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The Nervous system

Nervous system

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The Nervous system

  1. 1. The Nervous SystemThe Nervous System
  2. 2.  It includes Central NervousIt includes Central Nervous System and the PeripheralSystem and the Peripheral Nervous System.Nervous System.  It acts as a highway forIt acts as a highway for information to travel. It controlsinformation to travel. It controls movement in the body and alsomovement in the body and also converts information for the brainconverts information for the brain to read and process.to read and process. What is the Nervous SystemWhat is the Nervous System
  3. 3.  Two Anatomical DivisionsTwo Anatomical Divisions  Central nervous system (CNS)Central nervous system (CNS)  BrainBrain  Spinal cordSpinal cord  Peripheral nervous system (PNS)Peripheral nervous system (PNS)  All the neural tissue outside CNSAll the neural tissue outside CNS  AfferentAfferent division (sensory input)division (sensory input)  EfferentEfferent division (motor output)division (motor output)  Somatic nervous systemSomatic nervous system  Autonomic nervous systemAutonomic nervous system General Organization of the nervous system
  4. 4. NERVOUS SYSTEMNERVOUS SYSTEM
  5. 5. The Nervous system has three major functions:  Sensory – monitors internal & external environment through presence of receptors  Integration – interpretation of sensory information (information processing); complex (higher order) functions  Motor – response to information processed through stimulation of effectors  muscle contraction  glandular secretion
  6. 6. Functions of the NervousFunctions of the Nervous SystemSystem 1.1. Control center for all body activitiesControl center for all body activities 2.2. Responds and adapts to changes thatResponds and adapts to changes that occur both inside and outside the bodyoccur both inside and outside the body (Ex: pain, temperature, pregnancy)(Ex: pain, temperature, pregnancy)
  7. 7. Functions of the Nervous SystemFunctions of the Nervous System Slide 7.1aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1. Sensory input – gathering information •To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body (changes = stimuli) 2. Integration – •to process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed. 3. Motor output •A response to integrated stimuli •The response activates muscles or glands
  8. 8. General Organization of the nervous system Brain & spinal cord
  9. 9. Central Nervous System (CNS)Central Nervous System (CNS)  Contains the nerves ofContains the nerves of thethe brainbrain andand spinalspinal cordcord  Function =Function = coordinatingcoordinating center ofcenter of incoming/outgoingincoming/outgoing informationinformation
  10. 10.  Brain is found in theBrain is found in the skullskull & serves as& serves as overall controloverall control centercenter for the nervous systemfor the nervous system  Spinal Cord is surrounded bySpinal Cord is surrounded by vertebraevertebrae and extendsand extends down the back of the neck, thorax and abdomendown the back of the neck, thorax and abdomen  Center ofCenter of many reflex actionsmany reflex actions  Provides a linkProvides a link between sensory and motor nervesbetween sensory and motor nerves  Both are enclosed in 3 protective membranes calledBoth are enclosed in 3 protective membranes called thethe meningemeninge  Space between meninge containsSpace between meninge contains cerebrospinalcerebrospinal fluidfluid which protects and cushions the CNSwhich protects and cushions the CNS
  11. 11. Spinal VS Epidural
  12. 12. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System BrainBrain : a mass of 100: a mass of 100 billion neuronsbillion neurons located inside thelocated inside the skullskull -Learning occurs as-Learning occurs as more and strongermore and stronger connections areconnections are made betweenmade between neuronsneurons
  13. 13. BrainBrain  It is one of the largest organs in the body,It is one of the largest organs in the body, and coordinates most body activities.and coordinates most body activities.  It is the center for all thought, memory,It is the center for all thought, memory, judgment, and emotion.judgment, and emotion.  Each part of the brain is responsible forEach part of the brain is responsible for controlling different body functions, suchcontrolling different body functions, such as temperature regulation and breathing.as temperature regulation and breathing.
