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  1. 1. 1 Chapter 12 Telecommunication Systems Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User’s Approach
  2. 2. 2 What we cover • Telephony • Telecommunications • Lines one can buy
  3. 3. 3 Introduction Students used to focus on either data communications or voice communications. Today, the two fields are merging. Most voice systems are computer controlled and data networks support voice. Anyone studying the field of data communications and networks must learn some basic telecommunications too. Telecommunications used to be just “voice.”
  4. 4. 4 Basic Telephone Systems POTS is the plain old telephone system that connects most homes and small businesses. POTS lines were designed to transmit the human voice, which has a bandwidth less than 4000 Hz. A telephone conversation requires two channels, each occupying 4000 Hz.
  5. 5. 5 Various telelphone channels and their assignment of frequencies
  6. 6. 6 Basic Telephone Systems Limitations A 4000 Hz analog signal can only carry about 33,600 bits per second of information while a 4000 Hz digital signal can carry about 56,000 bits per second. If you want to send information faster, you need a signal with a higher frequency. POTS cannot deliver faster signals.
  7. 7. 7 Basic Telephone Systems - Loops The local loop is the telephone line that runs from the telephone company’s central office to your home or business. The central office is the building that houses the telephone company’s switching equipment and provides a local dial tone on your telephone. If you place a long distance call, the central office passes your telephone call off to a long distance provider.
  8. 8. 8 Local Loops
  9. 9. 9 Local Access Transport Areas The USA is divided into a few hundred local access transport areas (LATAs). If your call goes from one LATA to another, it is a long distance call and is handled by a long distance telephone company. If your call stays within a LATA, it is a local distance call and is handled by a local telephone company.
  10. 10. 10 Trunks A trunk is a special telephone line that runs between central offices and other telephone company switching centers. A trunk is usually digital, high speed, and carries multiple telephone circuits. A trunk is typically a 4-wire circuit, while a telephone line is a 2-wire circuit. Not associated with a single telephone number like a line is. A telephone number consists of an area code, an exchange, and a subscriber extension. The area code and exchange must start with the digits 2-9 to separate them from long distance and operator services.
  11. 11. 11 Composition of a telephone number
  12. 12. 12 Telephone Connections When the telephone company installs a line, it must not proceed any further than 12 inches into the building. This point is the demarcation point, or demarc. Modular connectors, such as the RJ-11, are commonly used to interconnect telephone lines and the telephone handset to the base. When the handset is lifted off the base (off-hook), an off-hook signal is sent to the central office.
  13. 13. 13 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 Basic Telephone Systems When the off-hook signal arrives at the central office, a dial tone is generated and returned to the telephone. When the user hears the dial tone, they dial (or press) the number. The central office equipment collects the dialed digits, and proceeds to place the appropriate call.
  14. 14. 14 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 Basic Telephone Systems Services Foreign exchange service (FX) - customer calls a local number which is then connected to a leased line to a remote site. Wide area telecommunications services (WATS) - discount volume calling to local and long distance sites. Off premises extensions (OPX) - dial tone at location B comes from the PBX at location A.
  15. 15. 15 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 The Telephone Before and After 1984 In 1984, the U.S. government broke up AT&T. Before then, AT&T owned a large majority of all local telephone circuits and all the long distance service. With the Modified Final Judgment of 1984, AT&T had to split off the local telephone companies from the long distance company. The local telephone companies formed seven Regional Bell Operating Companies. Today, there are only 4 left: Bell South, SBC, Qwest (US West), and Verizon (Bell Atlantic).
  16. 16. 16 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12
  17. 17. 17 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 The Telephone Before and After 1984 Another result of the Modified Judgment was the creation of the LATA (local access and transport area). Local telephone companies became known as local exchange carriers (LECs), and long distance telephone companies became known as interexchange carriers (IEC, or IXC). Calls that remain within a LATA are intra-LATA, or local calls. Calls that pass from one LATA to another are inter- LATA, or long distance.
  18. 18. 18 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 The Telephone Before and After 1984 Before 1984, the telephone network in the U.S. resembled a large hierarchical tree, with Class 5 offices at the bottom and Class 1 offices at the top. Users were connected to the Class 5 offices. The longer the distance of a telephone call, the further up the tree the call progressed. Today’s telephone structure is a collection of LECs, POPs, and IECs.
