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Skills and Practices
in Long-term
Adult Literacy
Development:
Evidence from PIAAC and the
Longitudinal Study of Adult Lear...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Practice Engagement Theory
• PIAAC includes measures of both proficiencies (asse...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning
• Long-term panel study of low-education ad...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory
Proficiency
(t)
Proficiency
(t+1)
Profici...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory
Proficiency
(t)
Proficiency
(t+1)
Profici...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory
Proficiency
(t)
Proficiency
(t+1)
Profici...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory
Proficiency
(t)
Proficiency
(t+1)
Profici...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory
Proficiency
(t)
Proficiency
(t+1)
Profici...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory
Proficiency
(t)
Proficiency
(t+1)
Profici...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Elaborating Practice Engagement
Theory
Proficiency
(t)
Proficiency
(t+1)
Profici...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Proficiency Practices
Proficiency at Previous
Time
0.643*** 0.002***
Practices a...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Proficiency Practices
Proficiency at Previous
Time
0.643*** 0.002***
Practices a...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Proficiency Practices
Proficiency at Previous
Time
0.643*** 0.002***
Practices a...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Proficiency Practices
Proficiency at Previous
Time
0.643*** 0.002***
Practices a...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Proficiency Practices
Proficiency at Previous
Time
0.643*** 0.002***
Practices a...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Proficiency Practices
Proficiency at Previous
Time
0.643*** 0.002***
Practices a...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Proficiency Practices
Proficiency at Previous
Time
0.643*** 0.002***
Practices a...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
The Long-Term Impact of
Participation in Skills Programs
• Practice engagement t...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Wages of Skills Program
Participants and Nonparticipants
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Propensity
Score Matching
• One of three analytical methods used to deal with se...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Income Growth in Propensity Score-Matched
Participants (100+ hours) & Nonpartici...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Skills and Practices in PIAAC
• Many of these findings from LSAL are consistent ...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Conclusions & Implications
• This research expands the theoretical framework of ...
Stephen Reder - Portland State University
Contact Details and References
Dr. Stephen Reder:
– Email: reders@pdx.edu
– Phon...
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Skills and Practices in Long-term Adult Literacy Development

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Professor Steven Reder, Department of Applied Linguistics, Portland State University presented evidence from PIAAC and the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning at the BIS / Ipsos MORI event Improving basic skills: An international perspective on a UK dilemma in London on 14 January 2015.

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Skills and Practices in Long-term Adult Literacy Development

  1. 1. Skills and Practices in Long-term Adult Literacy Development: Evidence from PIAAC and the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning Stephen Reder Portland State University
  2. 2. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Practice Engagement Theory • PIAAC includes measures of both proficiencies (assessed literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving skills) and self-reported uses of reading, writing, numeracy and ICT skills, which we will call practices here • PIAAC data suggest that both proficiencies and practices are fundamental to economic and social well-being • Key question: How do proficiency and practices develop over time in adult life? • My initial formulation of Practice Engagement Theory proposed that literacy practices and proficiencies mutually interact and facilitate each other’s growth over time • The original evidence base for this came from ethnographic studies of literacy in diverse settings and contexts • A recently completed longitudinal study in the U.S. provides an opportunity to look at the adult literacy development process more closely and elaborate Practice Engagement Theory
