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Green-Sustainable Cities -.

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Cities remains unique, universal and complex , invariably evolving, devolving, never finite and never defined. Cities create prosperity, poverty, employment, dichotomy and contradictions. Cities are said to be the future of humanity, but cities are also the reason for climate change, global warming , larger carbon footprints and rising temperature - making cities unsafe- both to the natural and manmade disasters. Making cities sustainable remains a challenge, opportunity, mirage and dream. Heading towards uncontrolled urbanisation, cities are pushing humanity into crisis- crisis of population, crisis of poverty and crisis of pollution. Cities remain anti-thesis to sustainability. Cities don't believe in inclusion and cities dies not treat majority of its inhabitants with respect and dignity -providing basic amenities of life to lead a dignified life. Making cities rational, humane, safe , inclusive, livable and sustainable will remain the greatest challenge on the planet earth.

Cities remains unique, universal and complex , invariably evolving, devolving, never finite and never defined. Cities create prosperity, poverty, employment, dichotomy and contradictions. Cities are said to be the future of humanity, but cities are also the reason for climate change, global warming , larger carbon footprints and rising temperature - making cities unsafe- both to the natural and manmade disasters. Making cities sustainable remains a challenge, opportunity, mirage and dream. Heading towards uncontrolled urbanisation, cities are pushing humanity into crisis- crisis of population, crisis of poverty and crisis of pollution. Cities remain anti-thesis to sustainability. Cities don't believe in inclusion and cities dies not treat majority of its inhabitants with respect and dignity -providing basic amenities of life to lead a dignified life. Making cities rational, humane, safe , inclusive, livable and sustainable will remain the greatest challenge on the planet earth.


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Green-Sustainable Cities -.

  1. 1. Cities impacting Nature Ar. J.K.GUPTA, Email---- jit.kumar1944@gmail.com, Mob- 90410-26414
  2. 2. Hierarchy of Human Settlements
  3. 3. Global Context of Cities
  4. 4. Cities and their Context • Cities have been part of human history. • - Cities- known to command power and authority • Cities -- known for their dualities and contradictions. • Cities- known for both -- positivities and negativities • Cities -- known to be areas of concentration of population/ activities, infrastructures, services, healthcare, education • Cities -- known to be Engines of economic growth-70% • Cities - generators of employment , wealth and prosperity, • Cities – also known for their negativities, • Cities – large consumers of resources/energy/ land • Cities- generators of 70% waste;-- consume 60% global energy - generating 70% of carbon footprints • --98% /56% cities in low& middle/high income economies - do not meet air quality WHO norms Cities- remain a manmade , mechanical habitat • Cities- destroy natural habitat-anti-thesis to bio-diversity • Cities- known to be creator of best/ worst living conditions • cities – house both rich and poor
  5. 5. Cities and their Context • Cities- home to large migrants • Cities- home to slums • Cities- remain in crisis- both -natural and manmade • Crisis-- of population, poverty, pollution • Cities – always evolving and devolving, never static/finite • Cities – to dominate & define future growth/ development • Cities- drivers/definers of nation’s future • Cities - largely responsible for climate change ,global warming, manmade disasters etc- • However Cities - need rationalization • Cities --need to be made – clean, green, nature friendly; bio-diverse; productive, effective, efficient, humane, • - inclusive, safe, Resilient ,sustainable, Healthy place to live /work
  6. 6. Indian Urbanization • 250 million in 1919 • 1210 million in 2011 • 2050- Indian population- 1600 mil. -- 50% in Urban India. • Metropolitan Centres -5 (1951)- -53 (2011)- 68(2031) • 10 m plus- nil (1951)- 3 (2011) -7 (2031)-9 (2051) • During last 100 years, India witnessed— - -Urbanization level going up by 3 times - --Urban settlements growing merely 4 times - --Total Population multiplying 5 times - -Urban population increasing 15 times and - -Rural population increasing 3.5 times - India heading to be most populated country on this planet-2023
