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New York Pär Larshans, Ragnsells, phosphorus management

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In this session - slides seminar will Pär Larshans CSO, Ragnsells share the Why we need to recover and recycle phosphorus, and how it will help with safer food production and cleaner oceans, please share.

See live presentation here, start Why to Act for the Climate and now, we have the technology! (Time in video 30.51 - 53.58 min)

http://bit.ly/ragnsellslivenewyork

Veröffentlicht in: Umweltschutz
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New York Pär Larshans, Ragnsells, phosphorus management

  1. 1. Pär Larshans, Chief Sustainability Office, Ragnsells Group par.larshans@ragnsells.com Sustainable Phosphorus Management New York - Nordic Innovation House July 18, 2018 Live broadcast http://bit.ly/ragnsellslivenewyork
  2. 2. Phosphorus Phosphorus is an element essential to life • Phosphorus is an important component in RNA and DNA and is necessary for all living cells • Bones and teeth consist of calcium phosphate • Phosphorus is a constituent of the ATP-molecule, which plays a central role in energy management in all living cells • Phosphorus is a constituent of the cell membrane (phospholipids) • Regulation of pH in cells is based on phosphorus chemistry
  3. 3. 3 Global production 170 million ton rock phosphate (apatite) year -1 International Fertilizer Association – Statistics 2007 Mining of rock phosphate and the cadmium and uranium issue Cd and U content There is a continuous decrease in world rock phosphate quality Rock phosphate can contain up to 640 mg Cd kg-1 P and up to 1.3 g U kg-1 P British Sulphur (1998) Phosphorus & Potassium, 217 Alloway & Steinnes (1999) Cadmium in Soils and Plants. Development in Plant and Soil Sciences 85, 110 – 113 Guzman et al. (1995) Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 189, 2, 301-306
  4. 4. Fosfor en begränsad resurs Phosphorus reserves and cadmium content < 10 mg Cd kg-1 P 10 -50 mg Cd kg-1 P >50 mg Cd kg-1 P
  5. 5. Col 2 Col 2 Fördelningen av världens brytbara fosforreserver (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Brazil Russia South Africa Jordan Syria China Tunesia Israel Egypt USA Other countries Morocco and Western Sahara <10 mg Cd kg-1 P 10-50 mg Cd kg-1 P >50 mg Cd kg-1 P Mineable phosphate rock and cadmium content Estimates on mineable amounts taken from US Geological Survey (USGS, 2011) and on cadmium contents from McLaughlin et al. (1996). Mineable phosphate rock in relation to world reserves (%)
  6. 6. U3O8 (ppm) Min Max Algeria 110 140 Brasil 50 250 Egypt 70 140 Jordan 50 150 Morocco 90 160 Senegal 120 180 Syria 60 160 Togo 80 100 Tunis 30 150 US 20 300 Uranium content in rock phosphate Chaker, 2009 85 to 90% of the uranium in rock phosphate ends up in fertilizers
  7. 7. Resumé • Phosphate rock is a non-renewable resource. Recycling of phosphorus is necessary within foreseeable future • Cadmium and uranium -depleted P reserves are very limited • Cadmium and uranium must be separated from fertilizers in order to not enrich agricultural land
  8. 8. © Ragn-Sells AB
  9. 9. © Ragn-Sells AB Only about 27% of the 84 billion tons of resources entering the global economy today can be considered renewable. WirtschaftsUniversity:materialflows.net Healthcare Food Housing Energy TRENDS IN RESOURCES AND ECONOMY SINCE 1980
