1. A WORLDVIEW IS SIMILAR TO____________________________.
A.understanding about life
D.both a & b
2. WHICH STATEMENT IS NOT A BELIEF SYSTEM?
• A. I believe I can fly.
• B. “An unexamined life is not worth living for.”
• C. “Si Malakas at si Maganda” the Filipino version of
• D. The West Philippine sea belongs to Filipinos as
affirmed by an as arbitrary tribunal in Hague,
3. IDENTIFY THE STATEMENT THAT DOES NOT DESCRIBE A
• A. A person who sees God always in all things.
• B. A person who always goes to church on Sundays.
• C. A person who experiences “Bodhi ” or “Enlightenment.”
• D. A person who feels the force of nature and become one
4. SINCE TIME IMMEMORIAL, BELIEF TO A DIVINE BEING IS PRACTICED BY PEOPLE
IN DIFFERENT CULTURAL MILIEU AND TRADITIONS. THERE ARE EVEN THOSE WHO
WORSHIP ANIMALS LIKE THE GOLDEN CALF IN IN THE OLD TESTAMENT AS THEIR
GOD. OTHER CULTURE EVEN CONSIDER MILLIONS OF SMALL GODS LIKE THE
HINDUS. HOW DO YOU CALL THE PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE IN ONE GOD?
• A. Polytheists
• B. Monotheists
• C. Pantheists
• D. Atheists
5. AS INDIVIDUALS WE USE DIFFERENT LENSES IN SEEING
THINGS AND REALITIES AROUND US. CONFLICTS
SOMETIMES ARISE IN DEFENSE OF THEIR POINT OF VIEW.
OUR PLURALISTIC SOCIETY HAS ALSO VARIED BELIEF
SYSTEMS. WHAT STATEMENT BEST DESCRIBED WHAT A
BELIEF SYSTEM IS?
• A. A particular way of ordering the realities of the world.
• B. The religious preferences of a person or group
• C. Anything that we do and think about all the time.
• D. A speculative thinking and ritualistic habit of different
• Carol Hill describes worldview, as
• “By worldview (or belief system) I mean the basic way of
interpreting things and events that pervades a culture so
thoroughly that it becomes a culture’s concept of reality-what is
good, what is important, what is sacred, what is real.
• It is more than culture, even though the distinction between the
two can sometimes be subtle.
• It extends to perceptions of time and space, of happiness and
well-being. The beliefs, values, and behaviors of culture stem
directly from its worldview.” (Hill, 2007)
•A very simple definition of a
“worldview” is given by Matt
Slick. According to him a
worldview is a set of beliefs
used to understand the world. E
•Google has a simple definition, it says, ”Belief systems
are the stories we tell ourselves to define our personal
sense of ‘reality’ (the way things actually exist). Every
human being has a belief system that he/she utilizes
and it is through this mechanism that we individually
“make sense” of the world around us.”
•” It could be a set of beliefs or a philosophy of life.
•Belief system shapes your worldview about the world,
your existence, and relationships with your fellowmen.
In other words, “ a worldview whether religious or
nonreligious, is a personal insight about reality and
meaning, often termed a “life understanding” which I
may call a product of belief systems.
• Most often worldviews are shaped by religions. Inside
the box are worldviews about man’s perspective of
• 1. Naturalism (e.g. Atheism, Agnosticism, Existentialism).
-It denies the existence of God. The material universe is all that exist.
• 2. Pantheism ( e.g. Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism; much New
- They believe that only the spiritual dimension exists. All else is illusion. Man is
spiritual and eternal.
• 3. Theism (e.g. Judaism, Christianity, Islam).
-They believe that an infinite, personal God exists. God created the real world.
People are created in the image of God.
-The world is inhabited by spirit beings who govern earthly
-Man is created by gods like the rest of the creatures on
earth. Material things are real but they have spirits associated
- This is the belief in many gods or deities.
