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PLANNING –ACC
ANCIENT SETTLEMENTS
Ancient Times
Natural factors that affect the
development and growth of urban areas:
potential for natural calamities (fire, flood, volcano
eruptions, etc.)
presence of fertile soil, bodies of water, and other
natural resources
slope and terrain and other forms of natural defenses
climate
Ancient Times
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
Innovations that influenced the development of
the earliest cities
- The plow and rectilinear farming.
- Circular and radiocentric planning
- for herding and eventually for defense
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
7000 – 9000 b.c.
Neolithic cities
- Jericho: early settlement in Israel -9000b.c.
- Khirokitia: early settlement in Cyprus - 5500 b.c
- A well-organized community of about 3000 people
- Built around a reliable source of freshwater
- Only 3 hectares and enclosed with a circular stone wall
- Overrun in about 6500 b.c., rectangular layouts followed
-First documented settlement
with streets
-The main street heading uphill
was narrow but had a wider terminal,
which may have been a social spot
-Largest neolithic city-
13 hectares; 10,000 people
-Catalhoyuk: early settlement in Turkey (Asia Minor)
-An intricately assembled
complex without streets
-Included shrines and quarters
for specialized crafts, production
of paintings, textile, metal, etc.
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
-Rested on a new rationale for the
city at that time- trade
-Circa 7000 b.c.
2000 – 4000 b.c.
- Cities in the Fertile Crescent were formed by the Tigris
and Euphrates river valleys of Mesopotamia
- Eridu- acknowledged as the oldest city.
- Damascus- oldest continually inhabited city
- Babylon: the largest city with 80,000 inhabitants
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
HISTORY OF SETTLEMENTS
3000 b.c.
-Cities of Thebes and Memphis along the Nile Valley
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- characterized by monumental architecture
-worker’s communities
were built in cells along
narrow roads
-cities had monumental avenues, colossal temple plazas and tombs
cut from rock
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- Tel-el-Amarna
- An example of a typical
Egyptian city with the
following:
(1) central area
(2) north suburb
(3) south city
(4) custom’s house
(5) worker’s village
2500 b.c.
- Indus Valley (present day Pakistan)
-Cities of Mohenjo – Daro and Harrapa:
800 b.c.
-Yellow River Valley of China-
“land within the passes”. Precursor of Linear City.
- Anyang- largest city of the Yellow River Valley
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
-administrative-religious centers with 40,000 inhabitants
-archeological evidence indicates an advanced civilization
lived here as there were housing variations, sanitary and
sewage systems, etc.
1900 b.c.
- Beijing- founded in approximately same location it’s in today
-present form originated in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
b.c. to a.d
- Elaborate network of cities in Mesoamerica were built by the
Zapotecs, Mextecs, and Aztecs in rough rugged land.
- Teotijuacan and Dzibilchatun were the largest cities
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
Greek Classical Cities700 b.c.
- Greek cities spread through the Aegean Region –
westward to France and Spain
-“polis” : defined as a “city-state”. Most famous is the
Acropolis- a religious and defensive structure up on the
hills, with no definite geometrical plan
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
700 b.c.
- Sparta and Athens : the largest cities (100-150T)
- Neopolis and Paleopolis (new and old cities)
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
-Hippodamus- the first noted urban planner. Introduced
the grid system and the Agora (public marketplace)
400 b.c.
- 3 sections:
for artisans, farmers,
and the military
-Miletus
-Roman Cities : adopted Greek forms but with different
scale- monumental, had a social hierarchy
- Roman Forums
Roman Classical Cities
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- Romans as engineers- built aqueducts, public
baths, utility systems, fountains, etc.
- Developed housing variations and other spaces:
- Romans incorporated public works and arts
into city designs
- Romans as conquerors- built forum after forum
Basilica- covered markets; later, law courts
Curia- the local meeting hall; later, the capitol
Domus- traditional Roman house; with a central
atrium
Insulae- 3 to 6- storey apartments with storefronts
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- Sienna and
Constantinople:
signified the
rise of the
Church
Medieval Ages
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- Decline of Roman power left many outposts all over
Europe where growth revolved around
- Feudalism affected the urban design of most towns
-Towns were fine and intimate with winding roads and
sequenced views of cathedrals or military fortifications
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- 11th century towns in Europe: Coastal port towns
- Mercantilist cities : continuous increase in size
- World trade and travel created major population
concentrations like Florence, Paris, and Venice
- Growth eventually led to congestion and slums
- many of these coastal
towns grew from military
fortifications, but expansion
was limited to what the city
could support
- 15th Century France: display of power
- Arts and architecture became a major element of
town planning and urban design
The Renaissance and Baroque periods
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- Geometrical forms of cities were proposed
- Vienna emerged as the city of culture and the
arts- the first “university town”
- Landscape architecture showcased palaces
and gardens
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
karlsruhe (Germany) Versailles (France)
1. Medieval Organic City - taken after the “boug”
(military town) and “fauborg” (citizen’s town) of
the medieval ages
2. Medieval Bastide - taken from the French bastide
(eventually referred to as “new towns”)
Settlements in the Americas
3. The Spanish “Laws of the Indies” town - King
Philip II’s city guidelines that produced 3 types
of towns- the pueblo (civil), the presidio
(military), and the mission (religious)
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- came in the form of grids or radial plans
reflecting flexibility
4. The English Renaissance - “the European
Planned City” – ex. Savannah (designed
by James Oglethorpe), Charleston, Annapolis,
and Williamsburg (Col. Francis Nicholson)
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- Today, Savannah is the world’s largest officially
recognized historical district
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
– government bldgs were
focal points of the plan,
though a civic square
was also provided
WilliamsburgAnnapolis
– plan was anchored by
the Governor’s palace,
the state capitol, and
the College of William
and Mary
5. The Speculators Town - developments were
driven by speculation
- Philadelphia– designed by William Penn
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- Built between the Delaware and Scool Kill
- The “Machine Age” - change from manpower
to assembly lines
The Industrial Revolution
- 2 schools of thought- the “reform movements”
and the “specialists”
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
The Industrial Revolution
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- the reform movements:
- Robert Owens (New Lanark Mills,
Manchester, England)
- New Harmony, Indiana, USA by Owens, Jr.
-Designed for 800 to 1200 persons
-With agricultural, light industrial, educational, and
recreational facilities
- Icarus, Red River, Texas, by Cabet
- Brook Farm, Massachusetts, by a group of
New England Planners
- the “Owenite Communities”:
(eventually, Cabet joined the Mormons in laying out
Salt-lake City, Utah)
HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
- Tony Garnier (Une Cite Industrielle )
Locational features may
have been a precursor
to modern zoning
Ideas and theories
adopted by Dutch
Architect JJP Oud
in the design of
Rotterdam
PLANNING THEORIES
- Ebenezer Howard – author of “Tomorrow:
A Peaceful Path To Social Reform”
The Garden Cities
- Garden City plans - cluster with a mother town
of 58,000 to 65,000 with smaller garden cities
of 30,000 to 32,000 each with permanent green
space separating the cities with the towns
THEORIES and PRACTICES
- The Garden City Association- established by
Howard in 1899
Letchworth:
first Garden City
designed by
Raymond Unwin and
Barry Parker in 1902
THEORIES and PRACTICES
-Consisted of
4,500 acres
(3000 for agriculture,
1500 for city proper)
-Welwyn, 1920
(by Louis de Soisson)
-brought formality and
Georgian taste
-Hampstead Garden Suburbs- meant only for housing but
with a variety of housing types lined along streets with
terminating axes on civic buildings in a large common green
THEORIES and PRACTICES
The City Beautiful Movement
-Daniel Burnham spearheaded
the movement with his design
for Chicago and his famous words:
“make no little plans…”
THEORIES and PRACTICES
-Also credited for the designs of
San Francisco and Cleveland
-Emphasis was on grand formal
designs, with wide boulevards,
civic spaces, arts, etc.
-Influenced by the world fairs of
the late 19th century, like the 1891
Columbian Exposition, Chicago
- Baron Hausmann- worked on the reconstruction
of Paris- linear connection between the place de
concord, arc de triomph, eiffel tower and others
THEORIES and PRACTICES
Champs d’ Elysee
New Capitals
- capital of Brazil and a completely new twentieth-
century city
- Designed by Lucio Costa with a lot of influence
from Le Corbusier
THEORIES and PRACTICES
Brasilia
-with two huge axes in the sign
of the cross, one for gov’t,
commerce, and entertainment,
the other for the residential
component
-Oscar Niemeyer was among
the architects employed to
design the buildings
- Capital of Punjab
province of India,
and the only
realized plan of
Le Corbusier
-Original Master Plan by Albert Myer
THEORIES and PRACTICES
Chandigarh
-A regular grid of major roads for rapid transport
surrounding residential superblocks or sections each
based on the rectangle and measuring 800x1200 meters
-The whole plan represents a large scale application of the
Radburn principle regularized by Le Corbusier’s
predilection for the rectilinear and the monumental.
- Canberra’s design taken from the principles of the
city beautiful movement
THEORIES and PRACTICES
Canberra, Australia in 1901
design reflected the
principles of the city beautiful
movement with a triangular
formation of three important
buildings:
the Court of Justice,
the Parliament House,
and the Capitol Building,
with each apex pointing
to another important
building or monument
THEORIES and PRACTICES
New Delhi, India
-based on the great east-west axis
of Kingsway, 1.5 miles long,
with the Government House on a
hilltop in the West end, and
the eastern counterpoint a large
hexagonal space reserved for
palaces of the native princes.