  10. 10. © Ragn-Sells AB ELEMENTS IN DATACHIPS VS TIME Source: Schulz, K.J., DeYoung, J.H., Jr., Bradley, D.C., and Seal, R.R., II, 2017, Critical mineral resources of the United States—An introduction, chap. A of Schulz, K.J., DeYoung, J.H., Jr., Seal, R.R., II, and Bradley, D.C., eds., Critical mineral resources of the United States—Economic and environmental geology and prospects for future supply: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1802, p. A1–A14, https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1802A. From 12 to +45 in two decades!
  11. 11. © Ragn-Sells AB ▪Huge improvement of life quality for billions of people. ▪Increasingly complex products (elements and compounds) ▪Realization of how hazardous some substances are over time ▪Our ecosystem capacity is increasingly limited HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT DEVELOPMENTS
  12. 12. © Ragn-Sells AB
  13. 13. © Ragn-Sells AB EVERYTHING IS RELATED TO EVERYTHING… Källa: Le Blanc, D., 2015. Towards Integration at Last? The sustainable Development Goals as a Network of Targets. Sutaian. Dev., 187, 176-187
  14. 14. © Ragn-Sells AB THE 2º- GOAL REQUIRES A TOUGH CO2 BUDGET AND A NEW GLOBAL ENERGY SYSTEM Source: https://www.mcc-berlin.net/en/research/co2-budget.html Fridal, M. 2017, FORES
  15. 15. © Ragn-Sells AB BUT WILL A NEW ENERGY SYSTEM BE ENOUGH?
  16. 16. © Ragn-Sells AB BUT WILL A NEW ENERGY SYSTEM BE ENOUGH? Year 2011 2014 2017 No. of CRM:s 14 20 27
  17. 17. © Ragn-Sells AB ORE GRADES ARE FALLING OVER TIME… Källa: Sverdrup, U. et al. 2016, On the integrated climate impact of resources and energy extractiion and use in society, Berlin 8 nov 2016, https:// www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/conference-decarbonisation-ressource-efficiency-0
  18. 18. © Ragn-Sells AB ENERGY NEED VS GRADE ORE – REAL DATA Guimar Calvo, Galvin Mudd, Alicia Valrto & Antonio Valero (2016), Decreasing Ore Grades in Metallic Mining A Theroretical Issue or a Global Reality, Resources 2016,5, 36.
  19. 19. © Ragn-Sells AB CHANGE OF ENERGY SYSTEM DRIVES NEED FOR NEW RESOURCES! Källa: Sverdrup, U. et al. 2016, On the integrated climate impact of resources and energy extractiion and use in society, Berlin 8 nov 2016, https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/conference-decarbonisation-ressource-efficiency-0
  20. 20. © Ragn-Sells AB TRUE RECYCLING IS NEEDED TO MAKE IT!
  21. 21. © Ragn-Sells AB TRUE RECYCLING De facto replace virgin resources Decontaminate circular flows No debts or hindrances pushed to future generations
  22. 22. sewage sludge N&Precoveryfrom aqueousphase Precoveryfromsolid phase/ashes Challenge: Enabling techn. alternatives to complement /compensate traditional route! Pillars of Nutrient Recovery & Recycling food us sewage WWTP fertiliser / agriculture Dewateredsludge/ „Biosolids“ nutrients ~38% ~62% © 2018 Isle Utilities. All Rights ReservedAlmedalsveckan 4 July 2018, Visby, Sweden, presented by C. Kabbe m ainly untapped potential Concerns Hygiene Contaminants Uncertainties Monitoring Cost Surplus manure Heterogenity Acceptance
  23. 23. Germany 2017+: a template to adapt, but not just to copy as is ▪ 2017 – new fertilising ordinance (DÜV) limits nutrient loads applied to land and acutely reduces sludge disposal capacities -> cost explosion! ▪ 2017 – new fertiliser ordinance (DÜMV) sets stricter quality criteria (less sludge is catching up) ▪ 2017 – new sewage sludge ordinance (AbfKlärV) enters into force • 2023 – all WWTP have to submit sludge management concepts considering P recovery • 2029 – P recovery oblig. for all WWTP above 100,000 p.e. (ban from land application) • 2032 – P recovery oblig. for all WWTP > 50,000 p.e. o Even smaller WWTP have to recover P, if no land application possible o On-site WWTP: P recovery to deplete below 20 g P/kg DM or at least by 50% o After thermal-pretreatment recoverable separate storage of ash/concentrate or recovery process with >80% recovery rate What is missing? o No marketable recycling concepts included o No measure to secure proper ash quality (all sludge can be inc. in mono-inc.) o Reverence value for P should refer to mineral sludge phase, not to DM o Who pays for what? (Inc. and recovery from ash monopoly?) Sludge mono-incineration is favoured and will double in coming years! Sludge disposal cost have already been doubled regionally last year! © 2018 Isle Utilities. All Rights ReservedAlmedalsveckan 4 July 2018, Visby, Sweden, presented by C. Kabbe