- The culture of Ancient Greeks and Romans depict this kind
• Activity 1. Song Analysis Objective: Analyze the nature of God presented in the
Song. Directions: 1. Listen or read the song “Who Am I.” 2. Prepare a separate
paper for your answer. 3. Answer the questions below?
• Critical Thinking Questions: 1. What does the song “Who am I?” say about who
we are as a person? 2. What kind of God is presented in the song? Why? 3. How
does faith in God provide answers to life’s questions? Give example from your
•which geographical ideas are influenced
by religion such as early map-making,
and biblical geography that developed
in the 16th century to identify places
from the Bible. .(Kong, 1990)
CHRISTINE CARMELA R. RAMOS
• “Introduction to the Philosophy of the Human
• In the book, she discussed the specific
characteristics between the western (occidental)
and eastern (oriental) paradigm regarding the
disparity of mindset of the two.
Hellenism or the influenced of Greek
culture among the Romans
Then the Roman
Empire extended all
which was termed
as the western
hemisphere of the
• Holy Places
• Religious experiences and the belief in religious meanings transformed
physical spaces into sacred places
• Hindus – Ganges River as sacred place
• Jews - Mt. Sinai
• Temples, churches and mosques are some of the sacred places for Buddhists,
Christians and Muslims
(REGINA ROSARII INSTITUTE FOR
CONTEMPLATION IN ASIA)
- LOCATED IN A THIRTEEN AND HALF
- ALONG MARILAQUE OR MARCOS
HIGHWAY AT SITIO AGUHO, SAMPALOC
Activity 1. Step out! This place is holy
Objective: Determine the different sacred places
from various religious beliefs.
Directions: 1. Reflect on the religious beliefs of
sacred places in the pictures and then answer the
•Understand the development of the different
religions in a specific culture •
•Appreciate the role of culture in the development of
religion and ; •
•Observe their influence in your interaction with your
fellowmen, the world, nature and God.
• Directions: Choose the letter of the best answer.
1. It is referred to as “ordinary way of life” in its broadest sense by
Williams. What is it?
A. Society B. Culture C. Politics D. Science
2. Perhaps you may encounter people who considered their own culture
superior than others. Some of us laugh when a person we talk to has a
Visayan accent. What do you call this kind of attitude?
A. Monotheism B. Ethnocentrism C. Cultural Relativism D. Polytheism
3. Culture is dynamic. This means that culture
•A. is genetically structured in man’s biological
•B. can be accumulated throughout the lifetime of a
•C. is diverse, and we adjust to other culture.
•D. is never stagnant and keep on changing due to new
social experiences of people.
4. Which statement reflects the relationship
between religion, culture and geography?
•A. Religion influenced culture and geography.
•B. Culture influenced religion and geography
•C. Geography influenced culture and religion.
•D. All of the above
5. One of the statements reflects the beliefs of the
Filipinos before Christianity was introduced?
•D. all of the above
•is “a whole way of life” The way we think, act or
speak. It is “ordinary.” (Williams, 1958).
•can be also dynamic, it can be shared, learned,
transmitted from one generation to another,
adaptive and integrated (Bodley,1999).
•UNESCO defines culture as :
•“The whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material,
intellectual and emotional features that characterize
a society or social group. It includes not only the arts
and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental
rights of the human being, value systems, traditions
• multi-cultural society or simply we live amidst a multiculturalist world
• According to Harrison (1994) multiculturalism is a theory about the
foundations of a culture rather than a practice which subsumes cultural
ideas. In a broader sense, the term is often use to describe societies which
have many distinct cultural groups, usually as a result of immigration.
(Vega, et al, 2009)
LAWRENCE MCKINNEY OBSERVED THAT
•, “the discovery of bear skulls with unusual markings
indicates the basis of a primitive religion while others,
noting the existence of flower petals and pollen in
ancient burial sites, have speculated on the possibility
of Neanderthal funeral rites (McKinney,1994).