  7. 7. URBAN INDIA- 2030- Mckinsey Global Inst- • India Urban Awakening :Building Inclusive Cities- Report- April, 2010 -- by 2030: • 590 m -- to live in Urban India- twice US population • 70% GDP --generated by cities • 80% -- Revenue generated by cities • 4 fold increase-- in per capita income • 5 times --number by which GDP would multiply • 270 million -- net increase in working age group • 70% --of new jobs(170 mil) generated in cities • 91 M-- urban households will be middle class-- up from 22 M • 68 Cities-- will be Metropolises-Europe has 35 only • $ 1.2T --capital needed to meet projected infrastructure demand • 700-900 million Sqmts. --of residential/ commercial area needed annually- a new Chicago to be created • 2.5 b Sqmts. --roads paved-20times created in last decade • 7400km (350-400 km/year) - of metro needed • -20times created in last decade • 200 million-- Rural Indians to benefit-living close to top 70 cities • 75%urban India-- to live in bottom segment -earning Rs 80 per day
  8. 8. Threats Posed by Cities/Urban Development • Intensive urban growth and large urban population leads to; • -- greater poverty, • - inability to services all people basic amenities/services/ housing • - promoting Concentrated energy use- increasing energy demand - • -- greater air pollution - adversely impact human health. • - Large scale Automobile exhaust -- elevated lead levels in urban air. • -- Large volumes of uncollected waste • - Magnifying risk of environmental hazards • -- flash flooding. • -- loss of habitat for animals- flora /fauna • - Adversely impacting bio-diversity- -- loss of trees- open spaces • - Creating Heat Island- Raising Temperature- Global warming • -- Promoting Green House Gas emission- Climate Change • - Intensive use of water- Polluting water/water resources • - Promoting largescale mechanical mobility Congestion /pollution/accidents • - Making cities prone to disasters- unsafe- natural/manmade
  9. 9. Urban Sprawl eating into wildlife Habitat
  10. 10. Impact of Global Warming
  11. 11. BUILDINGS AS CONSUMERS OF RESOURCES •Built environment impact environment / consumption of resources: 16% of world’s fresh water withdrawal. 25% of wood harvested. 30% of consumption of raw material. 50% of global energy consumption. 35% of world’s CO2 emission 40% of Municipal solid waste. 50% of Ozone depleting CFC’s still in use. 30% of the residents having sick building syndrome ( Roodman and Lenssen, 1995) •70% global warming--outcome of buildings / transportation •Buildings planned, designed and operated with utmost care for considerations--- energy/ sustainability/resources
  12. 12. •Air Pollution- Transport Sector
  13. 13. ISSUES:--Heterogeneous Traffic •increasing individual vehicle ownership; •low road capacity; poor road geometry; •large obsolete vehicular population; • inefficient/ inadequate public transportation; • high degree of environmental pollution; • low priority for traffic planning; ; •Low priority to bicycles/pedestrians • poor traffic management; • mismatch between vehicle density/ road capacity; •multiplicity of agencies involved • absence of unified traffic regulatory authority; • acute problems of parking; •high rates of accidents etc. TRANSPORTATION SCENARIO IN INDIA
  15. 15. Water Pollution
  16. 16. Water Pollution
  17. 17. Water Pollution
  18. 18. Urban Heat Islands- Causes, Effects • “urban heat island” -- cities get much warmer than their surrounding rural landscapes, particularly during summer.-- when cities’ unshaded roads / buildings gain heat during day and radiate heat into surrounding air. • urban core mid-afternoon temp. 15°F - 20°F warmer than surrounding, vegetated areas. • Causes • Cities create their own microclimates -because they greatly alter local landscape. • More Urbanization- more intensity of development- large/High Rise- Buildings • - Higher travel-- more cars • -- Pattern of city planning, development • Effects • Higher Deaths--Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates --annual rate of heat-related deaths per 100,000 population is 0.3 in large central metro areas – • -increased health risk --of respiratory illnesses, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, heat-related mortality. • increase energy consumption- needed to air condition homes and
  19. 19. Urban Heat Island Effect- Rising Temp.
  20. 20. Urban Heat Island Effect- Rising Temp.
  21. 21. Urban Flooding • Definition- Urban Flooding--Is the inundation of property in a built environment, particularly in more densely populated areas, caused by rain falling on increased amounts of impervious surfaces and overwhelming the capacity of drainage systems • Reasons; • High Intensity/prolonge Rainfall • inadequate drainage • Blocking the natural water channels or rivers;- human encroachments onto the active flood channel • Converting farmland, vegetation cover, and bare soil built-up areas. • runs off from concrete structures- increase in impermeable surfaces and urban development, • Increase in changing climate/ Rising Temperature • Location- coastal cities exposed to coastal floods • poor flood management strategies, • lack of flood early warning system disposal of solid waste in drainage lines.
