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  1. 1. Mathewos Mekonnen (MSc) Email; matemek2010@gmail.com Mobile:0917044369 Graduate Program SALALE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES
  3. 3. Outline for introduction to management  Définition  Concept  Significance  Levels  Skill  Role  Principles.  Functions
  4. 4. Definition of management There are as many definitions by authorities in this field.  “The art of getting things done through others.” Parker Follet  “To manage is to forecast and plan , to organize ,to compound, to coordinate and to control.” By Hennery Fayol  ”Management is a process of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by use of people and resources.” George R. Terry:
  5. 5. DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS IN ETHICS  “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people formally organized group.” Koontz “Management as a set of activities directed at the efficient & effective utilization of resources in the pursuit of one or more goals.’’ Van Firt &Peterson
  6. 6. Definition of management • Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the work of an organization and of using all available organizational resources to reach the stated organizational goals.
  7. 7. Concept in management Organization  Organization is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific task or tasks.  When two or more people work in a structured way to achieve a specific goal or a set of goals.
  8. 8. 2/7/2023 8 Concept in management…  Organizations can be considered as open systems that continually interact with the external environment.  The external environment is both a supplier of resources as well as a source of consumers and  Significantly influences the operations and outcomes.
  9. 9. Concept in management… Efficiency and Effectiveness Management should be Effective  is the degree to which stated objective is being achieved;  is doing the right things o Management should be Efficient • is balanced use of resources while achieving the stated objectives. • Is cost effectiveness where objectives are achieved with the lowest practicable cost.  Is doing things rightly.
  10. 10. 2/7/2023 10 Concept in management… Efficiency-Effectiveness Matrix INEFFECTIVE AND INEFFICIENT •Goals not achieved •Resources wasted •Poor revenue and high cost •Loss EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT •Goals achieved •Resources well utilized •Good revenue and low cost •Good profit EFFECTIVE BUT INEFFICIENT •Goals achieved •Resources wasted •Good revenue but high cost EFFICIENT BUT INEFFECTIVE •Goals not achieved •No wasted resources •Poor revenues and low cost •Marginal profit or loss GOAL ATTAINMENT HIGH LOW POOR GOOD RESOURCE UTILISATION
  11. 11. Concept in management… Efficiency and Effectiveness  Efficiency is the relationship between inputs and outputs –minimizing wastes and therefore cost of resources.  Effectiveness is a measure of goal attainment.  Summing up: MANAGERS NEED TO DO THE RIGHT THINGS IN A RIGHT WAY
  12. 12. Significance of management  Management is essential in all organized efforts.  Management is the dynamic, life giving element in every organization  Management is a critical element in growth of a society/country.
  13. 13. Management Levels • The extent to which managers perform the functions of management varies by level in the management hierarchy. • The primary differences between levels of managers: – the degree of authority – the scope of responsibility and – organizational activity at each level. • Levels: – Top management – Middle-level management – First line management
  14. 14. Classification of management level Top management Middle-level management First line management scope of activities Functional Managers General Manager 2/7/2023 15
  15. 15. Management Levels • The extent to which managers perform the functions of management varies by level in the management hierarchy. • The primary differences between levels of managers: – the degree of authority – the scope of responsibility and – organizational activity at each level. • Levels: – Top management – Middle-level management – First line management 2/7/2023 16
  16. 16. Top level Mangers • Top-level managers, or top managers, are also called senior management or executives. – make decisions affecting the entirety of the organization. – set goals for the organization and direct the organization to achieve them. – Spend most of their time on the functions of planning and organizing. – determines the mission and sets the goals for the organization. 2/7/2023 17
  17. 17. Middle-level managers • Middle-level managers, or middle managers, are those in the levels below top managers. • are responsible for : – carrying out the goals set by top management. • they do so by setting goals for their departments and other units. – motivate and assist first-line managers to achieve organizational objectives. – communicate upward, by offering suggestions and feedback to top managers. 2/7/2023 18
  18. 18. Lower level managers • Direct the actual work of the organization at the operating level. • Whose major functions emphasize: – directing and controlling the work of employees in order to achieve the team goals. • They are the only level of management managing non-managers. • These are managers that most employees interact with on a daily basis 2/7/2023 19
  19. 19. Management Skills • Robert Katz identified three managerial skills that are essential to successful management: 1. Technical skill: – The specific knowledge and techniques required to perform an organizational role – More used in lower level 2/7/2023 20
  20. 20. Management Skills 2. Human relation skill: – The ability to understand, alter lead and control the behavior of other individuals and groups – Equally used in all level 2/7/2023 21
  21. 21. Management Skills 2. Conceptual skill: – Involve the ability to view the organization as a whole and recognize its relationships to the larger environment (business world). – Most used in top level 2/7/2023 Amsale Cherie 22
  22. 22. The Managerial Roles  All health service managers engage in planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling, and decision making to a certain degree.  In addition, they need to perform other activities related to organizational objectives that don’t readily fall within the management functional classification.
