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Dynamical Classes of Collective Attention in Twitter

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Presentation at WWW, held in Lyon, April 2012.

Micro-blogging systems such as Twitter expose digital traces of social discourse with an unprecedented degree of resolution of individual behaviors. They offer an opportunity to investigate how a large-scale social system responds to exogenous or endogenous stimuli, and to disentangle the temporal, spatial and topical aspects of users’ activity. Here we focus on spikes of collective attention in Twitter, and specifically on peaks in the popularity of hashtags. Users employ hashtags as a form of social annotation, to define a shared context for a specific event, topic, or meme. We analyze a large-scale record of Twitter activity and find that the evolution of hashtag popularity over time defines discrete classes of hashtags. We link these dynamical classes to the events the hashtags represent and use text mining techniques to provide a semantic characterization of the hashtag classes. Moreover, we track the propagation of hashtags in the Twitter social network and find that epidemic spreading plays a minor role in hashtag popularity, which is mostly driven by exogenous factors.

This work was done in collaboration with Bruno Gonçalves, Jose J. Ramasco, and Ciro Cattuto.

Veröffentlicht in: Daten & Analysen
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Dynamical Classes of Collective Attention in Twitter

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  3. 3. EF7G/B) •  9"+$8#& •  :;<1=$>?@"+& •  :;A$)0B1.C5A5D11C5E-31#& Motivation !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& @,$#A3&B>CD=ED<=><F& #"#$%
  4. 4. EF7G/B) •  9"+$8#& •  :;<1=$>?@"+& •  :;A$)0B1.C5A5D11C5E-31#& Motivation !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& H$DEDI/) •  D17&;A&F$$.0&61&B$..&;#0A"G8")& F18&5&9,..,1#&*1.."80& •  6E?"-&D1.1G8")&FE..& H$8218)"#-$&/1"-($.."& @,$#A3&B>CD=ED<=><F& H'0$$J) •  .")I18G(,#,&1#&J8$& •  K$##,2$8&"#,0A1#& $"#$%
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  11. 11. Activity Peak Detection !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& #/,0$-& +',')<$DB6/& LM&N."-(10O&/M&L$$=O&& PM&N"G$#"O&"#C&*M&@E#1?E.10& QRSSTU& • &V18)".,W$C&*,0-8$A$&F1E8,$8&68"#0218)& • &L14,#G&"4$8"G$& LBV&XE$8+&.1G0& YM&/8"#$&"#C&*M&B18#$%$& QRSSZU& • &H17$8&."7&C,0A8,IE31#& • &H1,001#&?81-$00& [1E6EI$&4,C$10& !M&["#G&"#C&!M&'$0=14$-&& QRSU& • &B,),."8,A+&)$A8,-& • &]^B?$-A8".&/$#A81,C&-.E0A$8,#G&".G18,A()& • &H8$C,-34$&)1C$.& 67,%$8&& V$70&"83-.$0& 9.1G&?10A0& UB$I1/.<L) !  /1)?EA"31#".&-1)?.$_,A+&218&."8G$^0-".$&C"A"&"#".+0,0& !  /"##1A&-"?AE8$&"..&"-34,A+&?81J.$0&,#&67,%$8& !  67,%$8&8$"-A0&,#&0$-1#C0`),#EA$0&"#C&,#-.EC$0&"#3-,?"31#& --"#$%
