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NURSES AND MIDWIVES TRAINING COLLEGE.
TAMALE
GROUP 10 PREENTATION
CLASS: D24 ‘A’
COURSE: GERONTOLOGY AND HOME NURSING.
TOPIC: SETTING FOR NURSING THE AGED-HOME CARE, INSTITUTIONAL CARE.
GROUP MEMBERS
NAMES INDEX NUMBERS
ZEIDU MOHAMMED D24/2021/
EMMANUEL ATANGA D24/2021/081
CONFIDENCE YAW QUARSHIE D24/2021/ 073
MUSAH OSMAN D24/2021/ 167
SHAFATU YUSSIF D24/2021/
ALICE SUYINI JOHN IDDI D24/2021/
BEATRICE VETTERS D24/2021/
HUZAIFA SHAANI D24/2021/115
ALHASSAN ABIBU KAYABA D24/2021/032
INTRODUCTION
Ageing is everybody ‘s problem as everyone is bound to age and experience. Ageing is a fact
of life which does not take place all of a sudden. The elderly is like the setting sun that
retreats into the night after life giving, light during the day. Ageing is normal and natural. It is
a stage ridden with physical and mental problems. Very few people reach old age completely
free of diseases. Senior citizens across the globe are not getting the proper health care they
need because governments and the society are not aware of their problem.
The ageing population is both a sociological and medical problem. It makes a greater
demand on the health services of a community. In a rapid greying world, healthy ageing is
vital for the countries. It is a pre-requisite for economic growth. Discoveries in medical
science and improved social conditions during past few decades have increased the span of
life. The situation becomes all the more difficult when one finds one left alone without
anyone to take care of. Indeed, the loneliness and neglect associated with old age is a rather
recent phenomenon. It is the outcome of breakup of the tradition of joint family system.
Growing urbanization and fast-moving modern life have contributed to the problem.
Furthermore, the erosion of moral values has also aggravated the situation. Earlier, when life
was simpler and values were more valuable, the elderly held an enviable place in family and
society. However, with the changes in the structure and functions of family, many elderlies
lost their space in family and had to move to old age homes as their final haven.
PROBLEM
Ageing is an important socio-psychological problem in almost every family, involving strains
and stresses in taking care of the elderly. With the increasing longevity, ―the empty‖ years at
the end have increased, with its attendant issues of disease, disability and psycho–physical
deteriorations. The dynamics in the structure and functions of family along with the ongoing
changes in social values have put serious dent on the space the elderly had been enjoying,
bringing old age homes to the focus of discourse on ageing. The life of the elderly in care
home, often referred to home away from home
OBJECTIVES
 To know the problems of the elderly in old age homes
 To understand the institutional care given by the old age homes and
 To know the situation of physical and mental health of the elderly
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study helps us to update the knowledge about ageing and the consequent social issues of
those living in old age homes. Old age homes take the baton from where family ceases to care
for the aged. Therefore, this study helps to understand yet another dimension of old age
problems i.e. the problems of the elderly under institutional.
PROBLEMS OF THE ELDERLY
Ageing is a multi-dimensional process involving physical, psychological and social changes.
Elderly is prone to infections, injuries, degenerative disorders, psychological problems, risk
of disability consequently resulting in death. The news of parents being abused in multiple
ways, by their children is quite frequent today, paving their way to old age homes. But here
too they are not without problems. The major problems the inmates of old age homes face are
as follows. Adjustment with inmates Though old age homes is often called home away from
home ‘, there is significant adjustment problems with the other inmates. It is interesting to
note that as age increases their harmony and cooperation too increase. It could be partially
due to the wisdom brought about by ageing and due to the realization that there are not many
people, including own children and relatives, around them.
HOME CARE
Home care encompasses all medical and supportive services provided in the home. These services
may include visits by physicians or nurses; intravenous therapy; physical, speech, and occupational
therapy; social work; and home health aide services. When caring for the elderly, there are a number
of important things you have to take into consideration. As well as the possibility of nursing home
care and long-term care, there is an increase in the number of older people who have complex needs.
There is also an increase in the amount of home support given to older people.
This is a great time for those giving home support services to learn one or two things about giving
better care to seniors. It’s general knowledge that the greater a person’s disability, the greater their
needs. However, some elderly people have said their needs are not met by those who take care of
them.