- Designed by Sir Edward Lutyens
-covers 2650 hectares, yet growth
beyond a population of 57,000
was not contemplated as low
garden-city type density was
envisioned
-Conceptualized by Le Corbusier in his book
-“the Cities of Tomorrow”
The City of Towers
-His first plan for high
density living was
Unite d’ Habitation,
in Marseilles
THEORIES and PRACTICES
-A “super building
with 337 dwellings in
10 acres of land
THEORIES and PRACTICES
- New York City – present day city of towers along
with Houston, Chicago, Toronto
-He also conceptualized Le Contemporaine, high
rise offices and residential buildings with a greenbelt
for a population of 3,000,000 people
- Broadacres Frank Lloyd Wright
- The Mile High Tower
THEORIES and PRACTICES
FLW proposed that every family in the U.S.
live in one acre of land. Problems with lack of land
lead to his design of the…
Proposed to house a
significant amount of
Manhattan residents to
free up space for
greenfields
10 or more of these could
possibly replace all
Manhattan buildings
Radical Ideas
- The Linear City-
proposed by
Spanish Engineer
Soria Y Mata
THEORIES and PRACTICES
-Stalingrad
-N.A Milyutin,
1930
- The Arcology Alternative– the 3D city by
Paolo Soleri
THEORIES and PRACTICES
THEORIES and PRACTICES
-Motopia
- Proposed by Edgar Chambless
- Vehicular traffic will be along
rooftops of a continuous
network of buildings, while
the streets will be for
pedestrian use only
-Science Cities
- Proposed by the “metabolism group”; visionary
urban designers that proposed underwater cities,
“biological” cities, cities in pyramids, etc.
- The Floating City- Kiyonori Kikutake
THEORIES and PRACTICES
The Neighborhood Unit- by Clarence Perry and
Clarence Stein, defined
as the Physical
Environment wherein
social, cultural,
educational, and
commercial are within
easy reach of each other
THEORIES and PRACTICES
- concerns self sustainability
of smaller units
- the elementary school as the
center of development
determines the size of the
neighborhood
THEORIES and PRACTICES
- Industrial Revolution- generated jobs,
increased productivity, and opened up mass
markets for goods.
- Factors that contributed to urban growth:
- Transportation innovations, specially
“farm to market” roads
- Improved infrastructure
- the electric elevator
- Improved medicine
- Iron and steel construction technology
- “Megalopolis” – concept coined by Jean Gottmann
for urban complexes in the Northeastern United
States.
THEORIES and PRACTICES
- The term means “Great City” in Greek. Today it is
used to refer to massive urban concentrations
created from strong physical linkages between
three or more large cities.
Boston – New York – Philadelphia – Washington (U.S.A.)
San Diego – Los Angeles – San Francisco (U.S.A.)
Dortmund – Essen – Duesseldorf (Germany)
The Hague – Rotterdam – Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Tokyo – Yokohama – Nagoya – Osaka – Kobe (Japan)
SETTLEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES
Pre-colonial Times
SETTLEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES
- Like other cities in the world the earliest Filipino
communities developed out of the need for their
inhabitants to band together.
- They were formed for security, or to be close to
critical resources like food and water. Most of
the earliest towns were by the coast for the
fisherfolk or were where there was abundant
agricultural land for the farmers.
- The community unit was the barangay, consisting
of 30 to 100 families.
The Spanish Colonial Times
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
Laws of the Indies
- In 1573, King Philip II proclaimed the Laws of the
Indies that established uniform standards and
planning procedures for colonial settlements.
- These laws provided guidelines for site selection,
layout and dimensioning of streets and squares,
the location of civic and religious buildings,
open space, cultivation and pasturing lands,
and even the main procedural phases of
planning and construction.
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
- The Plaza Complex-
a result of several
ordinances of the
Laws of the Indies.
- The plaza is
surrounded by
important buildings
such as the:
Catholic church
Municipal or town hall
Marketplace and merchant’s
stores
Elementary school
The homes of the “principalia”
Other government buildings
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
Intramuros
- The walled city of Manila
- 1.2 sq. KM in area; perimeter is 3.4 KM
- home of the Spanish (except for the Friars & the
high ranking officials)
- decentralization occurred and settlements were
built in Malate, San Miguel, and Paco, among
other areas
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
The American Period
The American Agenda
- guide urban growth and physical development
- put more emphasis on other values such as
sanitation, housing, and aesthetic improvements.
Daniel Burnham
- Architect / planner who designed Chicago, San
Francisco, and parts of Washington D.C.
-Brought in to design Manila and the
“summer capital” of Baguio
Luneta
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
- Designed with
grand avenues and
a strong central
civic core
Burnham’s Design for Manila
- Included a civic
mall to house
national buildings
(only the Finance &
Agriculture buildings
were built)
- Fronted Manila Bay
like most Baroque
plans fronted a large body of water
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
- On July 31, 1903, by virtue of Act No. 183, the city of
Manila was incorporated
Manila as the first chartered city
- Manila encompassed Intramuros, and the towns of
Binondo, Tondo, Sta. Cruz, Malate, Ermita, Paco,
and Pandacan.
- The population then was 190,000 people
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
- Quiapo- the illustrado territory; the enclave of the
rich and powerful. Also the manifestation of folk
religiosity.
The Arrabales Growth of Manila
- Binondo- the trading port developed by the
Chinese and Arabs
- Sta. Cruz- the main commercial district with swirls
of shops, movie houses, restaurants, etc.
- San Nicolas- also a commercial town built by the
Spanish with streets of “specialized” categories
(i.e. ceramics, soap, etc.)
- Sampaloc- centered on two churches (Our Lady of
Loreto and Saint Anthony of Padua). Also known
as the first “University Town”.
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
Later Suburbs
- San Miguel (Malacañang)- where rest-houses
were built for the Spanish government
- Malate- the early “summer resort” of wealthy and
cultured Filipinos. Then became the first fishing
and salt-making town
- Ermita- early tourist belt (red-light district)
- Paco- first town built around a train station
- Pandacan- town built by the Americans for Oil
depots
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
Further Suburbanization
Quezon City as the new capitol city
-In 1939, Commonwealth Act
No. 457, authorized the
transfer of the capitol to
an area of 1572 hectares
-A master plan of Quezon City
was completed in 1941 by
Architects Juan Arellano,
Harry T. Frost, Louis Croft,
and Eng. A.D. Williams
- “City beautiful” plan reflected the aspirations of an emerging
nation and the visions of a passionate leader
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
-In 1946, a search committee was
formed to find a new site
Constitution Hill
-a 158 ha area in the Novaliches
watershed was selected and
called Constitution Hill and
National Government Center
-The three seats of government
were to form a triangle at the
center of the complex
-It included a 20 hectare civic space
referred to as the Plaza of
the Republic
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
Philippine Homesite and Housing Corporation
- Precursor of the National Housing Authority
Philamlife Homes
- icon of middle class suburbanization
- Built homes for the masses
(“the projects”, i.e. proj.4, proj. 6, etc.)
- Master Plan designed by Architect and Planner,
Carlos P. Arguelles, based on suburban
developments in California with modifications
BLISS (bagong lipunan sites and services)
- Walk-up developments for government sector
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
Metro Manila Central Business Districts
- Manila CBD- this traditional CBD is a center of
business and commerce, has a population
nucleus, and seats the national government
- Makati CBD- a business, financial, commercial,
convention, and recreational center of the
Metropolitan Region covering an area of 979
hectares. Begun by the Ayala conglomerate in
1948.
- Ortigas CBD- another business, financial,
convention, shopping, and recreational node.
Developed by the Ortigas conglomerate in the
1950s, it’s present configuration fully developed
only in the late 80s. The area covers 600 hectares.
Settlement Planning in the Phils.
- Cubao CBD- developed in the 1960s by the
Araneta Family, Cubao was intended as an
alternative business center in the Eastern side of
the metropolis. This 37 hectare property now
reflects more of a bazaar economy, though plans
are now being developed to convert the area to a
more modern commercial and recreational center.
- Emerging CBDs
Fort Bonifacio Global City- 500 ha of prime land
Boulevard 2000- 1167 ha of reclaimed land to revive
Manila as a city of commerce and tourism
Filinvest Corporate City- joint venture of government
and private sector. Accessible to industrial estates
and technological parks
KEVIN LYNCH
Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City
Physical elements that create the image of the city
Paths
Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City
- Channels along which the observer moves
- Predominant element for many person’s image
- Other elements are arranged and related through
paths
- Strong paths are:
easily identifiable
have continuity and directional quality
are aligned with a larger system
- Spatial extremes highlight paths
Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City
Edges
- Linear elements not used or considered as paths
- Lateral references, not coordinate axes
- May be barriers or seams
- Not as dominant as paths but are important
organizing features
visually prominent
continuous
and impenetrable to cross movement
- Strong edges are:
- Edges can be disruptive to city form
Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City
Districts
- Medium to large sections of a city, conceived of as
two-dimensional
- Observer can mentally enter “inside of”
- Recognizable as having some common, identifying
character
- Dominance depends upon the individual and the
given district
Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City
activity and use
building types and detail
inhabitants (ethnic or class)
- Physical characteristics have a variety of
components
physical characteristics (topography, boundaries,
age, etc.)
Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City
Nodes
- May be thematic concentrations
- Points, strategic spots by which an observer can enter
- Intensive foci from which observer is traveling
- Junctions and Concentrations
- Directly related to the concept of paths and the
concept of districts
Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City
Landmarks
- Point references considered to be external to the
observer
- Physical elements that may vary widely in scale
- Unique and special in place of the continuities
used earlier
- Sequential series of landmarks as traveling guides
IAN BENTLEY
Permeability
Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts
- Places must be accessible to
people to offer them choice
- Public and private access
must be complementary
- Physical and visual
permeability depends
on how the network of
public space divides the
environment into blocks
- There is a decline in public permeability because
of current design trends
Scale of development
Hierarchical layout
Segregation
Variety
Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts
- Variety offers users a choice
of experiences
- Variety of experience implies
places with varied forms,
uses, and meanings
- Developers and planners are
more concerned with
economic performance
and easier management,
than with variety
- Variety of uses depends on three main factors:
range of activities
possibility of supply
extent to which design encourages positive interactions
- Variety also depends on feasibility: economic,
political, and functional
Legibility
Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts
- Degree of choice depends
on how legible it is: how
layout is understood
- Legibility is important at
two levels: physical form
and activity patterns
- Legibility in the old days:
important buildings
stood out
- Legibility of form and use is
reduced in the modern
environment
- Separating pedestrians from vehicles also reduces
legibility
- Legibility is strengthened by Lynch’s physical
elements of the city
Robustness
Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts
- Environments which can be
used for many different
purposes
- There must be a distinction
between large scale and
small scale robustness
- There are three key factors
that support long term
robustness:
Building depth
Access
Building height
- The design of small scale
robustness depends on
extra factors
hard and soft spaces
active and passive spaces
Visual Appropriateness
Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts
- Visual Appropriateness
focuses on details
- A vocabulary of
visual cues must
be found to
communicate levels
of choice
- Interpretations can
reinforce
responsiveness by :
supporting the place’s legibility
supporting the place’s variety
supporting the place’s robustness
Richness
Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts
- The variety of sense experiences
that users can enjoy
- There are two ways for
users to choose from
different sense
experiences
focusing their attention on different
sources of sense experience
moving away from one source to
another
- The basis of visual richness depends on the
presence of visual contrasts
Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts
- The sense of motion: gained through movement
- The sense of smell: can not be directed
- The sense of hearing: user has limited control
- The sense of touch: voluntary and involuntary
- The sense of sight: most dominant in terms of
information input and is the one easiest to
control
Personalization
Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts
- allows people to achieve
an environment that
bears the stamp of their own tastes and values
- makes a person’s pattern of activities more clear
- Users personalize in two ways:
to improve practical facilities and to change the
image of a place
Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts
- Personalization comes in two levels:
Private
Public
- Personalization is affected by three key factors:
Tenure
building type
technology
- Users personalize as an affirmation of their own
tastes and values and because they perceive
existing image as inappropriate
Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts
permeability: designing the overall layout of routes
and development blocks
variety: locating uses on the site
legibility: designing the massing of the buildings and
the enclosure of public space
robustness: designing the spatial and constructional
arrangement of individual buildings and outdoor spaces
visual appropriateness: designing the external
image
richness: developing the design for sensory choice
personalization: making the design encourage
people to put their own mark on the places where they
live and work
Putting it all together…
URBAN FORM AND FUNCTION
Urban Form and Function
LandformTopography
Relationship with Nature
cities within nature cities and nature nature within cities
Urban Form and Function
Shaperadiocentric-
a large circle with radial
corridors of intense
development emanating from
the center
rectilinear-
usually with two corridors of
intense development crossing
the center; usually found in small
cities rather than in large
star-
radiocentric form with open
spaces between the outreaching
corridors of development
Urban Form and Function
ring-
a city built around a large open
space
linear-
usually the result of natural
topography which restricts growth;
may also be a transportation spine
branch-
a linear span with connecting arms
Urban Form and Function
sheet-
a vast urban area with little or no
articulation
articulated sheet-
a sheet accented by one or more
central clusters and several
subclusters
Urban Form and Function
satellite-
constellation of cities around a
main center
constellation-
a series of nearly equal sized cities
in close proximity
Size & Density
Urban Form and Function
- physical extent – measured in KMs across, or
center to outskirts, or square KM
- density formulas- number of inhabitants with respect to
physical size; can be computed in several ways:
number of people per sq. KM or hectare
number of families per block (residential density)
number of houses per sq. KM or hectare
amount of building floor area per section
automobile population, Floor Area Ratio (FAR), etc.
Urban Form and Function
Routes
- outlying routes
- approach routes
Urban Form and Function
Urban Spaces
-Urban spaces- well-defined public streets; plazas,
parks, playgrounds, quadrangles, etc.
Urban Form and Function
Architecture
- scale
- character/ theme
- grain/ texture
Urban Form and Function
Details- traffic signs, billboards, store
signs, etc.
- sidewalks, street furniture, urban landscaping,
pavers, etc.
- street vendors, traffic enforcers, entertainers, etc.
- ethnic background, social
class, sex, etc.
- activities
Urban Form and Function
Movement- pedestrian
- vehicular
- channelization
Urban Form and Function
City Functions
Economic
Defense and Protection
-A basic and continuing function. The city acts as
producers and marketplaces
-Locating cities at strategic points is important for
the exchange of goods
-Historic urban functions of the city, though quite
obsolete at present
-Cities were once built to withstand sieges from
migrating tribes, or frequent raids from enemies
Urban Form and Function
Worship and Government
Transportation
-The prime function of the city throughout history
-Cities were built around temples, shrines, and
pyramids in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome
-Greatly influences the location of cities since they are
dependent on geography
-New means of transportation have enabled people to
live in much larger more spread out cities
-The medieval cathedral was the center of the city, as
were renaissance palaces and castles
Urban Form and Function
Education and Culture
Housing
-Cities have always been the seat of academy and
scholarship and is a continuing function
-Due to the diversity of people, ideas, jobs, etc., the
city is seen as an educator.
-The largest and simplest function of a city
-Through the years, housing functions of the inner city
have shifted to outlying areas
-Ancient theaters, religious festivals, city beautification,
etc. is a reflection of cultural pride.
URBAN MODELS
Urban Models
Concentric Zone Theory
- the geographer
E.W. Burgess
- includes transition
zone for eventual
CBD expansion
- has some
deficiencies but
simplicity has
stood the test
of time
Urban Models
Sector Model- the economist
Homer Hoyt
- developed under the
premise that other
uses grow with
the CBD
- consistent with the
observation that
most cities grow
in the direction of
the higher income
Urban Models
Multiple Nuclei Model
- by Chauncy Harris &
Edward Pullman
(geographers)
- uses do not evolve
around a single core
but at several nodes
and focal points
- recognizes that different activities have varying
accessibility requirements
Urban Models
Urban Realms
- by James Vance
- presents the
emergence of
self-sufficient
sectors
- independent urban
realms brought
by the impact of
the automobile
URBAN DESIGN CONTROLS
Urban Design Controls
Floor Area Ratio
-the proportions between the built area and the lot area
also referred to as
‘Plot Ratio’
Floor Space Index (FSI)
-established by dividing the area of the total floor-space
of the buildings on any by the site area, including
half the area of any roads adjoining it
Urban Design Controls
Land Use Planning and Zoning
- Defined as the legal regulation of the use of land
- An application of the police power for the protection
of the public health, welfare, and safety
Incentive Zoning
- allowing builders and developers more space if they
provide certain desirable features and amenities
such as plazas, arcades, and other open spaces
Cluster Zoning
- Creating special zoning policies and regulations for
medium to large sized controlled developments
- Allocating types of uses based on growth patterns
Urban Design Controls
Urban Design
Guidelines
- building heights
- setbacks
- building bulk
- Architectural
character
Urban Design Controls
Environmental Impact Statement
- for large projects developers are required to outline
possible effects of the project on the environment.
The outline includes the following:
Description of the project
Description of existing environments (physical, social,
economic, historical, and aesthetic)
Impact on the environment (conditions evaluated)
Adverse environmental effects
Alternatives to proposed action taken
Long range impacts
Irreversible and irretrievable communities of resources
likely to result from implementation of proposed project
Urban Design Controls
Environmental Preservation
Conservation, Restoration & Adaptive Reuse
- Conservation- a term used interchangeably with
preservation but having the rather more positive
connotation of adaptation of parts of buildings
while retaining the essential spirit of the original
conservation area—an area containing a group of buildings
of special architectural or historical significance, which a
Local Authority may designate.
- protecting the environment from urban growth by
restricting development in certain areas, especially
in sensitive areas such as wetlands, coastal areas,
and mountain environments
Urban Design Controls
- Urban Renewal- a general term to describe the
idea of consciously renewing the outworn areas
of towns and cities; covers most aspects of
renewal, including both redevelopment and
rehabilitation
“The process of cleaning slum areas which are
economically & physically beyond repair,
rehabilitation areas where houses & neighborhood
facilities can be restored to come up to health,
safety, & good living standards, & protective
measures in order to prevent enrichment of
undesirable influences” – (exam question)
Urban Design Controls
- Adaptive Reuse- converting old, usually historic
buildings, sections of, or entire districts to new
uses other than their original purpose. In many
U.S. cities adaptive reuse is encouraged by
special tax incentives
- Rehabilitation- term used to describe the idea of
repairing, redecorating and in some cases
converting, existing structurally sound property
to a standard compatible with modern
requirements of amenity and health
Urban Planning Terms
-Invasion- a type of urban ecological process defined
as the entrance of a new population and / or
facilities in an already occupied area
-Centralization- an urban ecological process in city land
use patterning referring to an increase in population at a
certain geographic center
- Gentrification- improving the physical set-up and
consequently affecting the market for previously
run-down areas
-Block-boosting- “forcing” the old population out of
the area because of social or racial differences
EMERGING THEORIES
Emerging Theories
Planned Unit Developments
- sometimes referred to as cluster zoning
- used in areas that are being intensively developed
for the first time
- ordinary zoning regulations can be suspended for
this particular property
- usually consists of a variety of uses, anchored
by commercial establishments and supported
by office and residential space
Transit Oriented Developments
• Most TODs place residents
within 600 to 700m of
transit stations.