  3. 3. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning • Long-term panel study of low-education adults who participate in adult education programs & those who do not participate (6 sweeps 1998 – 2006) • Sample of ~1,000 representative of local rather than national target population: early school leavers, age 18-44, proficient not necessarily native English speakers • Periodic in-home interviews and repeated literacy assessments encompassing both standardized TALS literacy proficiency assessments and scaled measures of engagement in everyday literacy practices • Examines program participation & other learning activities, changes in literacy skills and practices over time, and social and economic changes (e.g., annual income reported in administrative data)
  4. 4. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory Proficiency (t) Proficiency (t+1) Proficiency (t+2) Proficiency (t+3) Practice Engagement (t) Practice Engagement (t+1) Practice Engagement (t+2) Practice Engagement (t+3) … …
  5. 5. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory Proficiency (t) Proficiency (t+1) Proficiency (t+2) Proficiency (t+3) Practice Engagement (t) Practice Engagement (t+1) Practice Engagement (t+2) Practice Engagement (t+3) … … Proficiency (t+2)
  6. 6. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory Proficiency (t) Proficiency (t+1) Proficiency (t+2) Proficiency (t+3) Practice Engagement (t) Practice Engagement (t+1) Practice Engagement (t+2) Practice Engagement (t+3) … … Proficiency (t+2)
  7. 7. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory Proficiency (t) Proficiency (t+1) Proficiency (t+2) Proficiency (t+3) Practice Engagement (t) Practice Engagement (t+1) Practice Engagement (t+2) Practice Engagement (t+3) … … Proficiency (t+2)
  8. 8. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory Proficiency (t) Proficiency (t+1) Proficiency (t+2) Proficiency (t+3) Practice Engagement (t) Practice Engagement (t+1) Practice Engagement (t+2) Practice Engagement (t+3) … …Practice Engagement (t+2)
  9. 9. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory Proficiency (t) Proficiency (t+1) Proficiency (t+2) Proficiency (t+3) Practice Engagement (t) Practice Engagement (t+1) Practice Engagement (t+2) Practice Engagement (t+3) … …Practice Engagement (t+2)
  10. 10. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Elaborating Practice Engagement Theory Proficiency (t) Proficiency (t+1) Proficiency (t+2) Proficiency (t+3) Practice Engagement (t) Practice Engagement (t+1) Practice Engagement (t+2) Practice Engagement (t+3) … …Practice Engagement (t+2)
  11. 11. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Proficiency Practices Proficiency at Previous Time 0.643*** 0.002*** Practices at Previous Time 1.151** 0.411*** Age -0.365*** -0.003 Female -3.305** 0.194*** Non-Minority 7.160*** 0.126*** Learning Disability -4.728*** 0.026 U.S. Born 8.080*** -0.049 Years of Education 1.886*** 0.039** Constant 82.464*** 0.453* N 3722 3722 R2 0.50 0.22 *** p < 0.001 ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05
  12. 12. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Proficiency Practices Proficiency at Previous Time 0.643*** 0.002*** Practices at Previous Time 1.151** 0.411*** Age -0.365*** -0.003 Female -3.305** 0.194*** Non-Minority 7.160*** 0.126*** Learning Disability -4.728*** 0.026 U.S. Born 8.080*** -0.049 Years of Education 1.886*** 0.039** Constant 82.464*** 0.453* N 3722 3722 R2 0.50 0.22 *** p < 0.001 ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05
  13. 13. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Proficiency Practices Proficiency at Previous Time 0.643*** 0.002*** Practices at Previous Time 1.151** 0.411*** Age -0.365*** -0.003 Female -3.305** 0.194*** Non-Minority 7.160*** 0.126*** Learning Disability -4.728*** 0.026 U.S. Born 8.080*** -0.049 Years of Education 1.886*** 0.039** Constant 82.464*** 0.453* N 3722 3722 R2 0.50 0.22 *** p < 0.001 ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05
  14. 14. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Proficiency Practices Proficiency at Previous Time 0.643*** 0.002*** Practices at Previous Time 1.151** 0.411*** Age -0.365*** -0.003 Female -3.305** 0.194*** Non-Minority 7.160*** 0.126*** Learning Disability -4.728*** 0.026 U.S. Born 8.080*** -0.049 Years of Education 1.886*** 0.039** Constant 82.464*** 0.453* N 3722 3722 R2 0.50 0.22 *** p < 0.001 ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05