  22. 22. Urban Flooding
  23. 23. Urban Flooding
  24. 24. Urban Flooding
  25. 25. Urban Flooding
  26. 26. AIR Pollution
  27. 27. Industrial Pollution
  28. 28. Thermal Plant Pollution
  29. 29. Industrial Pollution
  30. 30. Human wiped off 2/3rd of wild life in last 50 years
  31. 31. Urbanisation impacting Nature
  32. 32. Open Spaces
  33. 33. Global- Tree Count
  34. 34. Urbanization-issues
  35. 35. Defining Green Cities • Best described as cities which are planned to; • - focus on sustainability and eco-friendliness, • - responding to climate change • providing-- resources, partnerships and • --a platform to lessen its environmental impact. • -- reduce waste, - expand recycling, • --lower emissions, • -- increase housing density, • --while also expanding open space, and • --encouraging development of sustainable local businesses. • --creating denser, greener and more liveable cities.
  36. 36. Options for Making cities-Nature supportive
  37. 37. SDG 11- Make cities and human settlements inclusive ,safe, resilient and sustainable
  38. 38. SDG Targets • 11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services, and upgrade slums • 11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons • 11.3 By 2030 enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacities for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries • 11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage • 11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of affected people and decrease by y% the economic losses relative to GDP caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with the focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
  39. 39. SDG Targets • 11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality, municipal and other waste management • 11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, particularly for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities • 11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning • 11.b By 2020, increase by x% the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, develop and implement in line with the forthcoming Hyogo Framework holistic disaster risk management at all levels • 11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, for sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials
  40. 40. New Planning/Development Agenda - --Reviewing planning tool - New order of planning -to focus on Regional Planning: - -for Synergizing urban and rural areas --Making cities compact -- Making cities energy efficient --Planning cities for bio-diversity – -- Avoiding Urban Sprawl -- Stopping melting of cities – - Empowering/capacity building of villages – making them productive and self-sufficient in daily needs.. -- reducing carbon footprints – - Reducing global warming
  41. 41. Regional Planning- NCR
  42. 42. Making cities Great Places to Live • Sustainable Visioning • Promoting State of art Planned Development • Weaving nature with development • Making cities Compact • --Making cities Inclusive--Making Cities Safe • --Leveraging Technology • Making cities Green/blue - Leveraging landscape/water • -Leveraging Culture, Heritage, Art / Architecture • -Creating Quality Public Spaces • -Designing low energy Buildings • -Making cities community/people centric-Creating ownership for city • Reconnecting cities to food productivity • - integrating agriculture into cities through holistic architecture- Making Cities Spongy- keeping large area open/ promote water harvesting--ground water charging/reducing flooding • Making informal sector- integral part of planning/develop.
  43. 43. CO BS WO RKING LIVING CIRCULATIO N • The Radiant City •An organism capable of housing the works of man of machine-age society. • placed under the masterful government of natural conditions: •Sun •Space •Greenery •And its mission is the service of mankind: •To live •To work •To cultivate body and spirit •To travel about (in this order and obeying this hierarchy)
  44. 44. Making Cities Green • Green Cities approach to involve ;- urban renewal, green field and retrofitting program - focussed on -Embedding nature integral part of – Urban Planning, designing, developing cities to make cities-- - Nature friendly / Supportive of nature/ Value addition to nature • Preserving /protecting- flora fauna-Promoting Bio-diversity • -Using Natural/green sources of Energy • - Making cities people centric – -- providing basic amenities/ assured quality of life - Having Living supported- by Green Built Environment - -with mobility based on Green Transport • Promoting safety/inclusiveness/resilience /sustainability • To create cities- Land efficient; Energy efficient; Water efficient- Resource efficient; Zero Waste ; Zero Carbon; Zero GHGE Environment Friendly; Eco-Sensitive
  45. 45. PLANNING COMPACT CITIES Make cities compact by; – promoting High-density development -- adopting Transit oriented development -- Raising Height and -Rationalizing land uses / Building bye-laws -Building inside not outside --- Building vertical not horizontal --- Building High not low --- Building mix not pure ---Building dense not shallow ----- optimizing current infrastructure. .