  14. 14. Anatomy of the BrainAnatomy of the Brain CerebrumCerebrum : largest part: largest part of human brainof human brain - Responsible for:- Responsible for: - Thought- Thought - Language- Language - Senses- Senses - Memory- Memory - Voluntary- Voluntary movementmovement
  15. 15. CerebrumCerebrum  It is the largest section of the brainIt is the largest section of the brain  It is located in the upper portion of the brain andIt is located in the upper portion of the brain and is the area that processes thoughts, judgment,is the area that processes thoughts, judgment, memory, problem solving, and language.memory, problem solving, and language.  The outer layer of the cerebrum is the cerebralThe outer layer of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex, which is composed of folds of graycortex, which is composed of folds of gray matter.matter.  The cerebrum is subdivided into the left and rightThe cerebrum is subdivided into the left and right halves called cerebral hemispheres. Eachhalves called cerebral hemispheres. Each hemisphere has 4 lobes.hemisphere has 4 lobes.
  16. 16. Anatomy of the BrainAnatomy of the Brain CerebellumCerebellum : at base: at base of brainof brain -Responsible for:-Responsible for: - Muscle- Muscle coordinationcoordination - Balance- Balance - Posture- Posture
  17. 17. The CerebellumThe Cerebellum  Second largest portion of the brainSecond largest portion of the brain  Located beneath the posterior part of theLocated beneath the posterior part of the cerebrumcerebrum  Aids in coordinating voluntary bodyAids in coordinating voluntary body movements and maintaining balance andmovements and maintaining balance and equilibriumequilibrium  Refines the muscular movement that isRefines the muscular movement that is initiated in the cerebruminitiated in the cerebrum
  18. 18. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System  Brain (Cont.)Brain (Cont.)  CerebellumCerebellum  The Cerebellum is behind the brain stem. It is similar toThe Cerebellum is behind the brain stem. It is similar to the Cerebral Cortex because it is divided intothe Cerebral Cortex because it is divided into hemisphereshemispheres  The Cerebellum controls movement, balance andThe Cerebellum controls movement, balance and posture.posture.
  19. 19. Anatomy of the BrainAnatomy of the Brain Brain StemBrain Stem : connects: connects brain to spinal cordbrain to spinal cord -Responsible for:-Responsible for: - Breathing- Breathing - Swallowing- Swallowing - Heartbeat- Heartbeat - Blood pressure- Blood pressure
  20. 20. Brain StemBrain Stem  Midbrain—Midbrain—acts as a pathway for impulses toacts as a pathway for impulses to be conducted between the brain and the spinalbe conducted between the brain and the spinal cord.cord.  PonsPons means bridge—connects the cerebellummeans bridge—connects the cerebellum to the rest of the brain.to the rest of the brain.  Medulla oblongata—Medulla oblongata— most inferior positionedmost inferior positioned portion of the brain; it connects the brain to theportion of the brain; it connects the brain to the spinal cord.spinal cord.
  21. 21. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System  Brain (Cont.)Brain (Cont.)  Brain StemBrain Stem  The brain stem is a name for the area of the brainThe brain stem is a name for the area of the brain between the thalamus and spinal cord. The brain stembetween the thalamus and spinal cord. The brain stem includes the medulla, pons and midbrain.includes the medulla, pons and midbrain.  The Brain Stem controls most of the basic functions ofThe Brain Stem controls most of the basic functions of life like breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.life like breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. Midbrain Pons Medulla
  22. 22. PonsPons Slide 7.40Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The bulging center part of the brain stem • Mostly composed of fiber tracts • Includes nuclei involved in the control of breathing
  23. 23. Medulla OblongataMedulla Oblongata Slide 7.41Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • The lowest part of the brain stem • Merges into the spinal cord • Includes important fiber tracts • Contains important control centers •Heart rate control •Blood pressure regulation •Breathing •Swallowing •Vomiting
  24. 24. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System  Brain (Cont.)Brain (Cont.)  ThalamusThalamus  The Thalamus is divided into two sides.The Thalamus is divided into two sides. The Hypothalamus is positioned inThe Hypothalamus is positioned in between the two sides.between the two sides.  The Thalamus receives sensoryThe Thalamus receives sensory information and movement information.information and movement information. Thalamus