• This is equivalent to an
average walking time of
about 5 minutes.
Transit Oriented Developments
- a mixed use community with an average 670 meter
distance of a transit stop and commercial core area.
TODs mix residential, retail, office, open space, and
public uses in a walkable environment, making it
convenient for residents and employees to travel by
transit, bicycle, foot, or car.
Transit Oriented Developments
• Allows residents to
have easy access to
transit stations,
lessening dependence
on the automobile.
• Boosts transit
ridership and revenue
• With TOD, the city and
the transit system
“meet in the middle”
Transit Oriented developments
- Urban TOD- are located directly on the trunk line
transit network: at light rail, heavy rail, or express
bus stops. They should be developed with high
commercial intensities, job clusters, and
moderate to high residential densities
Transit Oriented Developments
- Neighborhood TOD- on a local or feeder bus line
within 10 minutes transit travel time (no more
than 3 miles) from a trunk line transit stop.
They should place an emphasis on moderate
density residential, service, retail, entertainment,
civic, and recreational uses.
Transit Oriented Developments
• The local street system should be recognizable
and interconnected, converging to transit stops,
core commercial areas or open spaces
• Streets must be pedestrian friendly
• Street and Circulation System
Emerging Theories
Distribution of TODs- TODs
should be located to maximize access
to core commercial areas without
relying solely on arterials. TODs with
major competing retail centers should
be spaced a minimum
of 1 mile apart and should be
distributed to serve different
neighborhoods. When located on fixed
rail transit systems, they should be
located to allow efficient station
spacing
Emerging Theories
Traditional Neighborhoods
- Developments that take
the form of traditional
neighborhoods, while
still accommodating
the automobile and
other modern amenities.
- These are finely
integrated, walkable
communities with a
strong local identity
and with convivial
public places
- The ideas of TNDs are
further illustrated in
“New Urbanism”
NEW URBANISM
New Urbanism
Background of New UrbanismSprawl
- Suburban Sprawl brought about by:
the automobile
development conspiracies
the “American Dream”
New Urbanism
• Sprawl-
Creates landscapes
dominated by parking
lots and undefined
edges, aesthetically
unpleasing
characteristics of the
urban fabric
New Urbanism
-Some suburban centers have roads and parking
lots taking up close to 80% of the land area
New Urbanism
the Congress for New Urbanism (CNU)
- founders- Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk,
Peter Calthorpe, Peter Katz, Daniel Solomon,
among others
New Urbanism
Hierarchy of Spaces
The Region
- urbanism, defined by its
diversity, pedestrian
scale, public space &
structure of bounded
neighborhoods,
should be applied
throughout a
metropolitan region
regardless of location.
- The entire region should
be designed according
to similar urban principles.
( Region, City, Neighborhood,
District, Block, Street )
New Urbanism
The neighborhood, the district, & the corridor
- these three are the fundamental organizing elements
of New Urbanism
neighborhoods are urbanized areas with a balanced
mix of human activity
districts are areas
dominated by a single activity
corridors are connectors
and separators of
neighborhoods and districts
New Urbanism
The street, the block, and the building-
- the form of New Urbanism is realized by the deliberate
assembly of streets, blocks, and buildings
streets are not the dividing lines within a city, but are to
be communal rooms and passages
blocks are the field on which unfolds both the building
fabric and the public realm of the city
buildings are the smallest increment of growth in the
city. Their proper configuration and placement relative to
each other determines the character of each settlement
New Urbanism
The Context of New Urbanism
- The neighborhood has a discernible center or a
focal point
- Most of the dwellings are within a five-minute walk
of the center, an average of roughly 600 to 700
meters (2,000 feet)
New Urbanism
- There is a variety of dwelling types
- There are mixed uses
- Streets within the neighborhood are a connected
network, preferably a grid pattern, which
disperses traffic by providing a variety of
pedestrian and vehicular routes to any destination
New Urbanism
- There are small playgrounds near every dwelling –
not more than 200 meters away.
New Urbanism
-An elementary school is close enough so that most
children can walk from their home.
- The streets and sidewalks are covered with rows of
trees and other landscaping elements that provide
shade to pedestrians and an overall pleasant environment
- Parallel parking will also be allowed along the streets,
with trees in between each designated space
New Urbanism
- Sidewalks are wide, at
least 3.0 meters, and
will be free from
dangerous obstructions
except for landscaping
elements and street
furniture that will invite
pedestrians to sit.
- Storefronts are also built
close to the sidewalk,
with wide window
openings and visible
entrances that are
inviting to the pedestrian
New Urbanism
-Buildings in the neighborhood center are placed close
to the street, creating a well-defined “outdoor room”.
- Prominent sites at the termination of street vistas or in
the neighborhood center are reserved for civic buildings.
New Urbanism
- Parking lots and garage doors rarely front the street.
Parking is relegated to underground, to multi-level
structures, or to the rear of buildings, usually
accessed by alleys.
New Urbanism
- In areas with bodies of water of significant size,
buildings will be built facing the water, rather than
having the water in its backyard
New Urbanism
New Urbanism Strategies
- The neighborhood is organized to be self-governing.
A formal association debates and decides matters
of maintenance, security and physical change
Redevelopment
New Urbanism
Infill
New Urbanism
New Towns
Famous Case Studies
New Urbanism
Seaside
- Walton County,
Florida, 1981
- proj area. 80 acres
- Fosters a strong sense
of community with
a variety of dwelling
units built close to
each other,
complete
neighborhood
amenities, open
spaces, terminating
vistas, etc.
New Urbanism
-Terminating vistas give importance
to public buildings.
-Architectural
guidelines include
the requirement for
porches built up to
the road
New Urbanism
Laguna West
- Sacramento County, California, 1990
- proj area. 1,045 acres
- Peter Calthorpe and Associates
New Urbanism
Laguna West
-The system of
public spaces is the
organizing structure of
the community
-The town center is
located at the terminus
of radial boulevards
which originate in
neighborhood parks
New Urbanism
Kentlands
- Gaithersburg, Maryland
- proj area: 355 acres
- Andres Duany & Elizabeth Plater- Zyberk (DPZ)
New Urbanism
- high-end residential units built up to the sidewalk
and close to one another
New Urbanism
Jackson Taylor
- San Jose, California, 1991
- proj area. 75 acres
- Peter Calthorpe and
Associates
- Presents three different
block types
New Urbanism
- BLOCK 1:
mixed use commercial-office-residential
New Urbanism
- BLOCK 2:
high density residential
New Urbanism
- BLOCK 3:
lower density residential
FAMOUS PLANNERS
FAMOUS PLANNERS
- In 1913 he won a competition for the re-planning
of Dublin
Abercrombie, Sir Leslie Patrick (1874- 1957)
- In 1944 he published his Greater London Plan and
founder of the Town Planning Review
- Bacon’s Design of Cities (1967)
Bacon, Edmund Norwood (1910-)
- Architect designer in Shanghai
- Cité Industrielle, designed between 1898 and 1904
Garnier, Tony (1869-1948)
- Distinct functional zoning throughout
- Gropius owes his place in any account of the
history of planning to his invention of the
residential layout in which slab blocks of flats
are placed laterally or obliquely to a street rather
than parallel with it
Gropius, Walter (1883-1969)
- planner and author who has pioneered the
development in America of both regional and
city centre pedestrian shopping areas
Gruen, Victor (1903-)
- in planning circles, his indelible mark is made by
his extensive contribution to fresh thought on
the shape and location of contemporary human
communities
Geddes, Sir Patrick (1854-1932)
- the author of Cities in Evolution (1915)
FAMOUS PLANNERS
- American architect noted for his imaginative
sequence of plans for the redevelopment of
Philadelphia, designed intermittently between
1952 and 1961.
Kahn, Louis (1901)
- Believed that housing developments should blend
in with the neighboring city to produce a change
of character, but not a shock
Mayer, Albert
- Thus proposed the planning concept of
“differentiation without division”
- American author and former associate editor of
Architectural Forum whose book the Death and
Life of Great American Cities was published in 1962.
Jacobs, Jane (1916-)
FAMOUS PLANNERS
- Conceptualized the original plan for Chandigarh
- An influential American writer on planning and sociology.
Mumford, Lewis (1895-)
- His first book on planning, The Story of Utopias,
was published in 1922.
FAMOUS PLANNERS
- Believed in curving forms, rather than formal
grid patterns
Nash, John
- Designer of London’s Park Crescent and Regent’s Park
Osborn, Sir Frederic James (1885-)
- Author, planner and propagandist, Sir Frederic
Osborn has acquired an international reputation
for his sustained and tireless espousal of the
principles behind Howard’s Garden Cities
-Austrian art historian and writer of the book Der
Städtebau nach seinen künstlerischen Grundsätzen (City
Planning According to Artistic Principles)
Sitte, Camillo (1843-1903)
- Architect and planner who analyzed major cities
of the world’s industrialized countries, finding
that characteristically they comprise only about
15% of a country’s population
Tange, Kenzo
Silkin. Lewis
- Earned his place in the history of planning by the
legislation which he introduced into Parliament
while minister of Town and Country Planning
from 1945 to 1950
FAMOUS PLANNERS
- New Towns Act of 1946 and the Town and Country
Planning Act of 1947
- the 4th to 7th chapters of his first book are
concerned generally with town planning and
embody fundamental principles for the layout
and form of whole towns
Vitruvius (1st Century B.C.)