As well as any obvious health care and personal care, they are the simple things we neglect on a daily
basis. They are every human’s basic inner needs; they are just needed more by older people.
 The Care Provided For Seniors Should Be PersonCentered.
Every senior citizen in every community is human. That is exactly how they should be treated. They
have the same rights as every one of us. That is the perspective you should take when giving care to
elders. Every senior citizen in every community is human. That is exactly how they should be treated.
They have the same rights as every one of us. Catering to the unique needs of older people can be a
difficult task for those providing the personal care, especially as you have many other things to do.
You have kids to take care of. You have your own house to keep in order, and so on. You shouldn’t
let your huge to-do list push you to the wall of not giving enough care to someone who deserves it.
Also, you should note that some older people can magnify your small mistakes into very big issues.
This kind of situation will only be a time waster for you. It is the little things we do or don’t do that
make the biggest difference. As a caregiver, try as much as you can to provide sound care for the
older people around you. Focus on being peoplecentered and not self-centered.
 Dignity Is Important
Life gets less fun as people age. Aging occurs to everybody irrespective of status and wealth. Many
elderly people you take care of feel sadness, pain, boredom, illness, and loneliness. They can easily
lose their dignity to those taking care of them. They know they can’t control anything or anyone.
Now, they have to listen to you and take your orders even when it doesn’t feel right to them. The
inability to prepare meals, to bathe themselves, and carry out basic activities they were used to can
tear them apart from within. Many even lose their mobility. These circumstances were unthinkable to
them some years back. You are there to help them retain their dignity by giving them ultimate respect.
Your little show of respect and proper care can make all the difference for an older person. Your job
is to help them regain that confidence. You are there to help them retain their dignity by giving them
ultimate respect. Your little show of respect and proper care can make all the difference for an older
person. While caring for the elderly in their own homes, you can support them to complete some tasks
on their own; you can even sit down with them for a few minutes and chat about anything they want.
After all, who doesn’t like a natter and a catch-up?
 Make It A Point To Understand Them
This is not only good for the senior you are taking care of it is also good for you in the long run. Even
the best caregivers know that senior people can sometimes become a little grumpy or can easily forget
things. It is your job to know these things. Older people may also seem to act like babies, but this kind
of behavior is never intentional. They are merely a display of the decline in the cognitive abilities.
They may say things you don’t agree with or things that infuriate you—but you have to remain calm
and understand it. Be Patient. Understand elderly people and see how happy you both will be together
 Be A Confident, But Privacy Is Key
Being a confidant means you and the older person can talk about things and laugh. You both can open
up to how daunting it is to raise children if you have one. However, do not cross the line. It is vital to
be like a friend with the person you are caring for. It helps you to understand each other better and
ensures a good relationship. It is vital to be like a friend with the person you are caring for. It helps
you to understand each other better and ensures a good relationship. However, sharing things that
need to be kept private means you are going over the top. For example, the relatives of the senior
might be having a dispute about their health. Inasmuch as this topic has something to do with you, it
doesn’t concern you in any way. Stay clear of family disputes and don’t share your own private life
that you don’t want to be shared with anyone else.
 Explore Ways To Understand Communication Disabilities
Some elderly people who are experiencing some forms of communication disabilities do not find it
easy communicating with others. For example, a stroke may affect someone’s speech. Many older
people also struggle to hear what people are saying. Sometimes, you have to speak up a little and
expand your mouth to show your expression of the words you pronounce. You only have to explore
different methods which you can use to communicate with them. Their will to communicate will
make it easier for you to understand them too.
Conclusion
Caring for the elderly at home can be quite a challenge for caregivers. However, you can make it
simple for yourself. Most elderly people do not ask for much. Most simply want to be heard. They
want to feel like they are really the humans they were 20 years ago. They want you to care for them in
a way they deserve. If you take enough time to listen to their needs and communicate with them while
being reliable and dependable, you will see that caring for older adults can really be simple and
easy—a totally rewarding experience for you and the person you are looking after
INSTITUTIONAL CARE.