  12. 12. Activity Timelines & Peaks !  U/'9L)B/1'%&/)'6%&7,3),$)I'</17(/) 0'&/),$)I/)!V)%./<)1'B2/B) !  #7(7.'1)1/&/1)$=)'6%&7,3)/M8/6,/-) !  ?/1/6%$()$=)7<$1',/-)8$8D1'B7,3) IDB<,<)W($)$,0/B)8/'9<)$(/)F//9) I/=$B/X'Y/BZ) !  [/)-/,/6,/-)!!>)8/'9<& !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& G$"H& 35!(% ! p(i0) = n(i0) " nb max(nb,10) #10 -!"#$%
  13. 13. Classes of Peaks !  A(&/<%2'%$()7(,$),0/)<0'8/<)$=)8/'9<) !  /=$B/)8/'9L)K(-$2/($D<X/M$2/($D<)6'D</) !  5Y/B)8/'9L)B/1'M'%$()<0'8/) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& -#"#$%
  14. 14. Classes of Peaks !  A(&/<%2'%$()7(,$),0/)<0'8/<)$=)8/'9<) !  /=$B/)8/'9L)K(-$2/($D<X/M$2/($D<)6'D</) !  5Y/B)8/'9L)B/1'M'%$()<0'8/) !  ]'<0,'2)D<'2/)%./17(/)7<)<D..'B7Q/-),$)')))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ,B781/)W=IP)=8P)='Z)B/8B/</(%(2)=B'6%$(<)$=),F//,<))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 8$<,/-)I/=$B/)W34ZP)-DB7(2)W35ZP)'(-)'Y/B)W3)Z) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& ! fb -$"#$%
  15. 15. Classes of Peaks !  A(&/<%2'%$()7(,$),0/)<0'8/<)$=)8/'9<) !  /=$B/)8/'9L)K(-$2/($D<X/M$2/($D<)6'D</) !  5Y/B)8/'9L)B/1'M'%$()<0'8/) !  ]'<0,'2)D<'2/)%./17(/)7<)<D..'B7Q/-),$)')))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ,B781/)W=IP)=8P)='Z)B/8B/</(%(2)=B'6%$(<)$=),F//,<))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 8$<,/-)I/=$B/)W34ZP)-DB7(2)W35ZP)'(-)'Y/B)W3)Z) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& ! fb + fp -&"#$%
  16. 16. Classes of Peaks !  A(&/<%2'%$()7(,$),0/)<0'8/<)$=)8/'9<) !  /=$B/)8/'9L)K(-$2/($D<X/M$2/($D<)6'D</) !  5Y/B)8/'9L)B/1'M'%$()<0'8/) !  ]'<0,'2)D<'2/)%./17(/)7<)<D..'B7Q/-),$)')))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ,B781/)W=IP)=8P)='Z)B/8B/</(%(2)=B'6%$(<)$=),F//,<))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 8$<,/-)I/=$B/)W34ZP)-DB7(2)W35ZP)'(-)'Y/B)W3)Z) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& ! fb + fp + fa =1 -@"#$%
  17. 17. Classes of Peaks !  A(&/<%2'%$()7(,$),0/)<0'8/<)$=)8/'9<) !  /=$B/)8/'9L)K(-$2/($D<X/M$2/($D<)6'D</) !  5Y/B)8/'9L)B/1'M'%$()<0'8/) !  ]'<0,'2)D<'2/)%./17(/)7<)<D..'B7Q/-),$)')))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ,B781/)W=IP)=8P)='Z)B/8B/</(%(2)=B'6%$(<)$=),F//,<))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 8$<,/-)I/=$B/)W34ZP)-DB7(2)W35ZP)'(-)'Y/B)W3)Z) !  ;1D<,/B7(2)D<7(2)K#)'12$B7,0.)F7,0)'()$8%.'1)^'D<<7'().7M,DB/) .$-/1) !  [/)=$D(-):)61D<,/B<)W($")61D<,/B<)</,)I3)6B$<<O&'17-'%$()'(-)A;Z) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& ! fb + fp + fa =1 -1"#$%