FAMOUS PLANNERS
- An early advocate of formalism in town planning
highlighted by simple curved buildings
Wood, John
- Designer of the Royal Circus and the Royal
Crescent in Bath, England
- Credited for rebuilding London after the fire of 1966
Wren, Christopher
- The stock exchange building was the symbolic
focal point of his plan, instead of the traditional
palace or cathedral

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Planning acc

  • 3. Ancient Times Natural factors that affect the development and growth of urban areas: potential for natural calamities (fire, flood, volcano eruptions, etc.) presence of fertile soil, bodies of water, and other natural resources slope and terrain and other forms of natural defenses climate
  • 4. Ancient Times HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS Innovations that influenced the development of the earliest cities - The plow and rectilinear farming. - Circular and radiocentric planning - for herding and eventually for defense
  • 5. HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS 7000 – 9000 b.c. Neolithic cities - Jericho: early settlement in Israel -9000b.c. - Khirokitia: early settlement in Cyprus - 5500 b.c - A well-organized community of about 3000 people - Built around a reliable source of freshwater - Only 3 hectares and enclosed with a circular stone wall - Overrun in about 6500 b.c., rectangular layouts followed -First documented settlement with streets -The main street heading uphill was narrow but had a wider terminal, which may have been a social spot
  • 6. -Largest neolithic city- 13 hectares; 10,000 people -Catalhoyuk: early settlement in Turkey (Asia Minor) -An intricately assembled complex without streets -Included shrines and quarters for specialized crafts, production of paintings, textile, metal, etc. HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS -Rested on a new rationale for the city at that time- trade -Circa 7000 b.c.
  • 7. 2000 – 4000 b.c. - Cities in the Fertile Crescent were formed by the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys of Mesopotamia - Eridu- acknowledged as the oldest city. - Damascus- oldest continually inhabited city - Babylon: the largest city with 80,000 inhabitants HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
  • 9. 3000 b.c. -Cities of Thebes and Memphis along the Nile Valley HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS - characterized by monumental architecture -worker’s communities were built in cells along narrow roads -cities had monumental avenues, colossal temple plazas and tombs cut from rock
  • 10. HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS - Tel-el-Amarna - An example of a typical Egyptian city with the following: (1) central area (2) north suburb (3) south city (4) custom’s house (5) worker’s village
  • 11. 2500 b.c. - Indus Valley (present day Pakistan) -Cities of Mohenjo – Daro and Harrapa: 800 b.c. -Yellow River Valley of China- “land within the passes”. Precursor of Linear City. - Anyang- largest city of the Yellow River Valley HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS -administrative-religious centers with 40,000 inhabitants -archeological evidence indicates an advanced civilization lived here as there were housing variations, sanitary and sewage systems, etc. 1900 b.c. - Beijing- founded in approximately same location it’s in today -present form originated in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
  • 12. b.c. to a.d - Elaborate network of cities in Mesoamerica were built by the Zapotecs, Mextecs, and Aztecs in rough rugged land. - Teotijuacan and Dzibilchatun were the largest cities HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
  • 13. Greek Classical Cities700 b.c. - Greek cities spread through the Aegean Region – westward to France and Spain -“polis” : defined as a “city-state”. Most famous is the Acropolis- a religious and defensive structure up on the hills, with no definite geometrical plan HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
  • 14. 700 b.c. - Sparta and Athens : the largest cities (100-150T) - Neopolis and Paleopolis (new and old cities) HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS -Hippodamus- the first noted urban planner. Introduced the grid system and the Agora (public marketplace) 400 b.c. - 3 sections: for artisans, farmers, and the military -Miletus
  • 15. -Roman Cities : adopted Greek forms but with different scale- monumental, had a social hierarchy - Roman Forums Roman Classical Cities HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
  • 16. - Romans as engineers- built aqueducts, public baths, utility systems, fountains, etc. - Developed housing variations and other spaces: - Romans incorporated public works and arts into city designs - Romans as conquerors- built forum after forum Basilica- covered markets; later, law courts Curia- the local meeting hall; later, the capitol Domus- traditional Roman house; with a central atrium Insulae- 3 to 6- storey apartments with storefronts HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
  • 17. - Sienna and Constantinople: signified the rise of the Church Medieval Ages HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS - Decline of Roman power left many outposts all over Europe where growth revolved around - Feudalism affected the urban design of most towns -Towns were fine and intimate with winding roads and sequenced views of cathedrals or military fortifications
  • 18. HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS - 11th century towns in Europe: Coastal port towns - Mercantilist cities : continuous increase in size - World trade and travel created major population concentrations like Florence, Paris, and Venice - Growth eventually led to congestion and slums - many of these coastal towns grew from military fortifications, but expansion was limited to what the city could support
  • 19. - 15th Century France: display of power - Arts and architecture became a major element of town planning and urban design The Renaissance and Baroque periods HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS - Geometrical forms of cities were proposed
  • 20. - Vienna emerged as the city of culture and the arts- the first “university town” - Landscape architecture showcased palaces and gardens HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS karlsruhe (Germany) Versailles (France)
  • 21. 1. Medieval Organic City - taken after the “boug” (military town) and “fauborg” (citizen’s town) of the medieval ages 2. Medieval Bastide - taken from the French bastide (eventually referred to as “new towns”) Settlements in the Americas 3. The Spanish “Laws of the Indies” town - King Philip II’s city guidelines that produced 3 types of towns- the pueblo (civil), the presidio (military), and the mission (religious) HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS - came in the form of grids or radial plans reflecting flexibility
  • 22. 4. The English Renaissance - “the European Planned City” – ex. Savannah (designed by James Oglethorpe), Charleston, Annapolis, and Williamsburg (Col. Francis Nicholson) HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS - Today, Savannah is the world’s largest officially recognized historical district
  • 23. HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS – government bldgs were focal points of the plan, though a civic square was also provided WilliamsburgAnnapolis – plan was anchored by the Governor’s palace, the state capitol, and the College of William and Mary
  • 24. 5. The Speculators Town - developments were driven by speculation - Philadelphia– designed by William Penn HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS - Built between the Delaware and Scool Kill
  • 25. - The “Machine Age” - change from manpower to assembly lines The Industrial Revolution - 2 schools of thought- the “reform movements” and the “specialists” HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS
  • 26. The Industrial Revolution HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS - the reform movements: - Robert Owens (New Lanark Mills, Manchester, England) - New Harmony, Indiana, USA by Owens, Jr. -Designed for 800 to 1200 persons -With agricultural, light industrial, educational, and recreational facilities - Icarus, Red River, Texas, by Cabet - Brook Farm, Massachusetts, by a group of New England Planners - the “Owenite Communities”: (eventually, Cabet joined the Mormons in laying out Salt-lake City, Utah)
  • 27. HISTORY of SETTLEMENTS - Tony Garnier (Une Cite Industrielle ) Locational features may have been a precursor to modern zoning Ideas and theories adopted by Dutch Architect JJP Oud in the design of Rotterdam
  • 29. - Ebenezer Howard – author of “Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path To Social Reform” The Garden Cities - Garden City plans - cluster with a mother town of 58,000 to 65,000 with smaller garden cities of 30,000 to 32,000 each with permanent green space separating the cities with the towns THEORIES and PRACTICES
  • 30. - The Garden City Association- established by Howard in 1899 Letchworth: first Garden City designed by Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker in 1902 THEORIES and PRACTICES -Consisted of 4,500 acres (3000 for agriculture, 1500 for city proper)
  • 31. -Welwyn, 1920 (by Louis de Soisson) -brought formality and Georgian taste -Hampstead Garden Suburbs- meant only for housing but with a variety of housing types lined along streets with terminating axes on civic buildings in a large common green THEORIES and PRACTICES
  • 32. The City Beautiful Movement -Daniel Burnham spearheaded the movement with his design for Chicago and his famous words: “make no little plans…” THEORIES and PRACTICES -Also credited for the designs of San Francisco and Cleveland -Emphasis was on grand formal designs, with wide boulevards, civic spaces, arts, etc. -Influenced by the world fairs of the late 19th century, like the 1891 Columbian Exposition, Chicago
  • 33. - Baron Hausmann- worked on the reconstruction of Paris- linear connection between the place de concord, arc de triomph, eiffel tower and others THEORIES and PRACTICES Champs d’ Elysee
  • 34. New Capitals - capital of Brazil and a completely new twentieth- century city - Designed by Lucio Costa with a lot of influence from Le Corbusier THEORIES and PRACTICES Brasilia -with two huge axes in the sign of the cross, one for gov’t, commerce, and entertainment, the other for the residential component -Oscar Niemeyer was among the architects employed to design the buildings
  • 35. - Capital of Punjab province of India, and the only realized plan of Le Corbusier -Original Master Plan by Albert Myer THEORIES and PRACTICES Chandigarh -A regular grid of major roads for rapid transport surrounding residential superblocks or sections each based on the rectangle and measuring 800x1200 meters -The whole plan represents a large scale application of the Radburn principle regularized by Le Corbusier’s predilection for the rectilinear and the monumental.