 HOSPITALS
Hospitals provide the most comprehensive medical care. For older people in particular,
staying in a hospital increases the risk of problems such as infections, pressure sores,
confusion, and incontinence. Because of these risks, older people should be hospitalized only
if they are very ill. Older may enter the hospital through the emergency department or
scheduled for admission by a doctor.
A doctor who may be the person’s primary care doctor, a specialist, or a staff doctor at the
hospital is in the charge of the person’s care in the hospital. Sometimes several other doctors
are involved. Nurses, who are available 24 hours a day, provide much of the care. A nurse is
always available, but doctors may come and go at more irregular times.
Many other people may help provide care in a hospital. They include pharmacists, dietitians,
physical therapist, social workers etc.
How long peoples stay in the hospital depends partly on how sick they are, what the
diagnosis is, and if needed, what arrangement for continuing care can be made after
discharged. The health practitioners involved determined whether and what type of
continuing care is needed. This care may be provided in rehabilitation facility, in a long term
care facility or in the home by a visiting nurse.
The old age homes take care of the various asp aspects of their inmates. Since being a total
institution, it has no other options but to cater to all the needs of the inmates in the best
possible way. The fact that the elderly are often not in a position to identify their needs make
the institutions more responsible in delivering their services. It is observed, in the study, that
the old age care institutions provide the following functions in their effort to give care to the
elderly.
 Proper diet
As age advances, due to decline in appetite and sensitivity to taste and smell their intake of
food decreases, leading to a decline in health. In this situation, adequate mineral intake in diet
should be ensured. Thus, intake of good diet will help a person to live a happy and healthy
life during ageing. There are no specific dietary rules for senior citizens. Without enough
teeth, they cannot chew foods. As people grow older, they usually eat vegetarian food due to
teeth problems. A balanced diet will go a long way in ensuring a healthy life for old age.
Proper nutrition is vital for the aged people, in order to restore their health.
 Regular Exercise
Exercise is essential for all the aged people. The benefits are plenty, proper blood circulation,
in order to function the organs properly. Regular excise keeps their body in a normal
condition. So, the institutions made them do proper excise to reduce their hypertension,
cholesterol and blood sugar. Exercise would definitely help them lead a normal life and
strengthen the bone. The institutions take care in making the inmate do regular exercise.
 Regular health check –up
Regular health check-up including vision, hearing and blood by specialists is part of anti-
ageing plan. Diseases that affect eye sight including cataracts, glaucoma and macular
degeneration are more common with age and can be controlled or halted if detected
early. Hearing loss usually causes cognitive decline, depression and social isolation. It is
necessary to keep blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol levels under control even
as one gets into 70s and beyond. As body grows old, there are lots of changes and these
may be visible in declined appetite, sleep disorders and memory loss. All these make
regular and frequent health check-ups necessary. The majority of all age groups agreed
upon the fact that they undergo regular health check-ups in the institutions. There is a
slight decrease in the percentage as the age increased, possibly due to the loss of memory
they are not able to recall the event. Regular meditations and prayers to keep the mental
health strong, the inmates are given adequate counselling. Religious prayers and
meditations are essential for them to keep their mental health sound and proper.
Meditation is said to be a good tonic for the preservation of mental health, away from
depression and anxiety. Loneliness and depression can be avoided by means of
meditations and prayers. So, the institutions are taking care of this and twice a day all
inmates group together in the prayer halls and offer prayers.
CONCLUSION
The old age is an integral part of human life being unavoidable, undesirable, and unwelcome
and problem- ridden phase of life. Elderly becomes dependent and needs the help of others
largely due to his physical infirmity. But in this materialist society, everybody is short of
time. Even their own children, to whom they had dedicated their entire life and earnings, do
not find time for them. All these put the elderly in old age homes. Therefore the life and care
in old age homes become very important in the life of the elderly. The situation in own homes
which have driven these helpless persons away should not allowed to replicate in the old age
homes, their new haven.
REFERENCES
1. Ananthraman, R.N. ―Physical Health and Adjustment in old age. ‖ Journal. of Psychological
Research, Vol. 25(1) 46-50, 1981.
2. Health Action, Jan 2011. Secunderabad, India.
3. Indian Journal of Gerontology, vol.23 (2009) Jaipur, India.
4. Park.K. Preventive and Social Medicine (2009). Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers, Prem Nagar, India.