  25. 25. ThalamusThalamus Slide 7.35Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Surrounds the third ventricle • The relay station for sensory impulses • Transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation
  26. 26. HypothalamusHypothalamus SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Under the thalamus • Important autonomic nervous system center •Helps regulate body temperature •Controls water balance •Regulates metabolism
  27. 27. HypothalamusHypothalamus SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • An important part of the limbic system (emotions) • The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus
  28. 28. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System  Brain (Cont.)Brain (Cont.)  HypothalamusHypothalamus  The hypothalamus is madeThe hypothalamus is made of several areas of theof several areas of the lower brain. It is only thelower brain. It is only the size of a pea which is aboutsize of a pea which is about 1/300 of the entire brain.1/300 of the entire brain. Hypothalamus
  29. 29. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System  Brain (Cont.)Brain (Cont.)  HypothalamusHypothalamus  The Hypothalamus controls bodyThe Hypothalamus controls body temperature, emotions, hunger, thirst,temperature, emotions, hunger, thirst, circadian rhythms. Despite its size,circadian rhythms. Despite its size, the Hypothalamus controls some verythe Hypothalamus controls some very important functions. One of the mostimportant functions. One of the most important is the body temperatureimportant is the body temperature control. It acts as a thermostat so itcontrol. It acts as a thermostat so it senses the body changes and will tellsenses the body changes and will tell different parts of the body to adjust.different parts of the body to adjust. Hypothalamus
  30. 30. EpithalamusEpithalamus Slide 7.37Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Forms the roof of the third ventricle • Houses the pineal body (an endocrine gland) • Includes the choroid plexus – forms cerebrospinal fluid
  31. 31. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System Spinal CordSpinal Cord : Column of nerves: Column of nerves from brain to tailbone –from brain to tailbone – protected by vertebrae ofprotected by vertebrae of spinespine - Responsible for:Responsible for: - Conducting impulses- Conducting impulses between the brain and thebetween the brain and the rest of the bodyrest of the body *Impulses may travel as fast at*Impulses may travel as fast at 268 miles/hr268 miles/hr
  32. 32. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System Spinal CordSpinal Cord  StructureStructure  There are 31 pairs of spinal nervesThere are 31 pairs of spinal nerves which run through the spinal cord.which run through the spinal cord. These nerves are called “mixed”These nerves are called “mixed” nerves because each nerve containsnerves because each nerve contains a sensory and a motor axon.a sensory and a motor axon.  Information entering from the left sideInformation entering from the left side of the spinal cord will eventually goof the spinal cord will eventually go over to the right side of the brain andover to the right side of the brain and vice versa. The side switching canvice versa. The side switching can happen as soon as entering thehappen as soon as entering the spinal cord or until it reaches thespinal cord or until it reaches the brain.brain. Spinal Cord Sensory Neuron Motor Neuron Receptor Effector
  33. 33. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System Spinal Cord (Cont.)Spinal Cord (Cont.)  FunctionFunction  The spinal cord is used for two main functions:The spinal cord is used for two main functions:  It acts as a pathway for information to travel fromIt acts as a pathway for information to travel from receptors (skin, eyes, mouth…) to the brain and from thereceptors (skin, eyes, mouth…) to the brain and from the brain to effectors (muscle).brain to effectors (muscle).  The spinal cord can also be a minor coordinating centreThe spinal cord can also be a minor coordinating centre for some simple reflexes like the withdrawal reflex.for some simple reflexes like the withdrawal reflex.
  34. 34. Spinal CordSpinal Cord  Protected by cerebrospinal fluid.Protected by cerebrospinal fluid.  Inner core of the spinal cord contains grayInner core of the spinal cord contains gray matter.matter.  The outer portion of the spinal cord isThe outer portion of the spinal cord is myelinated white matter.myelinated white matter.