  18. 18. Classes of Peaks !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& !  ;1'<<7R6'%$()B$ID<,(/<<& !  aab&12&A($&("0(A"G0&("4$&"&-."00,J-"31#&E#-$8A",#A+&I$.17&cb& !  db&12&A($)&("4$&"&-."00,J-"31#&E#-$8A",#A+&,#&$_-$00&12&RSb& -/"#$%
  19. 19. Classes of Peaks !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& 0% peak(fp =0) 0% before(f b=0) 0% after (fa = 0) 100% peak 100% befor 100% after swineflu h1n1 sxswi easter teaparty advertising mastersnfl earthhour twestival plurkfirstfollow mrtweet cebit bsg cricket google hadopi inaug09 drupalcon coalition geekw2e humor davos watchmen job house mikeyy superbowl gfail blackout oscar snowmageddon nsotu zombies rp09 brand skittles phish ces09 socialmedia winnenden peace macheist earthday amazonfail fridayfollow aprilfools -2"#$%
  20. 20. Classes of Peaks !  5(%678',$B3)I/0'&7$B) !  A(6B/'<7(2)'.$D(,)$=),F//,<)D(%1),0/)/&/(,) !  ?0'B8)-B$8)$=)'G/(%$()'Y/B),0/)/&/(,) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& 0% peak(fp =0) 0% before(f b=0) 0% after (fa = 0) 100% peak 100% befo 100% after swineflu h1n1 sxswi easter teaparty advertising mastersnfl earthhour twestival plurkfirstfollow mrtweet cebit bsg cricket google hadopi inaug09 drupalcon coalition geekw2e humor davos watchmen job house mikeyy superbowl gfail blackout oscar snowmageddon nsotu zombies rp09 brand skittles phish ces09 socialmedia winnenden peace macheist earthday amazonfail fridayfollow aprilfools !."#$%
  21. 21. Classes of Peaks !  5(%678',$B3)I/0'&7$B) !  A(6B/'<7(2)'.$D(,)$=),F//,<)D(%1),0/)/&/(,) !  ?0'B8)-B$8)$=)'G/(%$()'Y/B),0/)/&/(,) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& 0% peak(fp =0) 0% before(f b=0) 0% after (fa = 0) 100% peak 100% befo 100% after swineflu h1n1 sxswi easter teaparty advertising mastersnfl earthhour twestival plurkfirstfollow mrtweet cebit bsg cricket google hadopi inaug09 drupalcon coalition geekw2e humor davos watchmen job house mikeyy superbowl gfail blackout oscar snowmageddon nsotu zombies rp09 brand skittles phish ces09 socialmedia winnenden peace macheist earthday amazonfail fridayfollow aprilfools !  _/'6%&/)I/0'&7$B) !  ?D--/()$(</,)$=)'6%&7,3& !  +B7&/()I3)/M$2/($D<)<$DB6/<) !-"#$%
  22. 22. Classes of Peaks !  5(%678',$B3)I/0'&7$B) !  A(6B/'<7(2)'.$D(,)$=),F//,<)D(%1),0/)/&/(,) !  ?0'B8)-B$8)$=)'G/(%$()'Y/B),0/)/&/(,) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& 0% peak(fp =0) 0% before(f b=0) 0% after (fa = 0) 100% peak 100% befo 100% after swineflu h1n1 sxswi easter teaparty advertising mastersnfl earthhour twestival plurkfirstfollow mrtweet cebit bsg cricket google hadopi inaug09 drupalcon coalition geekw2e humor davos watchmen job house mikeyy superbowl gfail blackout oscar snowmageddon nsotu zombies rp09 brand skittles phish ces09 socialmedia winnenden peace macheist earthday amazonfail fridayfollow aprilfools !  _/'6%&/)I/0'&7$B) !  ?D--/()$(</,)$=)'6%&7,3& !  +B7&/()I3)/M$2/($D<)<$DB6/<) !  56%&7,3)6$(6/(,B',/-)$(),0/)8/'9)-'3) !  K&/(,<),0',)$(13)-7<6D<</-)F071/)))))))))) ,0/3)0'88/() !!"#$%