NEW NORMAL CULTURE
•is a deviation from the “normal” way of life to the “not
normal” due to the Covid-19 pandemic. It is more of
awareness and prevention against the pandemic which
includes social distancing, wearing masks and washing
of hands or using alcohol to avoid the virus.
AMONG THE MANY FUNCTIONS OF RELIGION
IDENTIFIED BY CALDERON (1998) ARE THE
• 1. Religion serves as a means of social control.
• 2. It exerts a great influence upon personality development.
• 3. Religion allays fear of the unknown.
• 4. Religion explains events or situations which are beyond the
comprehension of man.
• 5. It gives man comfort, strength and hope in times of crisis and
AMONG THE MANY FUNCTIONS OF RELIGION IDENTIFIED BY
CALDERON (1998) ARE THE FOLLOWING
• 6. It preserves and transmits knowledge, skills, spiritual and
cultural values and practices.
• 7. It serves as an instrument of change.
• 8. It promotes closeness, love, cooperation, friendliness and
• 9. Religion alleviates sufferings from major calamities.
• 10. It provides hope for a blissful life after death.
POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF RELIGION
• Objectives: After going through this lesson, you are expected
• 1. Identify the positive and negative effects of religions;
• 2. Provide evidence that religion brought about an event in
• 3. Justify that religion can have positive or negative effects on
• Directions: Arrange the jumbled letters. Write your answer on
the space provided before each number.
• _____________1. D S I M I C N R A I I O N T ____________6. S C C E S U S
• _____________2. C N F O L I C T ____________7. I G F H T
• _____________3. U I T N Y ____________8. H R M A O Y N
• _____________4. R L O E ____________9. P S I V E I T O
• _____________5. A L V U S E ____________10. F E E F C T S
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF RELIGION
1. RELIGION PROMOTES SOCIAL HARMONY
• Religion believes in supernatural beings and powers.
• It practices a set of rituals and ceremonious rites of passage and rites of intensification.
• It also regards religious leaders such as priests, priestesses and shamans in high esteem.
• These characteristics help advance social harmony by assimilating and stabilizing cultures
• Religion provides divine authority to ethical and moral principles which also help promote
unity among people.
• Common participation in rituals together with basic uniformity of belief helps promote social
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF RELIGION
2. RELIGION PROVIDES SOCIAL CHANGE
• religion has the potential to institute social
change, especially in the issues concerning
poverty, reproductive health, gender equality,
and religious discrimination
3. RELIGION REDUCES FEAR OF THE UNKNOWN
• Religion was developed for man’s need to have a sense of origin and destination; to
discover where they came from and where they are bound to go to when they die.
• Religion provides answers from phenomena and questions that science and reasons
• Myths about the origin of people abound with stories of groups of people being created by
gods and goddess, perpetuating the notion that people came from supreme beings and
will eventually go back to them in the afterlife.
• More importantly, religion has provided assurance as to where spirits will go when people
die, reducing people’s fear of death as something undesirable.
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF RELIGION
4. RELIGION GIVES POSITIVE GOALS IN LIFE
• People were inspired by the stories of different prophets from their own religious affiliations,
like that of Moses, Siddhartha Gautama and Muhammad.
• Those people showed how ordinary people like them were given important missions in life, and
how they struggle to carry out their respective missions.
• Moses was ordered to liberate the Hebrews from slavery in Egypt and lead them back to the
• Mohammad was chosen to challenge the supremacy of ruling class in the dessert by preaching
equality and founding the Islamic religion; while Siddhartha Gautama gave up his wealth and
power to find the solution for sickness, poverty, old age and death.
• Their narratives-perpetuated through religion- may give a people a sense of meaning in life;
that they are not placed in this world without a purpose; that each and everyone has a mission
to fulfill and it is up to them to fathom what their missions in life are.
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF RELIGION
5. RELIGION GIVES PEOPLE A SENSE OF BELONGING
• Just as a family, ethnicity, or nationality give people a sense of belonging,
so does religion.