5. Population projections for India and States 1996- 2016. Census of India 1991 (Report), New
Delhi.Registrar General

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Gerontology 333.docx

  • 1. NURSES AND MIDWIVES TRAINING COLLEGE. TAMALE GROUP 10 PREENTATION CLASS: D24 ‘A’ COURSE: GERONTOLOGY AND HOME NURSING. TOPIC: SETTING FOR NURSING THE AGED-HOME CARE, INSTITUTIONAL CARE. GROUP MEMBERS NAMES INDEX NUMBERS ZEIDU MOHAMMED D24/2021/ EMMANUEL ATANGA D24/2021/081 CONFIDENCE YAW QUARSHIE D24/2021/ 073 MUSAH OSMAN D24/2021/ 167 SHAFATU YUSSIF D24/2021/ ALICE SUYINI JOHN IDDI D24/2021/ BEATRICE VETTERS D24/2021/ HUZAIFA SHAANI D24/2021/115 ALHASSAN ABIBU KAYABA D24/2021/032
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Ageing is everybody ‘s problem as everyone is bound to age and experience. Ageing is a fact of life which does not take place all of a sudden. The elderly is like the setting sun that retreats into the night after life giving, light during the day. Ageing is normal and natural. It is a stage ridden with physical and mental problems. Very few people reach old age completely free of diseases. Senior citizens across the globe are not getting the proper health care they need because governments and the society are not aware of their problem. The ageing population is both a sociological and medical problem. It makes a greater demand on the health services of a community. In a rapid greying world, healthy ageing is vital for the countries. It is a pre-requisite for economic growth. Discoveries in medical science and improved social conditions during past few decades have increased the span of life. The situation becomes all the more difficult when one finds one left alone without anyone to take care of. Indeed, the loneliness and neglect associated with old age is a rather recent phenomenon. It is the outcome of breakup of the tradition of joint family system. Growing urbanization and fast-moving modern life have contributed to the problem. Furthermore, the erosion of moral values has also aggravated the situation. Earlier, when life was simpler and values were more valuable, the elderly held an enviable place in family and society. However, with the changes in the structure and functions of family, many elderlies lost their space in family and had to move to old age homes as their final haven. PROBLEM Ageing is an important socio-psychological problem in almost every family, involving strains and stresses in taking care of the elderly. With the increasing longevity, ―the empty‖ years at the end have increased, with its attendant issues of disease, disability and psycho–physical deteriorations. The dynamics in the structure and functions of family along with the ongoing changes in social values have put serious dent on the space the elderly had been enjoying, bringing old age homes to the focus of discourse on ageing. The life of the elderly in care home, often referred to home away from home OBJECTIVES  To know the problems of the elderly in old age homes  To understand the institutional care given by the old age homes and  To know the situation of physical and mental health of the elderly
  • 3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study helps us to update the knowledge about ageing and the consequent social issues of those living in old age homes. Old age homes take the baton from where family ceases to care for the aged. Therefore, this study helps to understand yet another dimension of old age problems i.e. the problems of the elderly under institutional. PROBLEMS OF THE ELDERLY Ageing is a multi-dimensional process involving physical, psychological and social changes. Elderly is prone to infections, injuries, degenerative disorders, psychological problems, risk of disability consequently resulting in death. The news of parents being abused in multiple ways, by their children is quite frequent today, paving their way to old age homes. But here too they are not without problems. The major problems the inmates of old age homes face are as follows. Adjustment with inmates Though old age homes is often called home away from home ‘, there is significant adjustment problems with the other inmates. It is interesting to note that as age increases their harmony and cooperation too increase. It could be partially due to the wisdom brought about by ageing and due to the realization that there are not many people, including own children and relatives, around them. HOME CARE Home care encompasses all medical and supportive services provided in the home. These services may include visits by physicians or nurses; intravenous therapy; physical, speech, and occupational therapy; social work; and home health aide services. When caring for the elderly, there are a number of important things you have to take into consideration. As well as the possibility of nursing home care and long-term care, there is an increase in the number of older people who have complex needs. There is also an increase in the amount of home support given to older people. This is a great time for those giving home support services to learn one or two things about giving better care to seniors. It’s general knowledge that the greater a person’s disability, the greater their needs. However, some elderly people have said their needs are not met by those who take care of them. As well as any obvious health care and personal care, they are the simple things we neglect on a daily basis. They are every human’s basic inner needs; they are just needed more by older people.