  • 36. - Canberra’s design taken from the principles of the city beautiful movement THEORIES and PRACTICES Canberra, Australia in 1901 design reflected the principles of the city beautiful movement with a triangular formation of three important buildings: the Court of Justice, the Parliament House, and the Capitol Building, with each apex pointing to another important building or monument
  • 37. THEORIES and PRACTICES New Delhi, India -based on the great east-west axis of Kingsway, 1.5 miles long, with the Government House on a hilltop in the West end, and the eastern counterpoint a large hexagonal space reserved for palaces of the native princes. - Designed by Sir Edward Lutyens -covers 2650 hectares, yet growth beyond a population of 57,000 was not contemplated as low garden-city type density was envisioned
  • 38. -Conceptualized by Le Corbusier in his book -“the Cities of Tomorrow” The City of Towers -His first plan for high density living was Unite d’ Habitation, in Marseilles THEORIES and PRACTICES -A “super building with 337 dwellings in 10 acres of land
  • 39. THEORIES and PRACTICES - New York City – present day city of towers along with Houston, Chicago, Toronto -He also conceptualized Le Contemporaine, high rise offices and residential buildings with a greenbelt for a population of 3,000,000 people
  • 40. - Broadacres Frank Lloyd Wright - The Mile High Tower THEORIES and PRACTICES FLW proposed that every family in the U.S. live in one acre of land. Problems with lack of land lead to his design of the… Proposed to house a significant amount of Manhattan residents to free up space for greenfields 10 or more of these could possibly replace all Manhattan buildings
  • 41. Radical Ideas - The Linear City- proposed by Spanish Engineer Soria Y Mata THEORIES and PRACTICES -Stalingrad -N.A Milyutin, 1930
  • 42. - The Arcology Alternative– the 3D city by Paolo Soleri THEORIES and PRACTICES
  • 43. THEORIES and PRACTICES -Motopia - Proposed by Edgar Chambless - Vehicular traffic will be along rooftops of a continuous network of buildings, while the streets will be for pedestrian use only -Science Cities - Proposed by the “metabolism group”; visionary urban designers that proposed underwater cities, “biological” cities, cities in pyramids, etc.
  • 44. - The Floating City- Kiyonori Kikutake THEORIES and PRACTICES
  • 45. The Neighborhood Unit- by Clarence Perry and Clarence Stein, defined as the Physical Environment wherein social, cultural, educational, and commercial are within easy reach of each other THEORIES and PRACTICES - concerns self sustainability of smaller units - the elementary school as the center of development determines the size of the neighborhood
  • 46. THEORIES and PRACTICES - Industrial Revolution- generated jobs, increased productivity, and opened up mass markets for goods. - Factors that contributed to urban growth: - Transportation innovations, specially “farm to market” roads - Improved infrastructure - the electric elevator - Improved medicine - Iron and steel construction technology
  • 47. - “Megalopolis” – concept coined by Jean Gottmann for urban complexes in the Northeastern United States. THEORIES and PRACTICES - The term means “Great City” in Greek. Today it is used to refer to massive urban concentrations created from strong physical linkages between three or more large cities. Boston – New York – Philadelphia – Washington (U.S.A.) San Diego – Los Angeles – San Francisco (U.S.A.) Dortmund – Essen – Duesseldorf (Germany) The Hague – Rotterdam – Amsterdam (Netherlands) Tokyo – Yokohama – Nagoya – Osaka – Kobe (Japan)
  • 48. SETTLEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES
  • 49. Pre-colonial Times SETTLEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES - Like other cities in the world the earliest Filipino communities developed out of the need for their inhabitants to band together. - They were formed for security, or to be close to critical resources like food and water. Most of the earliest towns were by the coast for the fisherfolk or were where there was abundant agricultural land for the farmers. - The community unit was the barangay, consisting of 30 to 100 families.
  • 50. The Spanish Colonial Times Settlement Planning in the Phils. Laws of the Indies - In 1573, King Philip II proclaimed the Laws of the Indies that established uniform standards and planning procedures for colonial settlements. - These laws provided guidelines for site selection, layout and dimensioning of streets and squares, the location of civic and religious buildings, open space, cultivation and pasturing lands, and even the main procedural phases of planning and construction.
  • 51. Settlement Planning in the Phils. - The Plaza Complex- a result of several ordinances of the Laws of the Indies. - The plaza is surrounded by important buildings such as the: Catholic church Municipal or town hall Marketplace and merchant’s stores Elementary school The homes of the “principalia” Other government buildings
  • 52. Settlement Planning in the Phils. Intramuros - The walled city of Manila - 1.2 sq. KM in area; perimeter is 3.4 KM - home of the Spanish (except for the Friars & the high ranking officials) - decentralization occurred and settlements were built in Malate, San Miguel, and Paco, among other areas
  • 53. Settlement Planning in the Phils. The American Period The American Agenda - guide urban growth and physical development - put more emphasis on other values such as sanitation, housing, and aesthetic improvements. Daniel Burnham - Architect / planner who designed Chicago, San Francisco, and parts of Washington D.C.
  • 54. -Brought in to design Manila and the “summer capital” of Baguio Luneta
  • 55. Settlement Planning in the Phils. - Designed with grand avenues and a strong central civic core Burnham’s Design for Manila - Included a civic mall to house national buildings (only the Finance & Agriculture buildings were built) - Fronted Manila Bay like most Baroque plans fronted a large body of water
  • 56. Settlement Planning in the Phils. - On July 31, 1903, by virtue of Act No. 183, the city of Manila was incorporated Manila as the first chartered city - Manila encompassed Intramuros, and the towns of Binondo, Tondo, Sta. Cruz, Malate, Ermita, Paco, and Pandacan. - The population then was 190,000 people
  • 57. Settlement Planning in the Phils. - Quiapo- the illustrado territory; the enclave of the rich and powerful. Also the manifestation of folk religiosity. The Arrabales Growth of Manila - Binondo- the trading port developed by the Chinese and Arabs - Sta. Cruz- the main commercial district with swirls of shops, movie houses, restaurants, etc. - San Nicolas- also a commercial town built by the Spanish with streets of “specialized” categories (i.e. ceramics, soap, etc.) - Sampaloc- centered on two churches (Our Lady of Loreto and Saint Anthony of Padua). Also known as the first “University Town”.
  • 58. Settlement Planning in the Phils. Later Suburbs - San Miguel (Malacañang)- where rest-houses were built for the Spanish government - Malate- the early “summer resort” of wealthy and cultured Filipinos. Then became the first fishing and salt-making town - Ermita- early tourist belt (red-light district) - Paco- first town built around a train station - Pandacan- town built by the Americans for Oil depots
  • 59. Settlement Planning in the Phils. Further Suburbanization Quezon City as the new capitol city -In 1939, Commonwealth Act No. 457, authorized the transfer of the capitol to an area of 1572 hectares -A master plan of Quezon City was completed in 1941 by Architects Juan Arellano, Harry T. Frost, Louis Croft, and Eng. A.D. Williams - “City beautiful” plan reflected the aspirations of an emerging nation and the visions of a passionate leader
  • 60. Settlement Planning in the Phils. -In 1946, a search committee was formed to find a new site Constitution Hill -a 158 ha area in the Novaliches watershed was selected and called Constitution Hill and National Government Center -The three seats of government were to form a triangle at the center of the complex -It included a 20 hectare civic space referred to as the Plaza of the Republic
  • 61. Settlement Planning in the Phils. Philippine Homesite and Housing Corporation - Precursor of the National Housing Authority Philamlife Homes - icon of middle class suburbanization - Built homes for the masses (“the projects”, i.e. proj.4, proj. 6, etc.) - Master Plan designed by Architect and Planner, Carlos P. Arguelles, based on suburban developments in California with modifications BLISS (bagong lipunan sites and services) - Walk-up developments for government sector
  • 62. Settlement Planning in the Phils. Metro Manila Central Business Districts - Manila CBD- this traditional CBD is a center of business and commerce, has a population nucleus, and seats the national government - Makati CBD- a business, financial, commercial, convention, and recreational center of the Metropolitan Region covering an area of 979 hectares. Begun by the Ayala conglomerate in 1948. - Ortigas CBD- another business, financial, convention, shopping, and recreational node. Developed by the Ortigas conglomerate in the 1950s, it’s present configuration fully developed only in the late 80s. The area covers 600 hectares.
  • 63. Settlement Planning in the Phils. - Cubao CBD- developed in the 1960s by the Araneta Family, Cubao was intended as an alternative business center in the Eastern side of the metropolis. This 37 hectare property now reflects more of a bazaar economy, though plans are now being developed to convert the area to a more modern commercial and recreational center. - Emerging CBDs Fort Bonifacio Global City- 500 ha of prime land Boulevard 2000- 1167 ha of reclaimed land to revive Manila as a city of commerce and tourism Filinvest Corporate City- joint venture of government and private sector. Accessible to industrial estates and technological parks
  • 65. Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City Physical elements that create the image of the city
  • 66. Paths Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City - Channels along which the observer moves - Predominant element for many person’s image - Other elements are arranged and related through paths - Strong paths are: easily identifiable have continuity and directional quality are aligned with a larger system - Spatial extremes highlight paths
  • 67. Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City Edges - Linear elements not used or considered as paths - Lateral references, not coordinate axes - May be barriers or seams - Not as dominant as paths but are important organizing features visually prominent continuous and impenetrable to cross movement - Strong edges are: - Edges can be disruptive to city form
  • 68. Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City Districts - Medium to large sections of a city, conceived of as two-dimensional - Observer can mentally enter “inside of” - Recognizable as having some common, identifying character - Dominance depends upon the individual and the given district
  • 69. Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City activity and use building types and detail inhabitants (ethnic or class) - Physical characteristics have a variety of components physical characteristics (topography, boundaries, age, etc.)