  46. 46. COMPACT CITY
  47. 47. Curitiba's BRT corridors run along high-density developed area
  48. 48. Making cities low carbon • – by making cities compact • --Planning and designing Green buildings • --Promoting Green Transport • – Retrofitting existing buildings - make existing buildings green • -- Bringing nature into cities • -- Reusing existing materials- C&D • - Reduction of Green House Gases • - Decoupling economic growth from carbon emission • - Using green energy • --Designing with nature and using natural elements
  49. 49. Creating Zero- Waste Cities • Making City planning /development based on; • -- Optimisation of available resources • - Making waste integral part of city planning/ development process • -- Planning for zero waste • -Recycling all waste • --Converting waste to compost • - Using waste for constructing buildings • -- Using waste for constructing infrastructure • -- Generating Energy from waste--sewerage network • - Creating systems for reinventing use of waste. • - Promoting R&D for valuing waste
  50. 50. Healthy & Resilient City --Reducing urban temperature/heat island- • -- planting more trees • -- providing large green area • --reducing hard paving • -- Making Cities Spongy- keeping large area open/ - - promote Rain water harvesting • --Promoting ground water charging • --reducing flooding • Designing Green Buildings- • Making informal sector- making them integral part of planning/ designing cities
  51. 51. Green City of World –Musdar – Abu Dhabi-UAE  A city of 50,000population  City of no cars , no waste Planned to make use of cool sea winds Using solar energy on rooftop Narrow streets shading houses Total recycling of waste/water  working/ living area-- not farther than200 mts from transportation nodes. Electric powered light rail on elevated track to permit easy transport between Musdar and Abu Dhabi. •for Intra-city travel people use personal rapid transit pods (PRT) run on magnetic tracks using electric power. •Aim is to create: Zero Carbon Zero Waste Zero Car city
  52. 52. TIANJIN- Master Plan .. 1. Land-use Planning –Making city compact—providing mix land uses – promting Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) 2. 2. Transport Planning -Green transport .—Large trips via public transport ; bicycles and walking 3. Green and Blue Network Planning---extensive green (vegetation) and blue (water) networks – for quality living /working environment. 4. Water bodies --linked for circulation – enhancing ecology , environment , recreational activities. 5. A wastewater pond -rehabilitated /transformed into a clean/beautiful lake.
  54. 54. Transportation- Options • Minimize travel- Making cities compact- • Planning for mixed land-use/ TOD • Changing priority for travel- • Planning for People-- not for vehicles • Promoting Accessibility-- Not Mobility • Promoting Cycling • Promoting Mass Transportation • Pricing Roads • Making Equitable allocation of road space
  55. 55. Defining Sustainable Transport • Sustainable Transport -- • -- sometimes known as Green Transport • -- form of transport that does not use / rely on dwindling natural resources. • -- relies on renewable /regenerated energy • -- rather than fossil fuels that have a finite life expectancy
  56. 56. •Promoting use of Bicycle as preferred mode of travel for majority of intra- city travel being :  Most inexpensive  Most flexible  Environmental friendly  Zero pollution  Zero Energy Vehicle  Occupying minimum road space  Requiring minimum Parking Space  Promoting National Economy  Promoting Human Health  Reducing depletion of Non- renewable resources  Best option for travelling over short distance. SMART TRANSPORTATION- CYCLING
  61. 61. Defining- Green Buildings •Buildings can achieve zero carbon by; Adopting Integrated approach to design-Planning with nature, natural elements, Climate, Evolving passive building design,- eliminating using fossil fuel --for heating, cooling /air conditioning • using on-site/off-site renewable energy,Retrofitting Buildings •reducing use of high global warming potential refrigerants
  62. 62. Advantages of Green Buildings
  63. 63. Daylighting Local materials Indian Way of approaching design • Rediscovery of the Indian ethos – We worship 5 elements of Nature (Panchabhutas) Prithvi (Earth) Sustainable Sites Jal (Water) Water Efficiency Agni (Energy) Energy Efficiency Vayu (Air) Indoor Environmental Quality Akash (Sky) Daylight Views Water body
  64. 64. Bahrain World Trade Center - Bahrain • Generating 15% energy from windmills • Two 240 meter twin sky scrapers joined by three windmill--, each 3 meters wide, attached to walkways
  66. 66. Godrej Sohrab ji Building- Hyderabad- India’s first platinum rated building
  67. 67. Optimization of water demand Use of water efficient systems Use of recycled water and rainwater harvesting Some cost impact Highest cost impact Least cost impact Greening City-- strategy for water efficiency
  68. 68. Green Cities--strategy for energy efficiency Reduce energy demand by passive measures Reduce energy demand by active measures Integration of renewable energy Least cost impact Some cost impact Highest cost impact • Climate responsive architectural design • Efficient building envelope • Daylight harvesting • Integration of natural sources for cooling & heating in building design. Offset energy demand from the grid by installing on-site renewable energy • Energy efficient equipment • Lights • Fans • Air- conditioners • Efficient building Operation & Maintenance through BMS (Building Management System) & Smart Metering
  70. 70. Central Park New York- 700 Acs Vaux and Olmsted'
  71. 71. Hyde Park London- 253 Hectare
  72. 72. PERTH- Australia
  73. 73. Chandigarh Master Plan- Le Corbusier
  74. 74. Public housing --Singapore, seven 50-story towers connected by 1,600-foot-recreational “sky garden.” -- high-density development accommodating growth in compact city-state.