  23. 23. Classes of Peaks !  5(%678',$B3)I/0'&7$B) !  A(6B/'<7(2)'.$D(,)$=),F//,<)D(%1),0/)/&/(,) !  ?0'B8)-B$8)$=)'G/(%$()'Y/B),0/)/&/(,) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& 0% peak(fp =0) 0% before(f b=0) 0% after (fa = 0) 100% peak 100% befo 100% after swineflu h1n1 sxswi easter teaparty advertising mastersnfl earthhour twestival plurkfirstfollow mrtweet cebit bsg cricket google hadopi inaug09 drupalcon coalition geekw2e humor davos watchmen job house mikeyy superbowl gfail blackout oscar snowmageddon nsotu zombies rp09 brand skittles phish ces09 socialmedia winnenden peace macheist earthday amazonfail fridayfollow aprilfools !  _/'6%&/)I/0'&7$B) !  ?D--/()$(</,)$=)'6%&7,3& !  +B7&/()I3)/M$2/($D<)<$DB6/<) !  56%&7,3)6$(6/(,B',/-)$(),0/)8/'9)-'3) !  K&/(,<),0',)$(13)-7<6D<</-)F071/)))))))))) ,0/3)0'88/() !  ;$11/6%&/)'G/(%$()ID71-<)D8),$)')8/'9P))) ,0/()7,)='-/<)$D,) !#"#$%
  24. 24. Social Semantics !  5('13Q7(2)</.'(%6)-7S/B/(6/<)$=)8/'9)61'<</<) [$B-`/,)^B$D(-7(2) !  [/)=$D(-)!aPVVV)-7<%(6,)6$(6/8,<) !  [$B-`/,)8B$&7-/<)07/B'B6076'1)<,BD6,DB/<)$=)))))))))))))))))))) 6$(6/8,<) !  #'887(2),0/)-/,/6,/-)6$(6/8,<),$)6$(6/8,<))))))))))))))))))))))))))',) ',)-/8,0):) !  E0/)'8817/-)</.'(%6)2B$D(-7(2)7<)W,$$Z)<7.81/P)ID,)27&/<)') RB<,)7(<720,)7(),0/)</.'(%6)-7S/B/(6/<)$=),0/)8/'9)61'<</<) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& EF//,)6$(,/(,) _/.$&7(2)D</B)./(%$(<P) b_c<P)K(217<0)<,$8)F$B-<) ?,/..7(2P)1/..'%Q'%$() [$B-`/,)<3(</,)-/,/6%$() c'(2D'2/)-/,/6%$() EF//,)6$(6/8,<) !$"#$%
  25. 25. Social Semantics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
  26. 26. Social Semantics /=$B/)8/'9) !  !"#$%&'()*)+,"-.(!/0)(1)2%#3-( !  ?$67'1)'(%678'%$()$=)')9($F()/&/(,) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& !@"#$%
  27. 27. Social Semantics /=$B/)8/'9) !  !"#$%&'()*)+,"-.(!/0)(1)2%#3-( !  ?$67'1)'(%678'%$()$=)')9($F()/&/(,) 5Y/B)8/'9) !  !42))-.(!)*%3)+$)-( !  #'B9/%(2)/&/(,<) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& !1"#$%
  28. 28. Social Semantics /=$B/)8/'9) !  !"#$%&'()*)+,"-.(!/0)(1)2%#3-( !  ?$67'1)'(%678'%$()$=)')9($F()/&/(,) 5Y/B)8/'9) !  !42))-.(!)*%3)+$)-( !  #'B9/%(2)/&/(,<) U/'9) !  !"506#'-( !  ?8$B,P)./-7')/&/(,<) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& !/"#$%
  29. 29. Social Semantics /=$B/)8/'9) !  !"#$%&'()*)+,"-.(!/0)(1)2%#3-( !  ?$67'1)'(%678'%$()$=)')9($F()/&/(,) 5Y/B)8/'9) !  !42))-.(!)*%3)+$)-( !  #'B9/%(2)/&/(,<) U/'9) !  !"506#'-( !  ?8$B,P)./-7')/&/(,<) ?3../,B76) !  !$#+3%/#+-.(!#27&+%8&/#+-( ! 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