  • 70. Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City Nodes - May be thematic concentrations - Points, strategic spots by which an observer can enter - Intensive foci from which observer is traveling - Junctions and Concentrations - Directly related to the concept of paths and the concept of districts
  • 71. Kevin Lynch’s Images of the City Landmarks - Point references considered to be external to the observer - Physical elements that may vary widely in scale - Unique and special in place of the continuities used earlier - Sequential series of landmarks as traveling guides
  • 73. Permeability Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts - Places must be accessible to people to offer them choice - Public and private access must be complementary - Physical and visual permeability depends on how the network of public space divides the environment into blocks - There is a decline in public permeability because of current design trends Scale of development Hierarchical layout Segregation
  • 74. Variety Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts - Variety offers users a choice of experiences - Variety of experience implies places with varied forms, uses, and meanings - Developers and planners are more concerned with economic performance and easier management, than with variety - Variety of uses depends on three main factors: range of activities possibility of supply extent to which design encourages positive interactions - Variety also depends on feasibility: economic, political, and functional
  • 75. Legibility Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts - Degree of choice depends on how legible it is: how layout is understood - Legibility is important at two levels: physical form and activity patterns - Legibility in the old days: important buildings stood out - Legibility of form and use is reduced in the modern environment - Separating pedestrians from vehicles also reduces legibility - Legibility is strengthened by Lynch’s physical elements of the city
  • 76. Robustness Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts - Environments which can be used for many different purposes - There must be a distinction between large scale and small scale robustness - There are three key factors that support long term robustness: Building depth Access Building height - The design of small scale robustness depends on extra factors hard and soft spaces active and passive spaces
  • 77. Visual Appropriateness Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts - Visual Appropriateness focuses on details - A vocabulary of visual cues must be found to communicate levels of choice - Interpretations can reinforce responsiveness by : supporting the place’s legibility supporting the place’s variety supporting the place’s robustness
  • 78. Richness Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts - The variety of sense experiences that users can enjoy - There are two ways for users to choose from different sense experiences focusing their attention on different sources of sense experience moving away from one source to another - The basis of visual richness depends on the presence of visual contrasts
  • 79. Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts - The sense of motion: gained through movement - The sense of smell: can not be directed - The sense of hearing: user has limited control - The sense of touch: voluntary and involuntary - The sense of sight: most dominant in terms of information input and is the one easiest to control
  • 80. Personalization Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts - allows people to achieve an environment that bears the stamp of their own tastes and values - makes a person’s pattern of activities more clear - Users personalize in two ways: to improve practical facilities and to change the image of a place
  • 81. Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts - Personalization comes in two levels: Private Public - Personalization is affected by three key factors: Tenure building type technology - Users personalize as an affirmation of their own tastes and values and because they perceive existing image as inappropriate
  • 82. Ian Bentley’s Responsive Env’ts permeability: designing the overall layout of routes and development blocks variety: locating uses on the site legibility: designing the massing of the buildings and the enclosure of public space robustness: designing the spatial and constructional arrangement of individual buildings and outdoor spaces visual appropriateness: designing the external image richness: developing the design for sensory choice personalization: making the design encourage people to put their own mark on the places where they live and work Putting it all together…
  • 83. URBAN FORM AND FUNCTION
  • 84. Urban Form and Function LandformTopography Relationship with Nature cities within nature cities and nature nature within cities
  • 85. Urban Form and Function Shaperadiocentric- a large circle with radial corridors of intense development emanating from the center rectilinear- usually with two corridors of intense development crossing the center; usually found in small cities rather than in large star- radiocentric form with open spaces between the outreaching corridors of development
  • 86. Urban Form and Function ring- a city built around a large open space linear- usually the result of natural topography which restricts growth; may also be a transportation spine branch- a linear span with connecting arms
  • 87. Urban Form and Function sheet- a vast urban area with little or no articulation articulated sheet- a sheet accented by one or more central clusters and several subclusters
  • 88. Urban Form and Function satellite- constellation of cities around a main center constellation- a series of nearly equal sized cities in close proximity
  • 89. Size & Density Urban Form and Function - physical extent – measured in KMs across, or center to outskirts, or square KM - density formulas- number of inhabitants with respect to physical size; can be computed in several ways: number of people per sq. KM or hectare number of families per block (residential density) number of houses per sq. KM or hectare amount of building floor area per section automobile population, Floor Area Ratio (FAR), etc.
  • 90. Urban Form and Function Routes - outlying routes - approach routes
  • 91. Urban Form and Function Urban Spaces -Urban spaces- well-defined public streets; plazas, parks, playgrounds, quadrangles, etc.
  • 92. Urban Form and Function Architecture - scale - character/ theme - grain/ texture
  • 93. Urban Form and Function Details- traffic signs, billboards, store signs, etc. - sidewalks, street furniture, urban landscaping, pavers, etc. - street vendors, traffic enforcers, entertainers, etc. - ethnic background, social class, sex, etc. - activities
  • 94. Urban Form and Function Movement- pedestrian - vehicular - channelization
  • 95. Urban Form and Function City Functions Economic Defense and Protection -A basic and continuing function. The city acts as producers and marketplaces -Locating cities at strategic points is important for the exchange of goods -Historic urban functions of the city, though quite obsolete at present -Cities were once built to withstand sieges from migrating tribes, or frequent raids from enemies
  • 96. Urban Form and Function Worship and Government Transportation -The prime function of the city throughout history -Cities were built around temples, shrines, and pyramids in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome -Greatly influences the location of cities since they are dependent on geography -New means of transportation have enabled people to live in much larger more spread out cities -The medieval cathedral was the center of the city, as were renaissance palaces and castles
  • 97. Urban Form and Function Education and Culture Housing -Cities have always been the seat of academy and scholarship and is a continuing function -Due to the diversity of people, ideas, jobs, etc., the city is seen as an educator. -The largest and simplest function of a city -Through the years, housing functions of the inner city have shifted to outlying areas -Ancient theaters, religious festivals, city beautification, etc. is a reflection of cultural pride.
  • 99. Urban Models Concentric Zone Theory - the geographer E.W. Burgess - includes transition zone for eventual CBD expansion - has some deficiencies but simplicity has stood the test of time
  • 100. Urban Models Sector Model- the economist Homer Hoyt - developed under the premise that other uses grow with the CBD - consistent with the observation that most cities grow in the direction of the higher income
  • 101. Urban Models Multiple Nuclei Model - by Chauncy Harris & Edward Pullman (geographers) - uses do not evolve around a single core but at several nodes and focal points - recognizes that different activities have varying accessibility requirements
  • 102. Urban Models Urban Realms - by James Vance - presents the emergence of self-sufficient sectors - independent urban realms brought by the impact of the automobile
  • 104. Urban Design Controls Floor Area Ratio -the proportions between the built area and the lot area also referred to as ‘Plot Ratio’ Floor Space Index (FSI) -established by dividing the area of the total floor-space of the buildings on any by the site area, including half the area of any roads adjoining it
  • 105. Urban Design Controls Land Use Planning and Zoning - Defined as the legal regulation of the use of land - An application of the police power for the protection of the public health, welfare, and safety Incentive Zoning - allowing builders and developers more space if they provide certain desirable features and amenities such as plazas, arcades, and other open spaces Cluster Zoning - Creating special zoning policies and regulations for medium to large sized controlled developments - Allocating types of uses based on growth patterns
  • 106. Urban Design Controls Urban Design Guidelines - building heights - setbacks - building bulk - Architectural character
  • 107. Urban Design Controls Environmental Impact Statement - for large projects developers are required to outline possible effects of the project on the environment. The outline includes the following: Description of the project Description of existing environments (physical, social, economic, historical, and aesthetic) Impact on the environment (conditions evaluated) Adverse environmental effects Alternatives to proposed action taken Long range impacts Irreversible and irretrievable communities of resources likely to result from implementation of proposed project
  • 108. Urban Design Controls Environmental Preservation Conservation, Restoration & Adaptive Reuse - Conservation- a term used interchangeably with preservation but having the rather more positive connotation of adaptation of parts of buildings while retaining the essential spirit of the original conservation area—an area containing a group of buildings of special architectural or historical significance, which a Local Authority may designate. - protecting the environment from urban growth by restricting development in certain areas, especially in sensitive areas such as wetlands, coastal areas, and mountain environments
  • 109. Urban Design Controls - Urban Renewal- a general term to describe the idea of consciously renewing the outworn areas of towns and cities; covers most aspects of renewal, including both redevelopment and rehabilitation “The process of cleaning slum areas which are economically & physically beyond repair, rehabilitation areas where houses & neighborhood facilities can be restored to come up to health, safety, & good living standards, & protective measures in order to prevent enrichment of undesirable influences” – (exam question)
  • 110. Urban Design Controls - Adaptive Reuse- converting old, usually historic buildings, sections of, or entire districts to new uses other than their original purpose. In many U.S. cities adaptive reuse is encouraged by special tax incentives - Rehabilitation- term used to describe the idea of repairing, redecorating and in some cases converting, existing structurally sound property to a standard compatible with modern requirements of amenity and health
  • 111. Urban Planning Terms -Invasion- a type of urban ecological process defined as the entrance of a new population and / or facilities in an already occupied area -Centralization- an urban ecological process in city land use patterning referring to an increase in population at a certain geographic center - Gentrification- improving the physical set-up and consequently affecting the market for previously run-down areas -Block-boosting- “forcing” the old population out of the area because of social or racial differences
  • 113. Emerging Theories Planned Unit Developments - sometimes referred to as cluster zoning - used in areas that are being intensively developed for the first time - ordinary zoning regulations can be suspended for this particular property - usually consists of a variety of uses, anchored by commercial establishments and supported by office and residential space
  • 114. Transit Oriented Developments • Most TODs place residents within 600 to 700m of transit stations. • This is equivalent to an average walking time of about 5 minutes. Transit Oriented Developments - a mixed use community with an average 670 meter distance of a transit stop and commercial core area. TODs mix residential, retail, office, open space, and public uses in a walkable environment, making it convenient for residents and employees to travel by transit, bicycle, foot, or car.