  75. 75. Singapore-- Super trees in 250-acre Gardens by Bay. -- High-tech structures range from 80 to 160 feet -- collect solar energy to power a nightly light show. -- trunks are vertical gardens, laced with more than 150,000 living plants.
  76. 76. Today Curitiba boasts > 50 sq metres of green space per person. Buenos Aires’s two sq meters / person
  77. 77. •FUTURE CITIES
  78. 78. Future Cities-Conceptual Ultima Tower- 2Mile High Sky City •Location: Any densely populated urban environment •Date: 1991 •Cost: $150,000,000,000 •Population: 1,000,000 people •Exterior surface area of building: 150,000,000 sft. •Enclosed volume: 53,000,000,000 cubic feet •Total enclosed acreage: 39,000 acres-156 sectors •Elevator speed: 20 feet per second (13 miles per hour) 9 minutes and 40 seconds to reach top floor from ground floor. •Dimensions: Height--10,560 feet; •Diameter at the base--6000 feet; •Number of stories--500; •Total Square Feet: Approximately 5,000,000 sft
  79. 79. Earth Scraper – Mexico City • Location- Mexico City • Depth 300 m below ground • Designed as Inverted Pyramid • Glass floor to cover 240 mtrs X 240 mtrs. hole in cities main square to filter natural light • Preserve the cities historic centre and heritage buildings surrounding square. • Interior of building to look natural. • Building to be city”s top retail destination.
  80. 80. Mile-High Tower- Jeddah, Saudi Arabia • Location Jeddah, Saudi Arabia • Cost US$28.5 billion • Height 1 mile (1,600 m; 5,280 ft) • Floor area 3,530,000 m2 (38,000,000 sft) • Capacity 80,000 people • The tower will have -275 floors • Lobby upto 5 th floor • Offices 6- 50 floors • Five-star hotel &Conference halls 51-75 floors • Deluxe residential units 76-195 floors and • Retail facilities 196-275 floors • Alternate Energy Generation 196-275 floors • Status of project -- Already under construction since 2008
  82. 82. Using Smart Technologies- Implementing IOT- Traffic, Transportation, Urban Planning, managing infrastructures/services, solid waste management, parking, pollutions, payments etc - digital --bus stops- bus schedule, --sensor based garbage bins - Promoting accessibility -Managing Traffic/parking – Managing services Minimizing travel --Tackling noise- Planning cities- Preparing Master Plans/ Development Plans - Making amendment in MP/DP - Monitoring Delivery of services- water supply --Tackling air pollution --creating platform for efficiency--breaking silos -- lodging complaints/ --making payments on line --rendering services on line
  84. 84. Jaimy Learner- Mayor Curitiba- BRTS, TOD, Spongy Cities, SWM
  85. 85. BRTS- Dedicated Bus Lane
  86. 86. Pedestrianizing City Core
  87. 87. Pedestrianizing City Core
  88. 88. Transit Oriented Development
  90. 90. • • Three Mantra for Sustainable/ Inclusive/ Resilient cities 1. Achieve smart growth • -- finding best options to do things sustainably • -- promote economic growth for people – • -- making them earn good livelihood • -- make them enjoy a good quality of life. • 2. Do more with less– • -- cities need money-- to accomplish all wants . • Cities to collect, manage/spend resources effectively/ efficiently • 3. Win support for change- • - City leaders need to;-- deliver fast, positive & visible results, • - build support for changes. • -- Based on high-performing civil servants-- made accountable for their work—Singapore model

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • New buildings must be designed to be climate responsive by appropriate orientation and incorporating shading devices.
    Envelope must be made efficient by using insulation and well sealed windows.