• For some, religion provides people with personal identity as part of a group
with similar worldviews, beliefs, values, practices and life styles.
• It provides communities with prospects to recognize and offer what action
and service to provide the needs of the larger community.
• Belonging to a particular region- whose members share the same beliefs,
practice the same rituals, and worship the same god- gives individuals a
sense of being in the right place and right people.
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF RELIGION
NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF RELIGION
1. RELIGION AFFIRMS SOCIAL HIERARCHY
• Some religion affirms social hierarchy often favoring men and as a result, perpetuate the
notion of class or gender discrimination and oppression.
• Another example of religion reflecting the hierarchy of political structure would be the
Confucian emphasis on the relation between the ruler and the subject, with the former
exercising authority over the latter.
• The traditional caste system in India would also reflect how religion reflects political and
social structures since it propagated the idea that people had to be subdivided into
certain social class with particular social roles and that the attainment of moksha would
depend on how they perform their duties based on their designated class.
NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF RELIGION
2. RELIGION CAUSES DISCRIMINATION
• Religious fanaticism can lead to feelings of hatred, which could lead to
racism, and eventually violence.
NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF RELIGION
3. RELIGION TRIGGERS CONFLICTS AND FIGHTS
• Religion also has some aspects which make it susceptible to be a source of conflict
• History witnessed numerous life sacrificed and lost in the name of religion. Wars have
been fought in the name of religion, and this phenomenon continues up to the
HISTORICAL EVENTS CAUSED BY RELIGION
• SELF-IMMOLATION OF A BUDDHIST MONK IN VIETNAM
Self-immolation, or the killing of oneself as a form of
sacrifice, originally referred to as the act of setting oneself
on fire. But now it refers to a much wider range of suicidal
choices such as leaping off a cliff, starvation, or ritual
removing of the guts (also known as the seppuku). It is used
as a form of political protest or martyrdom.
HISTORICAL EVENTS CAUSED BY RELIGION
• WIDOW BURNING AMONG THE HINDUS IN INDIA
• Sati, or the practice of self-immolation of a widow on her
husband’s funeral pyre, is said to have originated 700 years
ago in India
HISTORICAL EVENTS CAUSED BY RELIGION
• THE INQUISITION
• Inquisition refers to the Roman Catholic Church groups charged with the subduing
heresy from around 1184, which includes the Episcopal Inquisition (1184-1230s) and the
Papal Inquisition (1230s).
• The word “inquisition” has somehow become associated with the word “torture”. This
was because after 1252, torture was used to punish the heretics. On May 15, a papal bull
was issued by a Pope Innocent IV, the Ad Exstripanda, which authorized the use of torture by
inquisitors. One common form of torture was the strappado, wherein the hands were bound
behind the back with a rope, and the accused was suspended this way, dislocating the joints
painfully in both arms.
HISTORICAL EVENTS CAUSED BY RELIGION
• THE GODHRA TRAIN INCEDENT
• In February 2002, a train was set on fire in which 59 people including 29
women and 15 children, were killed. The fire happened inside the Sabarmati
Express train near the Godhra railway station in the Indian staten of Gujarat. Those
who died inside the train were mostly Hindu pilgrims and activist returning from the
holy city of Ayodhya after a religious ceremony at the disputed Babri Masjid site. It
took six years for the commission appointed to investigate the said incident to
conclude that the fire was committed by a mob of 1000-2000 people. 31 Muslims
were convicted by the court for the incident and conspiracy for the crime.
• Directions: Listen to John Lennon’s song “imagine”
and discuss the possible consequences if a society
has no religion. List at least five possible
consequences and present it in the class.