  • 115. Transit Oriented Developments • Allows residents to have easy access to transit stations, lessening dependence on the automobile. • Boosts transit ridership and revenue • With TOD, the city and the transit system “meet in the middle”
  • 116. Transit Oriented developments - Urban TOD- are located directly on the trunk line transit network: at light rail, heavy rail, or express bus stops. They should be developed with high commercial intensities, job clusters, and moderate to high residential densities
  • 117. Transit Oriented Developments - Neighborhood TOD- on a local or feeder bus line within 10 minutes transit travel time (no more than 3 miles) from a trunk line transit stop. They should place an emphasis on moderate density residential, service, retail, entertainment, civic, and recreational uses.
  • 118. Transit Oriented Developments • The local street system should be recognizable and interconnected, converging to transit stops, core commercial areas or open spaces • Streets must be pedestrian friendly • Street and Circulation System
  • 119. Emerging Theories Distribution of TODs- TODs should be located to maximize access to core commercial areas without relying solely on arterials. TODs with major competing retail centers should be spaced a minimum of 1 mile apart and should be distributed to serve different neighborhoods. When located on fixed rail transit systems, they should be located to allow efficient station spacing
  • 120. Emerging Theories Traditional Neighborhoods - Developments that take the form of traditional neighborhoods, while still accommodating the automobile and other modern amenities. - These are finely integrated, walkable communities with a strong local identity and with convivial public places - The ideas of TNDs are further illustrated in “New Urbanism”
  • 122. New Urbanism Background of New UrbanismSprawl - Suburban Sprawl brought about by: the automobile development conspiracies the “American Dream”
  • 123. New Urbanism • Sprawl- Creates landscapes dominated by parking lots and undefined edges, aesthetically unpleasing characteristics of the urban fabric
  • 124. New Urbanism -Some suburban centers have roads and parking lots taking up close to 80% of the land area
  • 125. New Urbanism the Congress for New Urbanism (CNU) - founders- Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Katz, Daniel Solomon, among others
  • 126. New Urbanism Hierarchy of Spaces The Region - urbanism, defined by its diversity, pedestrian scale, public space & structure of bounded neighborhoods, should be applied throughout a metropolitan region regardless of location. - The entire region should be designed according to similar urban principles. ( Region, City, Neighborhood, District, Block, Street )
  • 127. New Urbanism The neighborhood, the district, & the corridor - these three are the fundamental organizing elements of New Urbanism neighborhoods are urbanized areas with a balanced mix of human activity districts are areas dominated by a single activity corridors are connectors and separators of neighborhoods and districts
  • 128. New Urbanism The street, the block, and the building- - the form of New Urbanism is realized by the deliberate assembly of streets, blocks, and buildings streets are not the dividing lines within a city, but are to be communal rooms and passages blocks are the field on which unfolds both the building fabric and the public realm of the city buildings are the smallest increment of growth in the city. Their proper configuration and placement relative to each other determines the character of each settlement
  • 129. New Urbanism The Context of New Urbanism - The neighborhood has a discernible center or a focal point - Most of the dwellings are within a five-minute walk of the center, an average of roughly 600 to 700 meters (2,000 feet)
  • 130. New Urbanism - There is a variety of dwelling types - There are mixed uses - Streets within the neighborhood are a connected network, preferably a grid pattern, which disperses traffic by providing a variety of pedestrian and vehicular routes to any destination
  • 131. New Urbanism - There are small playgrounds near every dwelling – not more than 200 meters away.
  • 132. New Urbanism -An elementary school is close enough so that most children can walk from their home. - The streets and sidewalks are covered with rows of trees and other landscaping elements that provide shade to pedestrians and an overall pleasant environment - Parallel parking will also be allowed along the streets, with trees in between each designated space
  • 133. New Urbanism - Sidewalks are wide, at least 3.0 meters, and will be free from dangerous obstructions except for landscaping elements and street furniture that will invite pedestrians to sit. - Storefronts are also built close to the sidewalk, with wide window openings and visible entrances that are inviting to the pedestrian
  • 134. New Urbanism -Buildings in the neighborhood center are placed close to the street, creating a well-defined “outdoor room”. - Prominent sites at the termination of street vistas or in the neighborhood center are reserved for civic buildings.
  • 135. New Urbanism - Parking lots and garage doors rarely front the street. Parking is relegated to underground, to multi-level structures, or to the rear of buildings, usually accessed by alleys.
  • 136. New Urbanism - In areas with bodies of water of significant size, buildings will be built facing the water, rather than having the water in its backyard
  • 137. New Urbanism New Urbanism Strategies - The neighborhood is organized to be self-governing. A formal association debates and decides matters of maintenance, security and physical change Redevelopment
  • 140. Famous Case Studies New Urbanism Seaside - Walton County, Florida, 1981 - proj area. 80 acres - Fosters a strong sense of community with a variety of dwelling units built close to each other, complete neighborhood amenities, open spaces, terminating vistas, etc.
  • 141. New Urbanism -Terminating vistas give importance to public buildings. -Architectural guidelines include the requirement for porches built up to the road
  • 142. New Urbanism Laguna West - Sacramento County, California, 1990 - proj area. 1,045 acres - Peter Calthorpe and Associates
  • 143. New Urbanism Laguna West -The system of public spaces is the organizing structure of the community -The town center is located at the terminus of radial boulevards which originate in neighborhood parks
  • 144. New Urbanism Kentlands - Gaithersburg, Maryland - proj area: 355 acres - Andres Duany & Elizabeth Plater- Zyberk (DPZ)
  • 145. New Urbanism - high-end residential units built up to the sidewalk and close to one another
  • 146. New Urbanism Jackson Taylor - San Jose, California, 1991 - proj area. 75 acres - Peter Calthorpe and Associates - Presents three different block types
  • 147. New Urbanism - BLOCK 1: mixed use commercial-office-residential
  • 148. New Urbanism - BLOCK 2: high density residential
  • 149. New Urbanism - BLOCK 3: lower density residential
  • 151. FAMOUS PLANNERS - In 1913 he won a competition for the re-planning of Dublin Abercrombie, Sir Leslie Patrick (1874- 1957) - In 1944 he published his Greater London Plan and founder of the Town Planning Review - Bacon’s Design of Cities (1967) Bacon, Edmund Norwood (1910-) - Architect designer in Shanghai - Cité Industrielle, designed between 1898 and 1904 Garnier, Tony (1869-1948) - Distinct functional zoning throughout
  • 152. - Gropius owes his place in any account of the history of planning to his invention of the residential layout in which slab blocks of flats are placed laterally or obliquely to a street rather than parallel with it Gropius, Walter (1883-1969) - planner and author who has pioneered the development in America of both regional and city centre pedestrian shopping areas Gruen, Victor (1903-) - in planning circles, his indelible mark is made by his extensive contribution to fresh thought on the shape and location of contemporary human communities Geddes, Sir Patrick (1854-1932) - the author of Cities in Evolution (1915) FAMOUS PLANNERS
  • 153. - American architect noted for his imaginative sequence of plans for the redevelopment of Philadelphia, designed intermittently between 1952 and 1961. Kahn, Louis (1901) - Believed that housing developments should blend in with the neighboring city to produce a change of character, but not a shock Mayer, Albert - Thus proposed the planning concept of “differentiation without division” - American author and former associate editor of Architectural Forum whose book the Death and Life of Great American Cities was published in 1962. Jacobs, Jane (1916-) FAMOUS PLANNERS - Conceptualized the original plan for Chandigarh
  • 154. - An influential American writer on planning and sociology. Mumford, Lewis (1895-) - His first book on planning, The Story of Utopias, was published in 1922. FAMOUS PLANNERS - Believed in curving forms, rather than formal grid patterns Nash, John - Designer of London’s Park Crescent and Regent’s Park Osborn, Sir Frederic James (1885-) - Author, planner and propagandist, Sir Frederic Osborn has acquired an international reputation for his sustained and tireless espousal of the principles behind Howard’s Garden Cities
  • 155. -Austrian art historian and writer of the book Der Städtebau nach seinen künstlerischen Grundsätzen (City Planning According to Artistic Principles) Sitte, Camillo (1843-1903) - Architect and planner who analyzed major cities of the world’s industrialized countries, finding that characteristically they comprise only about 15% of a country’s population Tange, Kenzo Silkin. Lewis - Earned his place in the history of planning by the legislation which he introduced into Parliament while minister of Town and Country Planning from 1945 to 1950 FAMOUS PLANNERS - New Towns Act of 1946 and the Town and Country Planning Act of 1947
  • 156. - the 4th to 7th chapters of his first book are concerned generally with town planning and embody fundamental principles for the layout and form of whole towns Vitruvius (1st Century B.C.) FAMOUS PLANNERS - An early advocate of formalism in town planning highlighted by simple curved buildings Wood, John - Designer of the Royal Circus and the Royal Crescent in Bath, England - Credited for rebuilding London after the fire of 1966 Wren, Christopher - The stock exchange building was the symbolic focal point of his plan, instead of the traditional palace or cathedral