  • 4.  The Care Provided For Seniors Should Be PersonCentered. Every senior citizen in every community is human. That is exactly how they should be treated. They have the same rights as every one of us. That is the perspective you should take when giving care to elders. Every senior citizen in every community is human. That is exactly how they should be treated. They have the same rights as every one of us. Catering to the unique needs of older people can be a difficult task for those providing the personal care, especially as you have many other things to do. You have kids to take care of. You have your own house to keep in order, and so on. You shouldn’t let your huge to-do list push you to the wall of not giving enough care to someone who deserves it. Also, you should note that some older people can magnify your small mistakes into very big issues. This kind of situation will only be a time waster for you. It is the little things we do or don’t do that make the biggest difference. As a caregiver, try as much as you can to provide sound care for the older people around you. Focus on being peoplecentered and not self-centered.  Dignity Is Important Life gets less fun as people age. Aging occurs to everybody irrespective of status and wealth. Many elderly people you take care of feel sadness, pain, boredom, illness, and loneliness. They can easily lose their dignity to those taking care of them. They know they can’t control anything or anyone. Now, they have to listen to you and take your orders even when it doesn’t feel right to them. The inability to prepare meals, to bathe themselves, and carry out basic activities they were used to can tear them apart from within. Many even lose their mobility. These circumstances were unthinkable to them some years back. You are there to help them retain their dignity by giving them ultimate respect. Your little show of respect and proper care can make all the difference for an older person. Your job is to help them regain that confidence. You are there to help them retain their dignity by giving them ultimate respect. Your little show of respect and proper care can make all the difference for an older person. While caring for the elderly in their own homes, you can support them to complete some tasks on their own; you can even sit down with them for a few minutes and chat about anything they want. After all, who doesn’t like a natter and a catch-up?  Make It A Point To Understand Them This is not only good for the senior you are taking care of it is also good for you in the long run. Even the best caregivers know that senior people can sometimes become a little grumpy or can easily forget things. It is your job to know these things. Older people may also seem to act like babies, but this kind of behavior is never intentional. They are merely a display of the decline in the cognitive abilities.
  • 5. They may say things you don’t agree with or things that infuriate you—but you have to remain calm and understand it. Be Patient. Understand elderly people and see how happy you both will be together  Be A Confident, But Privacy Is Key Being a confidant means you and the older person can talk about things and laugh. You both can open up to how daunting it is to raise children if you have one. However, do not cross the line. It is vital to be like a friend with the person you are caring for. It helps you to understand each other better and ensures a good relationship. It is vital to be like a friend with the person you are caring for. It helps you to understand each other better and ensures a good relationship. However, sharing things that need to be kept private means you are going over the top. For example, the relatives of the senior might be having a dispute about their health. Inasmuch as this topic has something to do with you, it doesn’t concern you in any way. Stay clear of family disputes and don’t share your own private life that you don’t want to be shared with anyone else.  Explore Ways To Understand Communication Disabilities Some elderly people who are experiencing some forms of communication disabilities do not find it easy communicating with others. For example, a stroke may affect someone’s speech. Many older people also struggle to hear what people are saying. Sometimes, you have to speak up a little and expand your mouth to show your expression of the words you pronounce. You only have to explore different methods which you can use to communicate with them. Their will to communicate will make it easier for you to understand them too. Conclusion Caring for the elderly at home can be quite a challenge for caregivers. However, you can make it simple for yourself. Most elderly people do not ask for much. Most simply want to be heard. They want to feel like they are really the humans they were 20 years ago. They want you to care for them in a way they deserve. If you take enough time to listen to their needs and communicate with them while being reliable and dependable, you will see that caring for older adults can really be simple and easy—a totally rewarding experience for you and the person you are looking after
