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The structure of the earth

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The layers of the planet Earth

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The structure of the earth

  1. 1. THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH Plate Tectonics Kella Randolph B.S., M.Ed. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Bernese_Alps.jpg/1200px-Bernese_Alps.jpg
  2. 2. Structure of the Earth The planet is made up of three main layers: Core (and inner core) Mantle Crust https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/courses-images/wp-content/uploads/sites/1095/2016/11/03155304/OSC_Astro_08_01_Interior.jpg
  3. 3. CONTINENTAL CRUST COLLIDES WITH OCEANIC CRUST This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA https://i.stack.imgur.com/hC34M.gif Subduction
  4. 4. The Crust Earth’s crust is made of two types: • Continental Crust • .Thick (10-70km) • Buoyant (less dense than oceanic crust) • Mostly old • Oceanic Crust • Thin (~ 7 km) • Dense (sinks under continental crust) • Young https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Continental_and_oceanic_crust.png/220px- Continental_and_oceanic_crust.png
  5. 5. How do we know what the earth is made of? • Geophysical surveys: seismic, gravity, magnetics, electrical, geodesy • Geological surveys: fieldwork, boreholes, mines • Undersea exploration: sonar, Deep Sea Challenger • Satellite exploration of Earth: GPS, GOES • Images/ Satelliets: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/98/Nasa_earth_observatories.jpg/500px- Nasa_earth_observatories.jpg • Geologists : https://get.pxhere.com/photo/landscape-adventure-skyscraper-extreme-sport- concrete-mountaineering-construction-site-team-geology-foundation-site-kempten-new-building- construction-workers-brewhouse-growing-region-geological-phenomenon-802265.jpg • Deep Sea Exploration: https://i.vimeocdn.com/video/473711917.jpg?mw=1920&mh=1080&q=70
  6. 6. What is Plate Tectonics? Earth’s crust is divided into 12 major plates which are moved in various directions. • The plates collide, pull apart, or scrape against each other. • Each motion causes different types of features on the Earth’s crust. • The word, tectonic, refers to changes in the crust because of plate interaction. https://englishiscoolsite.files.wordpress.com/2016/05/world_7colour_conamed.jpg?w=1607&h=1147&crop=1
  7. 7. IF YOU LOOK AT A MAP OF THE WORLD, YOU MAY NOTICE THAT SOME OF THE CONTINENTS COULD FIT TOGETHER LIKE PIECES OF A PUZZLE. https://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue26/world-map.gif
  8. 8. World Plates https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8a/Plates_tect2_en.svg/1200px-Plates_tect2_en.svg.png
  9. 9. What are tectonic plates made of? • What are tectonic plates made of? • The lithosphere is made up of the crust and the upper part of the mantle. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Earth-crust-cutaway-english.png/350px-Earth-crust-cutaway- english.png
  10. 10. What lies beneath the tectonic plates? Below the lithosphere (which makes up the tectonic plates) is the asthenosphere. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/07/Earth-crust-cutaway-english.png/350px-Earth-crust-cutaway-english.png
  11. 11. PLATE MOVEMENT “Plates” of lithosphere are moved around by the underlying hot mantle convection cells http://www.thegeographeronline.net/uploads/2/6/6/2/26629356/2378764_orig.jpg

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