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Module 1 Introduction to Curriculum Development

  1. Lesson 1 Concepts, Nature and Purposes of Curriculum (Curriculum Development) Purita P.Bilbao, Ed.D. Prepared by: IRENO A. ALCALA(SLP-B) Professor: Dr. Alex Navarroza, Ph.D. BISCAST
  2.  Concepts of Curriculum  Different Points of View  Models of Curriculum Development  Types of Curriculum Operating in School
  3. 1. (Narrow Sense) A listing of subjects to be taught in school. 2. (Broader Sense) Total learning experiences of individuals not only in schools but in society as well.  In the Philippines, curricular renewal or reforms were initiated by: a. PCSPE (Phil.Commission to Survey Phil.Education), b. SOUTELE (Survey of the Outcomes of Elementary Education) & c. PCER (Phil.Commission for Educational Reforms).  NCBTS (National Competency-Based Teacher Standards) became the anchor of reforms in education from the basic to higher education.
  4.  1. Traditional –body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn, as in course of study & syllabus. Noted traditionalists: • Robert M. Hutchins – views curriculum as “permanent studies” where the rules of grammar, reading, rhetoric and logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasized. (Basic education should emphasize the 3Rs while college education should be grounded on liberal education.) • Arthur Bestor – as an essentialist, believes that the mission of the school should be intellectual training. It should focus on the fundamental intellectual disciplines of grammar, literature and writing, including mathematics, science, history and foreign language.
  5.  Robert Maynard Hutchins (also Maynard Hutchins) (January 17, 1899 – May 14, 1977), was an American educational philosopher, dean of Yale Law School (1927–1929), and president (1929–1945) and chancellor (1945– 1951) of the University of Chicago. He was the husband of novelist Maude Hutchins.  Arthur Eugene Bestor (1879 – February 3, 1944) was an educator. He served as the President of Chautauqua Institution in Chautauqua, New York from 1915 to his death in 1944
  6. • Joseph Schwab – discipline is the sole source of curriculum.In our education system, it is divided into chunks of knowledge (subject areas in basic education: English,Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and others/in college: humanities,sciences,languages and many more) • Academic discipline became the view of what curriculum is after the cold war and the race to space. • Schwab, a leading curriculum theorist coined the term discipline as a ruling doctrine for curriculum development. It is viewed as field of study, made up of its foundations (philosophical, historical, psychological & social foundations.); domains of knowledge as well as its research theories and principles. • Phenix – curriculum should consist entirely of knowledge which comes from various discipline.  *Curriculum as written documents/plan of action in accomplishing goals.
  7.  Joseph Schwabb(1909-1988) University of Chicago professor of education and natural sciences, Joseph Schwab was the originator of The Practical, a program for educational improvements based on curriculum deliberations.  Dr. Philip H. Phenix, the Arthur I. Gates Professor Emeritus of Philosophy and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University, whose study in the fields of Mathematics, Physics, Theology, Philosophy, and Education informed a lifelong search for final meaning.
  8. 2. Progressive : To a progressivist, a listing of school subjects, syllabi, course of study, and list of courses or specific discipline do not make a curriculum. These can only be called curriculum if the written materials are actualized by the learner. Noted Progressivists: • John Dewey – total learning experiences of the individual/experience and education/believes that reflective thinking is a means that unifies curricular elements. (Thought is not derived from action but tested by application) • Caswell & Campbell – all experiences children have under the guidance of teachers. • Smith,Stanley & Shores – a sequence of potential experiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting. • Marsh & Willis – experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students.
  9.  John Dewey (/ˈduːi/; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of the primary figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of the fathers of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Dewey as the 93rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century. A well- known public intellectual, he was also a major voice of progressive education and liberalism.Although Dewey is known best for his publications about education, he also wrote about many other topics, including epistemology, metaphysics, aesthetics, art, logic, social theory, and ethics. He was a major educational reformer for the 20th century.
  10.  Hollis Leland Caswell (October 22, 1901 – November 22, 1988) was an American educator who became an authority on curriculum planning in schools. He directed surveys of curriculum practices in several school systems, and wrote several books on the subject. Caswell joined the editorial advisory board of the World Book Encyclopedia in 1936, and became its chairman in 1948. In 1954, Caswell was appointed president of Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City, and served as its president until 1962. From 1962 until 1966 Caswell served as general chairman of editorial advisory boards for Field Enterprises Educational Corporation. Following his retirement as president at Teachers College, Caswell continued at the College, being appointed to the Marshall Field, Jr., Professorship of Education. He remained in that chair until 1967.