  35. 35. Spinal CordSpinal Cord  Runs through the vertebral canalRuns through the vertebral canal  Extends from foramen magnum to 2Extends from foramen magnum to 2ndnd lumbar vertebralumbar vertebra  RegionsRegions  CervicalCervical  ThoracicThoracic  LumbarLumbar  SacralSacral  CoccygealCoccygeal  Gives rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves - all are mixed nervesGives rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves - all are mixed nerves
  36. 36. Protection of the Central NervousProtection of the Central Nervous SystemSystem SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Scalp and skin • Skull and vertebral column • Meninges Figure 7.16a
  37. 37. Protection of the Central NervousProtection of the Central Nervous SystemSystem SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Cerebrospinal fluid • Blood brain barrier Figure 7.16a
  38. 38. MeningesMeninges SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Dura mater •Double-layered external covering •Periosteum – attached to surface of the skull •Meningeal layer – outer covering of the brain •Folds inward in several areas
  39. 39. MeningesMeninges SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Arachnoid layer •Middle layer •Web-like • Pia mater •Internal layer •Clings to the surface of the brain
  40. 40. MeningesMeninges  Dura mater:Dura mater: outermostoutermost layer; continuous withlayer; continuous with epineurium of the spinalepineurium of the spinal nervesnerves  Arachnoid mater:Arachnoid mater: thinthin and wispyand wispy  Pia mater:Pia mater: bound tightlybound tightly to surfaceto surface
  41. 41. Cerebrospinal FluidCerebrospinal Fluid Slide 7.46Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Similar to blood plasma composition • Formed by the choroid plexus • Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain • Circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord
  42. 42. Ventricles and Location of theVentricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal FluidCerebrospinal Fluid SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.17a
  43. 43. Ventricles and Location of theVentricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal FluidCerebrospinal Fluid SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.17b
  44. 44. Blood Brain BarrierBlood Brain Barrier Slide 7.48Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Includes the least permeable capillaries of the body • Excludes many potentially harmful substances • Useless against some substances •Fats and fat soluble molecules •Respiratory gases •Alcohol •Nicotine •Anesthesia
  45. 45. Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System  Includes both the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and the 31Includes both the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and the 31 pairs of spinal nerves.pairs of spinal nerves.  A nerve is a group or bundle of axon fibers locatedA nerve is a group or bundle of axon fibers located outside the central nervous system that carriesoutside the central nervous system that carries messages between the CNS and the various parts ofmessages between the CNS and the various parts of the body.the body.  Whether a nerve is cranial or spinal is determined byWhether a nerve is cranial or spinal is determined by where the nerve originates.where the nerve originates.  Cranial nerves arise from the brain, mainly at theCranial nerves arise from the brain, mainly at the medulla oblongata.medulla oblongata.
  46. 46. Autonomic Nervous SystemAutonomic Nervous System  Involved with the control of involuntary orInvolved with the control of involuntary or unconscious bodily functions.unconscious bodily functions.  It is divided into two branches: sympatheticIt is divided into two branches: sympathetic branchbranch and parasympathetic branch.and parasympathetic branch.  The sympathetic nerves stimulate the body inThe sympathetic nerves stimulate the body in times of stress and crisis.times of stress and crisis.  The parasympathetic nerves serve as aThe parasympathetic nerves serve as a counterbalance for the sympathetic nerves.counterbalance for the sympathetic nerves.
  47. 47. Somatic NervesSomatic Nerves  Serve the skin and skeletal muscles.Serve the skin and skeletal muscles.  These are also the nerves that carry motorThese are also the nerves that carry motor commands to skeletal muscles.commands to skeletal muscles.  Large variety of sensory receptors foundLarge variety of sensory receptors found in the dermis layer of the skin use somaticin the dermis layer of the skin use somatic nerves to send their information, such asnerves to send their information, such as touch, temperature, pressure, and pain, totouch, temperature, pressure, and pain, to the brain.the brain.
  48. 48. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)  All parts of the nervous systemAll parts of the nervous system lying outsidelying outside the brain and spinal cordthe brain and spinal cord..  The sensory and motor neurons that connect toThe sensory and motor neurons that connect to the CNSthe CNS  Function =Function = to carry info between organs of the bodyto carry info between organs of the body and the CNSand the CNS  Humans haveHumans have  12 paris of cranial nerves (sensory/motor/mixed)12 paris of cranial nerves (sensory/motor/mixed) which control the head, face, neck, shoulderswhich control the head, face, neck, shoulders  ExceptExcept VAGUS nerve – controls internal organsVAGUS nerve – controls internal organs  31 pairs of spinal nerves (mixed) which take31 pairs of spinal nerves (mixed) which take impulses to and from the spinal cordimpulses to and from the spinal cord
  49. 49. PNSPNS Somatic & Autonomic NervesSomatic & Autonomic Nerves  Somatic nervesSomatic nerves control skeletal muscle, bones,control skeletal muscle, bones, skin that a person can controlskin that a person can control  Sensory neuronsSensory neurons which relay info aboutwhich relay info about environment to CNSenvironment to CNS  Motor neuronsMotor neurons which initiate appropriate responsewhich initiate appropriate response  Autonomic nervesAutonomic nerves control the muscles of thecontrol the muscles of the glands and internal organs which we can’tglands and internal organs which we can’t controlcontrol  SympatheticSympathetic && parasympatheticparasympathetic componentscomponents Reflex Arc
  50. 50. SympatheticSympathetic component prepares body for stresscomponent prepares body for stress [neurotransmitter used=[neurotransmitter used=norepinephrine]norepinephrine]  Diverts blood from internal organs toDiverts blood from internal organs to skeletalskeletal muscles, heart & brainmuscles, heart & brain ParasympatheticParasympathetic brings things back to normalbrings things back to normal [neurotransmitter used=[neurotransmitter used=acetylcholineacetylcholine]]  Work in conjunction/opposition to each otherWork in conjunction/opposition to each other  Ex. “on” / “off” switchesEx. “on” / “off” switches “FLIGHT OR FIGHT RESPONSE”
  51. 51. Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System  Sensory NeuronsSensory Neurons  Sensory Neurons are neurons which onlySensory Neurons are neurons which only allow information to travel one way. They canallow information to travel one way. They can transmit information from Receptors (skin,transmit information from Receptors (skin, eyes, ears) to the brain and to motor neurons.eyes, ears) to the brain and to motor neurons.