  30. 30. Information Spreading !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& !  5('13Q7(2)7(=$B.'%$()<8B/'-7(2)$=),0/)8/'9)61'<</<) !  A(=$B.'%$()<8B/'-7(2)7<).$-/1/-)'<)'()/87-/.76)8B$6/<<) !  '</-)$()=$11$F/B)(/,F$B9)$=)EF7G/B) !  A(=/6%$()) )d)8$<%(2)'),F//,),0',)6$(,'7(<),0/)0'<0,'2) !  A(=/6%$D<)8/B7$-) )d)%./)<8'()=B$.),0/)RB<,),$),0/)1'<,),F//,)6$(,'7(7(2),0/)))))))) ) ) ))))0'<0,'2) !  A(=/6%$()<$DB6/) )d)7(,/B('1)W=$11$F/B)(/,F$B9Z)$B)/M,/B('1) e&f&JCA(E6*+I7C(77%%%%%%%%%%g&^&F8"-31#&12&0$$C$80&&&&&&&&&&h&f&;#2$-31E0&?$8,1C& #."#$%
  31. 31. Information Spreading !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& `$)7(=$B.'%$()<8B/'-7(2)7()EF7G/B) -/,/6,/-J) !  eB'6%$()$=)B/,F//,<)0720/B)=$B)<3../,B76)8/'9)<0'8/) !  K(-$2/($D<)/&/(,)WB/13)$()/87-/.76)<8B/'-7(2Z) !  6'-/8/(-<)($,)$()61'<</<) !  f)0720)7()'11)61'<</<)!)/M$2/($D<)='6,$B<) !  7'-/8/(-<)$()8/'9)<0'8/) e&f&JCA(E6*+I7C(77&&&g&^&L)<E6*+C%+A%7((,()7%%%h&f&;#2$-31E0&?$8,1C& #-"#$%
  32. 32. Summary !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& +/<6B78%$(& KM'.81/<& 9$218$&?$"=& • &5#3-,?"A$C`$_?$-A$C&$4$#A0& • &B-($CE.$C&01-,".&$4$#A0& :$"0A$8& :$"8A((1E8& :0_07,& 5i$8&?$"=& • &BE8?8,0,#G&$4$#A0O&-"A"0A81?($0& • &L"8=$3#G&-")?",G#0& • &j_1G$#1E0& :")"W1#2",.& :)"-($,0A&&&&&& :28$$& H$"=& • &F"0A&,#218)"31#&0?8$"C,#G& • &6$)?18"8+&C,08E?31#0O&1EA"G$0& • &j_1G$#1E0`$#C1G$#1E0& :10-"8& :0E?$8I17.& :G2",.& B+))$A8,-& • &L18$&-1#4$80"31#".& • &/1#4$#31#0& • &j#C1G$#1E0& :-$I,A& :I0G& :C"410& #!"#$%
  33. 33. Summary !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& !  A-/(%R6'%$()$=):)-7<6B/,/)8/'9)61'<</<)F7,0) -7S/B/(,)</.'(%6)R(2/B8B7(,<)'(-)7(=$B.'%$() <8B/'-7(2)I/0'&7$B<) !  588B$'60),$)-/,/6,)8/'9)61'<</<)7<)<7.81/P)B$ID<,) '(-)6'()I/)7.81/./(,/-)7()')<6'1'I1/)='<07$() !  A.8B$&7(2),0/)</.'(%6)'('13<7<)7(),0/)=D,DB/))))))) W/"2")</(%./(,)'('13<7<P)6B$F-O<$DB6/-)/&'1D'%$(Z) !  K87-/.76)8B$8'2'%$()'88/'B<),$)81'3)').7($B)B$1/) ##"#$%
  34. 34. Thank you •  g'(/G/)c/0.'(( ) )N'(/G/"1/0.'(V!h/<,D-7'(,"D8="/-D) •  BD($)^$(i'1&/< ) )I"2$(6'1&/<h(/D"/-D) •  g$<j)g")_'.'<6$ ) )NB'.'<6$h7R<6"D7I"/<) •  ;7B$);'GD,$ ) )67B$"6'GD,$h7<7"7,) !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& #$"#$%
  35. 35. References !  M%N)<C(%<C,%O%G+)C(66(8%M+PI76%,QC<H*E%EB<77(7%)(R(<B(,%PQ%H(<7I)*C=%6:(% )(7K+C7(%AICE6*+C%+A%<%7+E*<B%7Q76(H8%'STGU%-.&V-&@$2U%!../8% !  W8%X<C=%<C,%W8%Y(7D+R(E8%'<66()C7%+A%6(HK+)<B%R<)*<6*+C%*C%+CB*C(%H(,*<8%JC%')+E8%+A% 6:(%A+I)6:%TN9%*C6()C<6*+C<B%E+CA()(CE(%+C%Z(P%7(<)E:%<C,%,<6<%H*C*C=U%K<=(7% -110-/@U%!.--8% !  98%[B<E:+7U%N8%9((DU%8%[<=(C<U%<C,%O8%]IC+KIB+78%J,(C6*AQ*C=%7*H*B<)*6*(7U% K()*+,*E*6*(7%<C,%PI)767%A+)%+CB*C(%7(<)E:%^I()*(78%JC%')+E8%!..$%TN9%GJ]9_O% *C6()C<6*+C<B%E+CA()(CE(%+C%9<C<=(H(C6%+A%,<6<U%K<=(7%-#-0-$!U%!..$8% !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& #&"#$%