  23. 23. The Managerial Roles…  Henry Mintzberg classification of managers in terms of roles identifies: 􀃖 Interpersonal roles 􀃖 Informational roles and 􀃖 Decisional roles
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  25. 25. The Managerial Roles… 1. Interpersonal roles  Arise directly from a manager’s formal authority A) Figurehead Role  The manger represents the organization at ceremonial and symbolic functions.  They are required to perform various symbolic, legal, inspirational, or ceremonial duties such as:  Greeting visitors, Making speech at organizational events, Signing legal documents and well coming new employee at orientation or attending social events.
  26. 26. The Managerial Roles… B) Leadership Role  The leader role describes the responsibility for directing and coordinating the activities of subordinates in order to accomplish the organizational objectives  Example: directing & motivating subordinates to meet the organization’s needs
  27. 27. The Managerial Roles… C) Liaison Role  This role focuses on the manager’s role in dealing with people outside of his/her own organization such as government officials, customers, and suppliers via formal and informal contacts.  The manager acts as the go-between the organization and the outside environments. B/C, The manager seeks support from people who can affect the organization’s success.
  28. 28. The Managerial Roles… 2. Informational Roles  Building networks of contacts for sharing information.  Managers emerge as the nerve system center of their organization.  Many contacts made while performing figurehead & liaison roles give managers access to a great deal of important information.
  29. 29. The Managerial Roles… A) Monitor Role  Managers need to scan their environments for information that may affect their organization.  Involves seeking out, receiving, and screening information.  Managers, however must evaluate and decide whether to use the information they get via different means before utilizing it.
  30. 30. The Managerial Roles… B) Disseminator Role  The manager share information with subordinates & other members of the organization.  Information is the source of power; sharing information empowers employees and improves job satisfaction.
  31. 31. The Managerial Roles… C) Spokesperson Role  Mangers transmit information to others, especially those outside the organization, as the official position of the company on behalf of the organization.  A manager as spokesperson is a public relation person for the organization.
  32. 32. The Managerial Roles… 3. Decisional Roles A) Entrepreneurial Role/Change agent  Involves designing & initiating planned change in order to improve the organization’s.  Risk taking role (initiating new projects, testing a new market, or entering a new business)  Most of this role will be held by top level managers, although middle managers may be given some ability to make such decisions.
  33. 33. The Managerial Roles… B) Disturbance Handler Role  Corrects unanticipated problems, which facing the organization from internal or external environment.  Dealing with problems (strikes by labor, breaking of contracts by customers, violation of rules and regulations)  However, an ignorant manager could be the reason for the disturbance.
  34. 34. The Managerial Roles… C) Resource Allocator Role  Involves determining which work units will get which resources.  Top managers are likely to make large, overall budget decisions, while middle and lower managers may make more specific allocation.
  35. 35. The Managerial Roles… D) Negotiator Role  Meeting & discussion with individual or groups for the purpose of reaching an agreement about organization’s objectives.  Negotiation enables others to understand the organization’s objectives.