Hinweis der Redaktion
SEEKING..NAKIKIPAG USAP SA DI TAO O BAGAY..KUNDI SA DI NAKIKITA O SUPERNATURAL ENTITIES..LIKE God
Pinagsama samang paniniwala ng mga tao regardless of your religion..institution na kinabibilangan mo
Ano ano ang mga bagay na nakakaapekto dun sa paniniwala o anong paniniwala meron ka..example lumaki kasa cpmmunity ng mga Muslim,,probably ang paniniwala mo ay related sa paniniwala ng Muslim..ganun din pag sa katolika..eto nga pala ang ibat ibang dahilan kung bakit may ibat iba tayong paniniwala..
More on belief that there is someone greater for you
Religion flourishes in space and time not in a vacuum. Geography is the fertile ground for religion to flourish.
For example, for the Jews the land of Canaan, is the land promised to them by their God Yahweh through Abraham. In the book of Genesis God said to Abraham, “Go from your land, from your birthplace, and from your father’s house to the land that I will show you.” (Genesis 12:1). This
passage is central to their belief. They have to defend the land at all cost because it
was given to them by Yahweh, their God.
There is a significant disparity between Western and Eastern religions in terms of belief systems, worldview and philosophy about life. The mindset of the West is different from the mindset of the East. It is possible that the difference in mindset is brought by geographical influence.
There are plenty of geographical places that are considered holy orsacred because of religion. The interplay of geography and religion not only highlights the role of religion in affecting landscape changes and in assigning sacred meanings to specific places, but also acknowledges how religious ideology and practices at specific spaces are guided and transformed by their location…
It used to be
a mountainous, serene, and peaceful location very close to nature overlooking
Laguna lake. Now it is transformed into a pilgrimage site especially for Catholic
Christian believers. This is a concrete example of how religion changes the landscape of a geographic location and context. Filipinos are very religious people and their dependence to God can be traced to the numerous sacred images and places around the country. Regina Rica in Tanay, Rizal is just one of them.
The above activity introduces us to the possible relationship of the three concepts which are religion, geography and culture. The first two concepts are already discussed from the previous lesson. This lesson will focus on the concept of culture and its influence towards religious beliefs or vice versa.
In our present age of technology wherein the world is one-big community and every human beings communicate through the internet from different cultural backgrounds, we cannot help but become a cultural relativist. We should respect the culture of others because we are all citizens of this world and we are all equal. As a member of a society, we have no choice but to interact with our fellowmen. In so doing, we can encounter people with different beliefs, practices or even have different philosophy in life.
Although we can still observe people who are ethno centrists. In the course of time there are people who are ethno centrists and there are those who are cultural relativists. In terms of religious beliefs, there are people who are fundamentalists who defend their beliefs at all costs, and there are people who are open minded enough to respect the beliefs of OTHERS
The evolution of culture is simultaneous with the evolution of man. As man progresses from homo habilis to homo sapiens, from Old Stone Age to New Stone Age then to Iron Age, Industrial Age and Technological age, significant changes in the way human acts, lives, or use tools have been observed. This is true in all dimensions of human life including religion. It was believed that man’s consciousness of the divine can be traced back to the time of the Neanderthals.
The reality of death developed into a cultural funeral rite as a way of respecting the dead. This reality is taken seriously by religion and sought divine aide to solve the riddle of life. Our experience of the Covid-19 pandemic can attest to this. The sight of people dying left and right in hospitals, coffins paraded in the streets and millions of people all over the world struggling to survive from this malady triggered humans to depend on some divine power to intercede. The pandemic as of June , 2020, hit a record high of almost ten (10) million people affected all over the world and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Since no vaccine is in sight, posts in Facebook, messenger, Instagram, Twitter and even mainstream media are all dominated by God-related shares in a form of prayers and pleas for divine intervention.