  11.  Doak Sheridan Campbell (1888-1973) was president of Florida State College for Women, as it made the transition from an all-female school under that name to the coeducational Florida State University, between 1941 and 1957.  B. Othanel Smith (1903- ), professor of education (1945-1969) and department head (1967-1969), University of Illinois, USA  William Oliver Stanley, Jr. is a former professor in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign at the Urbana College of Education. He was one of the founders of the social foundations of education, an approach to the sociology of education. Stanley was a former journalist and combatant for the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, and a member of the Communist Party of the USA in the 1930s. After World War II, he became a member of the early anti-Communist Congress for Cultural Freedom, but was shocked by later excesses of McCarthyism. He was the author of "Education and Social Integration," Bureau of Publications, Teachers college Columbia University, New York, 1953. In Chapter 10, Approaches to a Disciplined Methodology of Discussion, and Chapter 11, Method and the Democratic Ethic in the Formulation of Public Policy, he anticipates the major theme of Jurgen Habermas' major work The theory of Communicative Action.
  12.  J. Harlan Shores [born: Sept. 27, 1915, Dearborn, MO; died: April 27, 1993, Champaign, IL] served as professor of education at the University of Illinois.  Colin J. Marsh is the author of Becoming A Teacher, Key Concepts for Understanding Curriculum  George Willis, Professor of Education at the University of Rhode Island, author, Curriculum: Alternative Approaches, Ongoing Issues
  13.  Curriculum-as dynamic process  Development-changes which are systematic  A change for the better-any alteration,modification or improvement of existing condition  For positive changes, development should be purposeful, planned and progressive.
  14.  Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principles (Tyler’s Rationale) 1.What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2.What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3.How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4.How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not?
  15.  Tyler’s model show that in curriculum development, the following considerations should be made: (1) Purposes of the school (2) Educational experiences related to the purposes (3) Organization of the experiences (4) Evaluation of the experiences
  16.  Ralph W. Tyler (1902–1994) was an American educator who worked in the field of assessment and evaluation. He served on or advised a number of bodies that set guidelines for the expenditure of federal funds and influenced the underlying policy of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.  Tyler chaired the committee that developed the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). He has been called by some as "the father of educational evaluation and assessment".
  17.  Hilda Taba’s Linear Model – teachers who teach or implement the curriculum should participate in developing it. (Her advocacy is grassroots approach) 1. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society 2.Formulation of learning objectives 3.Selection of learning content 4.Organization of learning content 5. Selection of learning experiences 6.Organization of learning activities 7.Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it
  18.  Hilda Taba (7 December 1902 in Kooraste, Estonia – 6 July 1967 in San Francisco, California) was an architect, a curriculum theorist, a curriculum reformer, and a teacher educator.  Taba was born in the small village of Kooraste, Estonia. Her mother’s name was Liisa Leht, and her father was a schoolmaster whose name was Robert Taba. Hilda Taba began her education at the Kanepi Parish School. She then attended the Võru’s Girls’ Grammar School and earned her undergraduate degree in English and Philosophy at Tartu University.  When Taba was given the opportunity to attend Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania, she earned her Master’s degree. Following the completion of her degree at Bryn Mawr College, she attended Teachers College at Columbia University.  She applied for a job at Tartu University but was turned down because she was female, so she became curriculum director at the Dalton School in New York City.
  19.  Allan Glatthorn(2000) describes seven types of curriculum operating in the schools. (1) Recommended curriculum – proposed by scholars and professional organizations (2) Written Curriculum – appears in school, district, division or country documents (3) Taught Curriculum – what teachers implement or deliver in the classrooms and schools (4) Supported curriculum-resources-textbooks,computers,audio- visual materials which support and help in the implementation of the curriculum (5) Assessed curriculum- that which is tested and evaluated (6) Learned curriculum – what the students actually learn and what is measured (7) Hidden curriculum – the unintended curriculum
  20.  Allan A. Glatthorn (1924–2007) was a major contributor to the third and fourth editions; his research used in the preparation of the first and second editions of Writing the Winning Thesis or Dissertation: A Step-by-Step Guide was the foundation for the third edition.  He was the Distinguished Research Professor of Education (Emeritus) in the College of Education of East Carolina University, where he advised doctoral students, chaired dissertations, and taught courses in supervision and curriculum. He was formerly Professor of Education at the Graduate School of Education of the University of Pennsylvania.  Prior to his university assignments, he was a high school teacher and principal. In his work as a professor, he chaired close to 100 dissertations. He is the author of numerous professional books, several of which have been published by Corwin.
  21.  BEC (Basic Education Curriculum) Elementary  SEDP (Secondary Education Development Program) (under Pres. Fidel V. Ramos)(1993)  UBD (Understanding by Design) (under PGMA) 2 yrs. only under DepEd Sec. Raul Roco – The application, motivation, presentation have been programmed. Teachers facilitate.  RBEC (Revised Basic Education Curriculum) (PGMA) adopted the UBD  CLS (Cooperative Learning System)  K to 12 (Kinder to G-12 ) with Basic Education subjects (combined skills and knowledge)
  22.  Mrs. Erlinda Alim, a Filipino language teacher @Naga City School of Arts and Trades, Sabang, Naga City  Sir Wilmor Plopinio, Dean of Criminology, Pili Capital College
  23. Persons Interviewed Answer to Question: What is Curriculum to You? Elementary Grades Teacher School Principal College Teacher Student Teacher Non-education college student
  24. For questions and inquiries on CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, Please kindly ask our professor and read our official book and additional materials online.