  36. 36. All Hashtags !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& #@"#$%
  37. 37. Semantic Grounding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`a"[",2 @;-b)3,"c"ZBd &(-/9(/%: ;-/&*$7 9$%"&(-/9(/% *1%-)*0*6()*,- *$";-/&*$7" ,-%",0")7%"O,$$*T&%" &(-/9(/%$ $(<%")%2'$ 1,-=)"$(<% )%2'$ !  c'(2D'2/)-/,/6%$()D<7(2)E/M,;',& #1"#$%
  38. 38. Hashtag Statistics !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& !"#$%&'()'"*%&* +,- !"# !"$ !"! !"!%%%%%%%%%%!"$%%%%%%%%%!"# #""%&'()' !"#$%&'()'+.%%+* +,- !"# !"$ !"! !"!%%%%%%%%%%!"$%%%%%%%%%!"# '*'+ '*,-(./& 0.1,/ 2(13( *14356(- -'74& *,--(-8(- 61'4()' #/"#$%
  39. 39. Hashtag Similarities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
  40. 40. WordNet Tree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
  41. 41. A Week on the Web !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& H$DEDI/)k#'B)>P)*V!*l) ]kV[&RSR&J.)`-")?",G#&I+&;#4,0,I.$&/(,.C8$#&"G",#0A&A($&$4,.& ?8"-3-$0&12&A($&>G"#C"#&7"8&.18C&!10$?(&]1#+M& 8)&'9' $-"#$%
  42. 42. #'B60)CL) [1E6EI$l&mSL& N,)$1l&ZMRL& A Week on the Web !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& H$DEDI/)k#'B)>P)*V!*l) ]kV[&RSR&J.)`-")?",G#&I+&;#4,0,I.$&/(,.C8$#&"G",#0A&A($&$4,.& ?8"-3-$0&12&A($&>G"#C"#&7"8&.18C&!10$?(&]1#+M& EF7G/B)k#'B)CP)*V!*l) &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&nH814$&+1Eo8$&"&(E)"#p&B65V*&>H&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&FkY&<D56oB&Y;@D6M&:B6kH]kV[n& 8)&'9' 8)&'9' $!"#$%
  43. 43. A Week on the Web !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& $#"#$%
  44. 44. #'B60)CL) [1E6EI$l&mSL& N,)$1l&ZMRL& A Week on the Web !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& H$DEDI/)k#'B)>P)*V!*l) ]kV[&RSR&J.)`-")?",G#&I+&;#4,0,I.$&/(,.C8$#&"G",#0A&A($&$4,.& ?8"-3-$0&12&A($&>G"#C"#&7"8&.18C&!10$?(&]1#+M& EF7G/B)k#'B)CP)*V!*l) &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&nH814$&+1Eo8$&"&(E)"#p&B65V*&>H&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&FkY&<D56oB&Y;@D6M&:B6kH]kV[n& [7978/-7') H'0$$J)^$$21/) `/F<) 8)&'9' 8)&'9' 8)&'9' 8)&'9' 8)&':' 8)&';' #$<,)<D66/<<=D1)&7B'1)6'.8'72()/&/B)1'D(60/-)$(17(/J& $$"#$%
  45. 45. About myself !  #'<,/B)7();$.8D,/B)?67/(6/)',),0/)b(7&/B<7,3)$=)U$,<-'.P)^/B.'(3) !  9%:%1)3%&.(;)<,(=%+%+7( !  _/</'B60)'<<7<,'(,)7()A?AP)EDB7(P)A,'13) !  ;>%?)2.(9%:%1)3%&( !  U0+)',)bUe)'(-)H'0$$J)_/</'B60P)'B6/1$(') !  @")2()+7&7)0)+,( !"#$%$&'$()"##&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&*+#"),-".&/."00$0&12&/1..$-34$&5%$#31#&,#&67,%$8& $&"#$%

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