  24. 24. Hotspots for P recovery & Recycling for WWTP > 50.000 p.e. primary clarification secondary clarification influent effluent grit chamber aeration biogas anaerobic digestion dewatering incineration agriculture 2b 2a 3 1 process water waste activated sludge thickening Integrated in WWTP Site by Site Downstream WWTP Clusters 2c P re-dissolving pre-treatment © 2018 Isle Utilities. All Rights Reserved 2029/32+ ▪Land appl. prohibited ▪Co-incineration only for sludge with < 2%P ▪Mono-incineration allowed without restriction, but P recovery from ash afterwards required Priority for utilities: ▪Long term disposal security ▪Cost control ▪Lowest financial risk Limited! P depletion below 2% P in sludge required or at least 50% extraction to allow co-incineration Mono-incineration -> Main route! -80% P recov. minimum Prohibited! Almedalsveckan 4 July 2018, Visby, Sweden, presented by C. Kabbe
  25. 25. Germany 2017+ substantial increase of mono-incineration ▪ Currently appr. 665 kt DS mono-incineration capacity 2017 (municipal sludge) ▪ After 2029/32 at least 1.200.000 Mg DS capacity needed to comply with sludge reg (Ecoprog 2017) … likely more (1.400.000 MG DS) ▪ Most new capacities between 2022 and 2027 (already +480 kt DS in prep. announced) -> future SSA quantity > 500.000 Mg/a (>45.000 Mg P/a) © Outotec © 2018 Isle Utilities. All Rights ReservedAlmedalsveckan 4 July 2018, Visby, Sweden, presented by C. Kabbe
  26. 26. Challenges and keys to Success and Sustainability? Only technologies, yielding homogenous products or raw materials, independent from input material quality and mutually meeting both criteria, energy and resource efficiency will have a chance for wide-spread application under sustainability aspects. Keys: ✓Heavy metal depletion (high quality products) ✓Moderate energy (and chemicals) consumption (cost) ✓Market for “known” recovered P (commercial products) (real value and price) © Kabbe 2017 © 2018 Isle Utilities. All Rights ReservedAlmedalsveckan 4 July 2018, Visby, Sweden, presented by C. Kabbe
  27. 27. The solution: Ash2Phos, Clean commercial phosphorus products from sludge ash Process characteristics •Clean well known phosphorus products (Cd< 1 mg/kg P) •Input chemicals become part of products •Products effective in their applications •Simple and robust process •Low energy consumption •Can use waste acid •Recovery of iron and aluminium separately Products from the process •Phosphorus 95% recovery – Calcium phosphate (feed phosphates) – Superphosphates – Ammonium phosphate (fertilizer) •Precipitation chemicals (iron chloride & aluminum sulfate) •Heavy metal (disposal) •Undissolved ash
  28. 28. Kiruna - Europes largest phosphorus reserve? LKAB is annually producing a waste sand containing approx. 70 000 tons of phosphor and 3 000 ton rare earth metals Foto:LKAB
  29. 29. EasyMining Apatite MAP
 ammoniumfosfat Flotation of apatite from wastesand Extraction of phosphorus and REE REE-concentrate Mining waste to MAP, two fundamental process steps REE
  30. 30. © Ragn-Sells AB Pär Larshans, Chief Sustainability Office, Ragnsells Group par.larshans@ragnsells.com

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