6. •How can students be helped in the
construction of a more enriched
•What strategies can be employed for
teaching conceptual understanding,
thinking skills in the different
levels, and values?
10. 1. VALIDITY
Teaching the content that we ought to teach
according to national standards explicit in the
basic education curriculum; it also means teaching
the content in order to realize the goals and
objectives of the course as laid down in the basic
14. 2. SIGNIFICANCE
What we teach should respond to the needs and
interests of the learners, hence meaningful
and significant. Adapted from fink, L.D. (2003). Creating
significant learning experiences, Jossey-bass.
16. 3. SELF-SUFFICIENCY
Content fully covers the essentials. Learning
content is not "mile-wide-and-inch-deep." The
essentials are sufficiently covered and are treated
in depth. This is a case of "less is more."
18. 4. BALANCE
Content includes not only facts but also concepts and
values. The use of the three-level approach ensures a
balance of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective lesson
content. A balanced content is something that is not
too easy to bore the above average student, neither not
too difficult to turn off the average. It is something
that challenges the student. To observe the principle
of balance, no topic must be extensively discussed at
the expense of other topics.
24. 7. FEASIBILITY
The content is feasible in the sense that the
essential content can be covered in the amount of
time available for instruction. A guaranteed and a
viable curriculum is the first in the school-
related factors that has the greatest impact on
student achievement. (Marzano, 2003)
25. •IT IS OBSERVED THAT THERE IS SO MUCH
CONTENT TO COVER WITHIN THE SCHOOL
YEAR, SO MUCH SO THAT TEACHERS TEND TO
RUSH TOWARDS THE END OF THE SCHOOL
YEAR, DO SUPERFICIAL TEACHING AND
CONTRIBUTE TO NON-MASTERY OF CONTENT.
26. What are the qualities to be observed in
selecting and organizing appropriate
27. 2. At the base of the structure of cognitive
subject matter content is facts. We cant do
away with facts but be sure to go beyond facts
by constructing an increasingly richer and
more sophisticated knowledge base and by
working out a process of conceptual
28. HERE ARE A FEW WAYS CITED BY COGNITIVE
PSYCHOLOGISTS (ORMROD, 2000) BY WHICH
YOU CAN HELP YOUR STUDENTS:
o PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR EXPERIMENTATION
o PRESENTING THE IDEAS OF OTHERS
o EMPHASIZING CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING
o ORGANIZE UNITS AROUND A FEW CORE IDEAS AND
29. HERE ARE SOME SPECIFIC STRATEGIES THAT CAN HELP
YOU DEVELOP CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING IN
YOUR STUDENTS: (ORMROD, 2000)
• EXPLORE EACH TOPIC IN DEPTH
• EXPLAIN HOW NEW IDEAS RELATE TO STUDENTS OWN EXPERIENCES AND
TO THINGS THEY HAVE PREVIOUSLY LEARNED.
• SHOW STUDENTS THAT CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF SUBJECT
MATTER IS FAR MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE OF ISOLATED FACTS
• ASK STUDENTS TO TEACH TO OTHERS WHAT THEY HAVE LEARNED – A TASK
THAT ENCOURAGES THEM TO FOCUS ON MAIN IDEAS AND PULL THEM
TOGETHER IN A WAY THAT MAKES SENSE
• PROMOTING DIALOGUE
• USING AUTHENTIC ACTIVITIES
30. • 3. Subject matter content is an
integration of cognitive, skill, and
• COGNITIVE - facts, concepts, principles, hypothesis, theories, and laws
• SKILL - thinking skills as well as manipulative skills
• AFFECTIVE - values and attitudes
31. Certificate in Teaching Program – Educ 4
SY 2013-2014, 2nd
COGNITIVE SKILLS AFFECTIVE
○ Verbal reasoning
○ Argument analysis
○ Hypothesis testing
○ Decision making
Attitudes and values are the
apex of the triangle
It is the teaching of values
that teaching of facts, skills
and concepts become
connected to the life of
students, thus acquiring
RETRIEVED JANUARY 3, 2014:
33. The next session will start in
Hinweis der Redaktion
HERE ARE SOME PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE YOU
Guiding Principles in Determining Appropriate Content
This is probably one reason why the least mastered competencies in national examinations given to pupils and students are those competencies which are found at the end of the Philippine Elementary/Secondary Learning Competencies (PELC/PSLC).
To understand the content
• Providing opportunities for experimentation – our so-called experiments in the science classes are more of this sort - following a cook book recipe where students are made to follow step-by-step procedure to end up confirming a law that has already been experimented on and discovered by great scientists ahead of us instead of the students coming up with their own procedure and end discovering something new.
After teaching your students how to cook a recipe following the procedures laid down in a cookbook, allow them to experiment with mix of ingredients.
Presenting the ideas of others – While it is beneficial for you to encourage your students to discover principles for themselves, it will not jeopardize your students if you present the ideas of others who worked hard over the years to explain phenomena.
• Emphasizing conceptual understanding – Many a time, our teaching is devoted only to memorization of isolated facts for purposes of examinations and grade. When we teach facts only, the tendency is we are able to cover more for your students to commit to memory and for you to cover in a test but our teaching ends up skin-deep or superficial, thus meaningless. If we emphasize conceptual understanding, the emphasis goes beyond facts. We integrate and correlate facts, concepts, and values in a meaningful manner.
The many facts become integrated into a less number of concepts, yet more meaningful and consequently easier to recall. When we stress on conceptual teaching, we are occupied with less, but we are able to teach more substantially. It is a case of "less is more!" This is precisely the emphasis of the Basic Education Curriculum.
Example: What Do Mommies Do? -responsibility -love of family -cooking -nutrition -health -measurement -recreation and play
Organize units around a few core ideas and themes. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Here are some specific strategies that can help you develop conceptual understanding in your students: (Ormrod, 2000)
Explore each topic in depth – for example, by considering many examples, examining cause-effect relationships, and discovering how specific details relate to more general principles.
Explain how new ideas relate to students own experiences and to things they have previously learned.
Show students – through the things we say, the assignments we give, and the criteria we use to evaluate learning – that conceptual understanding of subject matter is far more important than knowledge of isolated facts
Ask students to teach to others what they have learned – a task that encourages them to focus on main ideas and pull them together in a way that makes sense
Promoting dialogue – when we encourage our students to talk about what they learn, they are given the opportunity to reflect, elaborate on, clarify further and master what they have learned.
Using authentic activities – incorporate your lessons into "real world" activities. Instead of simply asking students to work on some items on subtraction, simulate a "sari-sari" store and apply subtraction skills
Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive, skill, and affective elements. While our subject matter content comes in three domains, these three domains should not be treated as though there was a clear dividing line among them. When our point of emphasis is the cognitive aspect, it does not mean that we exclude skills. In the first place, our teaching of facts, concepts, principles, theories and laws necessitate the skill of seeing the relationships among these in order to see meaning.
Likewise, when our subject matter is focused on the thinking and manipulative skills, our lesson content also has cognitive content. More so with the teaching of values, for values have definitely a cognitive basis. If the values taught are imbibed by the students, these are expressed in their daily behavior (skill). The cognitive lesson may be used as a vehicle in the teaching of skills and values.
In short, subject matter content is an integration of facts, concepts, principles, hypothesis, theories, and laws, thinking skills, manipulative skills, values and attitudes.
The Structure of Subject Matter Content Our subject matter content includes cognitive, skill, and affective components. The cognitive component is concerned with facts, concepts, principles, hypothesis, theories, and laws. The skill component refers to thinking skills as well as manipulative skills while the affective component is the realm of values and attitudes.