  15. 15. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Proficiency Practices Proficiency at Previous Time 0.643*** 0.002*** Practices at Previous Time 1.151** 0.411*** Age -0.365*** -0.003 Female -3.305** 0.194*** Non-Minority 7.160*** 0.126*** Learning Disability -4.728*** 0.026 U.S. Born 8.080*** -0.049 Years of Education 1.886*** 0.039** Constant 82.464*** 0.453* N 3722 3722 R2 0.50 0.22 *** p < 0.001 ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05
  16. 16. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Proficiency Practices Proficiency at Previous Time 0.643*** 0.002*** Practices at Previous Time 1.151** 0.411*** Age -0.365*** -0.003 Female -3.305** 0.194*** Non-Minority 7.160*** 0.126*** Learning Disability -4.728*** 0.026 U.S. Born 8.080*** -0.049 Years of Education 1.886*** 0.039** Constant 82.464*** 0.453* N 3722 3722 R2 0.50 0.22 *** p < 0.001 ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05
  17. 17. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Proficiency Practices Proficiency at Previous Time 0.643*** 0.002*** Practices at Previous Time 1.151** 0.411*** Age -0.365*** -0.003 Female -3.305** 0.194*** Non-Minority 7.160*** 0.126*** Learning Disability -4.728*** 0.026 U.S. Born 8.080*** -0.049 Years of Education 1.886*** 0.039** Constant 82.464*** 0.453* N 3722 3722 R2 0.50 0.22 *** p < 0.001 ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05
  18. 18. Stephen Reder - Portland State University The Long-Term Impact of Participation in Skills Programs • Practice engagement theory suggests that the impact of skills programs may take time to fully develop • The typical short-term evaluation of programs may miss much of their eventual impact • Can see this clearly in LSAL data that followed participants and nonparticipants over long periods of time
  19. 19. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Wages of Skills Program Participants and Nonparticipants
  20. 20. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Propensity Score Matching • One of three analytical methods used to deal with selection bias in comparisons of program participants and nonparticipants • Compares the 2007 wages of participants and nonparticipants matched on their likelihood of participating based on observed pre-participation characteristics: – Age Gender Race/Ethnicity Education – Immigration status 1997 wages – Learning disabilities Parents’ education • Large difference between matched participants’ and nonparticipants’ 2007 incomes if participation defined as 100 or more hours of program attendance • No statistically significant difference if participation defined as less than 100 hours of attendance
  21. 21. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Income Growth in Propensity Score-Matched Participants (100+ hours) & Nonparticipants
  22. 22. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Skills and Practices in PIAAC • Many of these findings from LSAL are consistent with PIAAC data • For example, earnings in PIAAC are predicted by both literacy skills and practices in the workplace • This PIAAC earnings result holds with controls on education, occupation, work experience and demographics
  23. 23. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Conclusions & Implications • This research expands the theoretical framework of Practice Engagement Theory • The results provide evidence of ongoing, reciprocal influences between literacy skills and literacy practices • Key implication for programs: design programs to foster engagement in literacy practices • Key implication for policy: adult literacy programs have a long-term impact on earnings that offers excellent returns on investment • Key implication for research & development: improve measures of literacy practices
  24. 24. Stephen Reder - Portland State University Contact Details and References Dr. Stephen Reder: – Email: reders@pdx.edu – Phone: +1-503-725-3999 LSAL project information: www.lsal.pdx.edu Some resources related to the research: • Reder, S. (in press). The impact of ABS program participation on long-term economic outcomes. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Career, Adult, and Technical Education. • Reder, S. (2013). Lifelong and life-wide adult literacy development. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 39(2), 18-21. • Reder, S. (2012). The Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning: Challenging assumptions. Montreal: The Centre for Literacy. • Reder, S. (2009). The development of literacy and numeracy in adult life. In S. Reder & J. Bynner, (Eds.), Tracking adult literacy and numeracy: Findings from longitudinal research (pp. 59-84). New York and London: Routledge.

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