlike in cities with Arab inhabitants, the majority of the people in the Kurdish area of Iraq still had no reach of color TV sets. So my father would cut and stick a sheet of cellophane on the screen of our TV at home. Some- times it stayed one week until he switched to another color. We used to watch films, music videos and all other programs, once in blue, pink, green and yellow and so on. Later he started also dividing the screen into two, three or four squares with different color in each. Eventually he began with stripes and other possible forms. We were watching the figures walking from blue to green, though yellow, purple to pink. In a while the entire city employed it with their black and white TVs going through the blue, then to pink, yellow phases and so on.” Countering the notion that Indigenous people are outside of technology. Creating a new visual/viewing language and experience in resistance to dominant media Claiming virtual territory over and against the claims of the dominant, hegemonic structures of settler states. Focusing attention on the power games that characterize the system which Kurds live under, whether it be economic, political or social.
  48. 48. KURDISTAN Indigenous peoples of the Mesopotamian plains Homeland stretches across the borders of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria; autonomous region only in Iraq
  49. 49. MY FATHER’S COLOR PERIODS (2012) VISUAL TECHNIQUES • Exhibited as a grid projection or on multiple TV sets– multiple images • Sound playing all at once • Videos play on a loop (no beginning, no end) • Intense use of color • ingenuity, resistance, protest, a new visual language/viewing language
  50. 50. VISIONS OF AN ISLAND (2016) SKY HOPINKA (HO-CHUNK NATION/PECHANGA BAND OF LUISEÑO PEOPLE) An Unangam Tunuu (Aleut) elder describes cliffs and summits, drifting birds, and deserted shores. A group of students and teachers play and invent games revitalizing their language. A visitor wanders in a quixotic chronicling of earthly and supernal terrain. These visions offer glimpses of an island in the center of the Bering Sea. http://www.skyhopinka.com/visions- of-an-island
  51. 51. Sky Hopinka's work deals with personal interpretations of homeland and landscape; the correlation between language and culture in relation to home and land. Hopinka has said: “Deconstructing language [through cinema] is a way for me to be free from the dogma of traditional storytelling and then, from there, to explore or propose more of what Indigenous cinema has the possibility to look like.”
  54. 54. NE’GUNDO MUKII (KENYA) Ng'endo Mukii is an award-winning film director most well known for ‘Yellow Fever,’ her documentary-animation exploring Western influences on African women's ideals of beauty. At the prestigious Design Indaba conference, she presented her talk, ‘Film Taxidermy and Re-Animation,’ proposing the use of animation as a means of rehumanizing the ‘indigenous’ image; a people whose ‘real’ image is burdened with stereotypes of being the ‘Other.’ She is a writer on Netflix’s Mama K’s Team 4 series and is one of 10 directors selected for the upcoming Disney+ and Triggerfish animated anthology, Kizazi Moto: Generation Fire. Professor at Museum School/Tufts
  55. 55. THE RE-ANIMATION OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE In this talk, Mukii discusses why she chose to use animation and dance to challenge the representation of indigenous people and the consequences of the portrayal of African people as a dead or dying population. Her exploration of these issues began when she found Gert Chesi’s The Last Africans around 10 years after its release. The book had a profound effect on Mukii because it, like other ethnographic books, portrayed indigenous African cultures as either dead or dying She juxtaposed this form of storytelling with the purpose of a taxidermist. She says that the ethnographer creates the impression of death where life exists while the taxidermist creates the illusion of life where death exists. Animation is different Mukii found that this singular narrative had influenced Nairobi’s modern media, which was skewed to western ideals of beauty. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TznYZkdwI3o
  56. 56. QUOTES “I propose the use of animation in relation to indigenous people as a means of telling you that these people are human. The animation is not related to the indexical image, and it is able to emulate human emotions and experiences.” “Animation is not pretending to be alive as is the case with taxidermy, and unlike ethnography it’s not tied to a singular story,”
  57. 57. PHOTOGRAPHS (ADS, COMMERCIALS, FILMS) AND THE INDEXICAL IMAGE 1. Photographs point to (or index) meaning Photographs are taken to represent/point to reality 2. An indexical image is an image that represents a meaning without having to specifically say it.
  58. 58. INDEXICAL IMAGE, EXAMPLE • Picture a commercial of a young child receiving an ice cream cone. He jumps up and down excitedly, and the ice cream falls out of the cone and onto the floor. At this point, the sound stops, and you no longer see the child. You only see the ice cream on the floor beginning to melt. How do you feel? This is an example of an indexical image, or an image that represents a meaning without having to specifically say it. These types of images are a great way to evoke certain emotions in your visual storytelling. If you can evoke emotions without having to literally say it, then the emotions will be more powerful. • For example, instead of seeing that ice cream fall onto the ground and start melting, would you feel the same level of sadness and empathy for the child if you saw the child crying? You still might feel sad, but now that sadness is also tinged with stress. Hearing children crying is always stressful. Nobody likes it. It is true that whatever the child is crying about is sad, but seeing and hearing them cry takes away from the sadness of the moment. Using the indexical image, however, allows you to evoke the feeling of sadness without other distractors.
  60. 60. ROMUALD HAZOUMÉ YORUBA Ibedji (Nos.1 and 2) Twins (1992) Plastic can, raffia, cowries and acrylic 16 1/2 x 11 3/4 x 3 7/8 in Materials gathered from recycle dumps in Benin “I send back to the West that which belongs to them, that is to say, the refuse of consumer society that invades us every day.
  61. 61. Mon Général (1992) Plastic gasoline container, metal gauges 16 7/8 X 12 5/8 X 9 in
  62. 62. Walkman (1992) Plastic bottle, wood, headphones, metal and copper 10 5/8 X 6 1/4 X 5 1/2 in
  63. 63. Ear Splitting (1999) Plastic canister, brush, speakers 16 1/2 x 8 5/8 x 6 1/4 in.
  64. 64. Un Bleu (2018) Plastic canister and brush 13 3/8 x 10 5/8 x 2 2/3 inches
  65. 65. Toupieman (2018) Plastic gasoline container and brush, 12 5/8 x 10 1/4 x 10 1/4 inches
  66. 66. Lloyd Kiva New (1916–2002) Fashion and textile designer influenced by Cherokee + Native American fabric/designs/weavings
  67. 67. ATO RIBEIRO (ASANTE AND EWE HERITAGE) • Kente Quilt Series (2016-2017) • Wooden wall sculptures based on Ghanian Kente cloth designs • “…my work draws from exploring modes of communication embedded within traditional textiles such as Ghanaian Kente cloth and African American quilts.”

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • http://www.on-curating.org/issue-35-reader/chasing-colonial-ghosts-decolonizing-art-institutions-in-post-apartheid-south-africa.html
  • Tlingit
    Kling kit