  52. 52. Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System  Motor NeuronsMotor Neurons  Motor Neurons are neurons which only allowMotor Neurons are neurons which only allow information to travel one way. The transmitinformation to travel one way. The transmit information from the brain and the spinal cordinformation from the brain and the spinal cord to the Effectors (Muscles and Glands)to the Effectors (Muscles and Glands)
  53. 53. Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System  Example of a Reflex ArcExample of a Reflex Arc  A reflex arc is the pathway that a nerve reflex, such as theA reflex arc is the pathway that a nerve reflex, such as the knee jerk reflex, follows.knee jerk reflex, follows. 1.1. A tap on the knee stimulates sensory receptors (tendon),A tap on the knee stimulates sensory receptors (tendon), generating a nerve signal.generating a nerve signal. 2.2. The signal travels along a nerve to the spinal cord.The signal travels along a nerve to the spinal cord. 3.3. In the spinal cord, the signal is transmitted from the sensoryIn the spinal cord, the signal is transmitted from the sensory nerve to a motor nerve.nerve to a motor nerve. 4.4. The motor nerve sends the signal back to effectors (muscle)The motor nerve sends the signal back to effectors (muscle) in the thigh.in the thigh. 5.5. The muscle contracts, causing the lower leg to jerk upward.The muscle contracts, causing the lower leg to jerk upward. The entire reflex occurs without involving the brain.The entire reflex occurs without involving the brain.
  54. 54. Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System NervesNerves : visible: visible bundles of axons andbundles of axons and dendrites that entenddendrites that entend from the brain andfrom the brain and spinal cord to all otherspinal cord to all other parts of the bodyparts of the body
  55. 55. -Responsibilities:-Responsibilities: -- Sensory nervesSensory nerves -- carry messagescarry messages from body to brainfrom body to brain (pain, pressure,(pain, pressure, temperature)temperature) -- Motor nervesMotor nerves –– carry messagescarry messages from brain to body tofrom brain to body to respondrespond
  56. 56. Functional Classification of theFunctional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System Slide 7.3aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Sensory (afferent) division •Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system Figure 7.1
  57. 57. Functional Classification of theFunctional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System Slide 7.3bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Motor (efferent) division •Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system Figure 7.1
  58. 58. Functional Classification of theFunctional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System Slide 7.3cCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Motor (efferent) division •Two subdivisions • Somatic nervous system = voluntary • Autonomic nervous system = involuntary Figure 7.1
  59. 59. Classification of NervesClassification of Nerves Slide 7.57Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Mixed nerves – both sensory and motor fibers • Afferent (sensory) nerves – carry impulses toward the CNS • Efferent (motor) nerves – carry impulses away from the CNS
  60. 60. Autonomic FunctioningAutonomic Functioning SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Sympathetic – “fight-or-flight” •Response to unusual stimulus •Takes over to increase activities •Remember as the “E” division = exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment
  61. 61. Autonomic FunctioningAutonomic Functioning SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings • Parasympathetic – housekeeping activites •Conserves energy •Maintains daily necessary body functions •Remember as the “D” division - digestion, defecation, and diuresis
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