It is more of an awareness and prevention against the pandemic. This is one characteristic of culture, being dynamic and adaptive and so we adjust and adapt to the new culture. In the church for example, one important law is, Thou shalt keep Holy the Lord’s day. If one violates this commandment a believer commits a grievous sin. Under the new normal culture this is not relevant anymore. The church now can accommodate only a few. We can now attend masses or services at home. The church has to adjust to the new culture. This is how culture influences religion and vice versa. There are certain periods in history that the intermarriage between culture and religion, the latter dominates in shaping the way of life of the people. Let us take for example the functions of religion laid down by Calderon. He assumed that religion also influence not just the religious life but also social, economic and even political way of life of people.
The ecumenical movement 13 seeks to recover the apostolic sense of the early church for unity in diversity, and it confronts the frustrations, difficulties, and ironies of the modern pluralistic world. It is a lively reassessment of the historical sources and destiny of what followers perceive to be the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic church of Jesus Christ
If you look at the picture of Ghandi, he has a perfect reminder for everyone. He said, “Nobody in this world possesses absolute truth. This is God’s attribute alone. Relative truth is all we know.” Today, ecumenism is not only exclusive among Christian churches but it extends towards other religions through the principles of “unity in diversity” and “many paths yet only one destiny.” Ecumenism simply means that no religion possesses the whole truth as Gandhi reiterates.
Inorporating religion into human rights..bad idea of Egypt
Religion has become a very important aspect in the development of the civilization and culture. In fact, the most ancient societies based their worldviews on religion, and it has been proven to be beneficial to the attainment and maintenance of the social stability and cohesiveness. However, as time went by, religion has also become the basis of conflicts between societies, even within societies. While religion promoted solidarity among societies, it has also been the reason behind the outbreak of particular wars in the history. In this lesson, we will discuss the positive and negative effects of religion, as well as examples of historical events cause primarily by religion.
This is the very reason why the principle of separation of state and religion was established in many countries.
However, religion has served purposes beneficial to society in general. In one way or another, it inspires values that cultivate peace, compassion and kindness. Religion upholds traditions of shaping human spirituality and embracing the goodness in each individual.
religion influence now our culture and society..what does it mean..ganito po yan yun pung religion ay naimpluwensyahan ng kultura at ang ating society na ginagalawan.. nayung religion nagiging basihan kung paano gumagalaw ang society..let me give you example
In India..hindi po nila kinakain ang baka, cows are consirede sacred..yung religion naapektuhan nila ang kultura..hindi nila kinakain etong cow..kasi para sa kanila ay holy ang baka,,dahil pinaniniwalaan nila na ang baka doon nananahan ang gods at goddesses.. Kaya binibihisan nila..
Pag nakapunta kapo sa Islamic countries..di po sila kumakain ng baboy, una madumi at unhealthy..pangalwa.. Biblical history,..na pinaalis ni Jesus ang ang mga demonyo at lumipat ito sa baboy at yung mga baboy ay lumipat sa bangin..another symbol po dian ay yung jalal..parang food beuraue ng mga muslim kapag may tatak nito honor ng muslim at maaring kainin ng muslim
Pananampalataya ng Islam.. Na uri ng pananamit ng mga Muslim sa mga babae..sapagkat itoy bahagi ng community o society ng Mslim..kaya masasabi mo ah eto pala ay lugar ng mga Muslim
Kakag sinabi mo na nakita mo ang larawan na ito papasok sa isip mo kung aware ka ay India..at ang India amy maraming gods at goddeses..kilala sila as Hinduism..picture ng kababaihan…sila ay nakicleansing sa ganges river..holy place kahit polluted naliligo sparin sila..pag nakita mo tong place na eto..ay sa India yan..sapagkat ang Religion po ay nagiging bahagi ng society o ng kultura na naninirahan doon
Pagkakaisa..pagpopromote sa pagkakaisa
Kapag may kasiraan nagsasalita po ang mga religious groups..at sila ay intern..o nagiging dahilan para maitama ang pagkakamali
Kapag hindi natin maunawaan anong sinasabi natin..simplehan lang natin..Lord kayo napo ang bahala..itinataas kopo panginoon..hindi ko man po nauunawaan eto pero sa mata ng paniniwala sa mata ng aking paniniwala nagkakaroon po ng sense ang aking ginagawa
When we believe in God..ang nangyayari sa atin hindi tayo napanghihinaan ng loob
Religion has often been named as the culprit behind divisiveness and conflicts among people. There is also a belief that religion can be dangerous to society when used to advance the interest of a group of people at the expense of the other people especially those with different beliefs. Religious fundamentalism or the demand for a strict adherence to orthodox theological doctrines is often considered as the reason behind most religious conflicts. Some of the negative effects of religion which we will discuss in this lesson are: affirmation of social hierarchy; reason why people fight each other; promotion of discrimination; obstruction of scientific success and development; and hindrance to the use of reason.