  • 6. INSTITUTIONAL CARE.  HOSPITALS Hospitals provide the most comprehensive medical care. For older people in particular, staying in a hospital increases the risk of problems such as infections, pressure sores, confusion, and incontinence. Because of these risks, older people should be hospitalized only if they are very ill. Older may enter the hospital through the emergency department or scheduled for admission by a doctor. A doctor who may be the person’s primary care doctor, a specialist, or a staff doctor at the hospital is in the charge of the person’s care in the hospital. Sometimes several other doctors are involved. Nurses, who are available 24 hours a day, provide much of the care. A nurse is always available, but doctors may come and go at more irregular times. Many other people may help provide care in a hospital. They include pharmacists, dietitians, physical therapist, social workers etc. How long peoples stay in the hospital depends partly on how sick they are, what the diagnosis is, and if needed, what arrangement for continuing care can be made after discharged. The health practitioners involved determined whether and what type of continuing care is needed. This care may be provided in rehabilitation facility, in a long term care facility or in the home by a visiting nurse. The old age homes take care of the various asp aspects of their inmates. Since being a total institution, it has no other options but to cater to all the needs of the inmates in the best possible way. The fact that the elderly are often not in a position to identify their needs make the institutions more responsible in delivering their services. It is observed, in the study, that the old age care institutions provide the following functions in their effort to give care to the elderly.  Proper diet As age advances, due to decline in appetite and sensitivity to taste and smell their intake of food decreases, leading to a decline in health. In this situation, adequate mineral intake in diet should be ensured. Thus, intake of good diet will help a person to live a happy and healthy life during ageing. There are no specific dietary rules for senior citizens. Without enough teeth, they cannot chew foods. As people grow older, they usually eat vegetarian food due to
  • 7. teeth problems. A balanced diet will go a long way in ensuring a healthy life for old age. Proper nutrition is vital for the aged people, in order to restore their health.  Regular Exercise Exercise is essential for all the aged people. The benefits are plenty, proper blood circulation, in order to function the organs properly. Regular excise keeps their body in a normal condition. So, the institutions made them do proper excise to reduce their hypertension, cholesterol and blood sugar. Exercise would definitely help them lead a normal life and strengthen the bone. The institutions take care in making the inmate do regular exercise.  Regular health check –up Regular health check-up including vision, hearing and blood by specialists is part of anti- ageing plan. Diseases that affect eye sight including cataracts, glaucoma and macular degeneration are more common with age and can be controlled or halted if detected early. Hearing loss usually causes cognitive decline, depression and social isolation. It is necessary to keep blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol levels under control even as one gets into 70s and beyond. As body grows old, there are lots of changes and these may be visible in declined appetite, sleep disorders and memory loss. All these make regular and frequent health check-ups necessary. The majority of all age groups agreed upon the fact that they undergo regular health check-ups in the institutions. There is a slight decrease in the percentage as the age increased, possibly due to the loss of memory they are not able to recall the event. Regular meditations and prayers to keep the mental health strong, the inmates are given adequate counselling. Religious prayers and meditations are essential for them to keep their mental health sound and proper. Meditation is said to be a good tonic for the preservation of mental health, away from depression and anxiety. Loneliness and depression can be avoided by means of meditations and prayers. So, the institutions are taking care of this and twice a day all inmates group together in the prayer halls and offer prayers.
  • 8. CONCLUSION The old age is an integral part of human life being unavoidable, undesirable, and unwelcome and problem- ridden phase of life. Elderly becomes dependent and needs the help of others largely due to his physical infirmity. But in this materialist society, everybody is short of time. Even their own children, to whom they had dedicated their entire life and earnings, do not find time for them. All these put the elderly in old age homes. Therefore the life and care in old age homes become very important in the life of the elderly. The situation in own homes which have driven these helpless persons away should not allowed to replicate in the old age homes, their new haven.
  • 9. REFERENCES 1. Ananthraman, R.N. ―Physical Health and Adjustment in old age. ‖ Journal. of Psychological Research, Vol. 25(1) 46-50, 1981. 2. Health Action, Jan 2011. Secunderabad, India. 3. Indian Journal of Gerontology, vol.23 (2009) Jaipur, India. 4. Park.K. Preventive and Social Medicine (2009). Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers, Prem Nagar, India. 5. Population projections for India and States 1996- 2016. Census of India 1991 (Report), New Delhi.Registrar General