In Islam, the practice of wearing the hijab is considered by many critics as a form of suppression against Muslim women. Women have to cover their body, from head to toe, so as not to attract the attention of men—perpetuating the notion that women are temptation that men should avoid
In Palestine, the Jews are in conflict with the Muslims; in Kashmir, it is the Muslims against the Hindu; in Sudan, it is the Muslims opposite Christians and animist; in Sri Lanka, it is the Sinhalese Buddhist against the Tamil Hindus; in Indonesia, it is Muslims contra Timorese Christians.
According to the German philosopher Karl Marx, “religion is the opium if the masses”. This is in relation to his critical approach to religion in which he proposed that the bourgeoisie keeps the proletariat in control through religion. According to Marx, it maintains social in equality by propagating a worldview that justifies oppression. He believed that religion can be effectively used by the ruling class to maintain a social order that is more favorable to them. Whether one is Christian, Jewish, or Muslim, religious teachings justifying one’s acceptance of oppression as a normal part of life on earth and as a means to get an everlasting reward in the afterlife can be seen as a bourgeois tactic to maintain the status quo where they reap more resources and power in society. Thus, in Karl Marx’s conflict theory, the abolition of religion is also needed to liberate the masses to their oppressive state.
Religion-based mortuary practices can also be detrimental to public health and sanitation. For example, during the cholera outbreak in the Philippines in the nineteenth century, the Catholic practice of having the dead body of cholera victims to be brought first to the church for a mass was seen as one reason why the cholera epidemic continued to spread rapidly. Liberal-minded individuals during that time believed it would be much safer and hygienic to immediately bury the dead instead of letting a lot of people be exposed to the dead body by observing religious practices. The same dilemma can also be seen in the outbreak of the Ebola virus in Africa. The Muslim practice of washing the dead’s body by relatives on the same gender is seen as the contributory to rapid spread of the Ebola Virus which can be transmitted through direct contact with the victim.
In some religions in the world, religion has become very influential in almost every aspect of human activity- from personal routines to diplomatic relations. Furthermore, in each country there are majority and minority religious groups and sometimes the power struggle between these two groups escalates into historical development which often time shock the world. Here some of the historical events that are cause by religion.
It is believed to have started among the ruling class or the Rajputs in India, when Rajput burnt themselves to death after their men were defeated in battles to avoid being taken by the conquerors. Later on, it has become a manifestation of wifely devotion. It has been outlawed by the British rulers in 1929 but rare cases still continue to occur. In 2006, a Hindu woman was reported to have sati in Tuslipar Village in the central state of Madhya Pradesh. The woman, whose name was Janakrani, was said to have burnt herself to death on the funeral pyre of her husband Prem Narayan. According to the villagers, after the cremation, the widow told them she had to attend to some work, but when they went looking for her they found her dead on the pyre. Reports said that nobody forced her to commit the act.
The inquisition was a response to a large popular movements in Europe considered heretical or profane to Christianity, particularly Catharism (a Christian dualist movement which espoused the idea of two gods, one being good and other evil) and Waldensians (a Protestant Christian movement which advocate that apostolic poverty is the way to perfection) in Southern France and Southern Italy.