  19. 19. 19 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 The Telephone After 1996 Another landmark ruling affecting the telephone industry was the Telecommunications Act of 1996. This act opened up the local telephone market to competitors. Now cable TV companies (cable telephony), long distance telephone companies, or anyone that wanted to start a local telephone company could offer local telephone service. Local phone companies that existed before the Act are known as incumbent local exchange carriers (ILEC) while the new companies are competitive local exchange carriers (CLEC).
  20. 20. 20 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 The Telephone After 1996 LECs are supposed to allow CLECs access to all local loops and switching centers / central offices. If a local loop is damaged, the LEC is responsible for repair. The LEC is also supposed to provide the CLEC with a discount to the dial tone (17-20%). LECs can also provide long distance service if they can show there is sufficient competition at the local service level.
  21. 21. 21 Other Players in the Market Alternate operator services - pay phones, hotel phones Aggregators - an aggregator pulls a bunch of small companies together and goes after phone discounts Reseller - rents or leases variety of lines from phone companies, then resells to customers Specialized mobile radio carriers - mobile communication services to businesses and individuals, including dispatch, paging, and data services. Motient and RAM Mobile Data two good examples
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23 PBX Private branch exchange (PBX) - a common internal phone switching system for medium to large-sized businesses. Provides advanced intelligent features to users, such as: 4-digit, special prefixes for WATS (wide area telephone service), FX, etc (private dialing plans) PBX collects dialed digits and intelligently decides how to route this call for lowest cost
  24. 24. 24 PBX Additional advanced features: Voice mail Routes incoming calls to the best station set (automatic call distribution) Provides recorded messages and responds to touch-tone requests (automated attendant) Access to database storage and retrieval (interactive voice response)
  25. 25. 25 PBX Components CPU, memory, telephone lines, trunks Switching network Supporting logic cards Main distribution frame Console or switchboard Battery back-up system
  26. 26. 26 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 PBX Example Frank calls Sue in New York 1. Frank picks up the phone and gets dial tone from the PBX. 2. Frank dials 9-1-212-555-0101. 3. PBX consults routing tables, determines that this call should go over the FX trunk to NY 4. PBX sends dialed number over FX trunk, dropping area code (sends “555-0101”). 5. Call to New York is completed. Frank and Sue talk.
  27. 27. 27 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 Automated Attendant Plays a recorded greeting and offers a set of options. Lets the caller enter an extension directly (touch tone or voice) and bypass an “operator”. Forwards the caller to a human operator if the caller does not have a touch tone phone. Available as an option on a PBX.
  28. 28. 28 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 Automatic Call Distributor When you call a business and are told all operators / technicians / support staff etc. are busy and that your call will be answered in the order it was received. Used in systems where incoming calling volume is large, such as customer service, help desk, order entry, credit authorization, reservations, and catalog sales. Early systems used hunt groups. Original systems routed call to first operator in line (kept person very busy!)
  29. 29. 29 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 Automatic Call Distributor Modern systems perform more advanced functions, such as: Prioritize the calls Route calls to appropriate agent based on the skill set of the agent If all agents busy, deliver call to waiting queue and play appropriate message (like how long they may have to wait) Forward calls to another call center, or perform automatic return call
  30. 30. 30 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 Interactive Voice Response IVR is similar to AA except: IVR incorporates a connection to a database (on a mainframe or server) IVR allows caller to access and/or modify database information. IVR can also perform fax on demand.
  31. 31. 31 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 Interactive Voice Response Common examples of IVR include: Call your bank to inquire about an account balance DePaul’s online registration system Brokerage firm taking routine orders from investors Investment fund taking routine requests for new account applications A company providing employees with info about their benefit plans
  32. 32. 32 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 Leased Line Services Many home computer users use POTS lines and conventional modems to connect to other computer systems. What if you need a faster service, or need one that is always on? You can get a leased line service. A basic leased line, or tie line, gives you a 56 Kbps data transfer rate. A T-1 (or T1) service gives you a 1.544 Mbps rate and is used by businesses to connect their in-house telephone systems (PBX) and data networks to the outside world.
  33. 33. 33 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 T-1 Service A T-1 service is a digital, synchronous TDM stream used by businesses and telephone companies. A T-1 service is always on and always transmitting. One T-1 service can support up to 24 simultaneous channels. These channels can be either voice or data (PBX support). A T-1 service can also be provisioned as a single channel delivering 1.544 Mbps of data (LAN to ISP connection).
  34. 34. 34 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 T-1 Service A T-1service requires 4 wires, as opposed to a 2-wire telephone line. A T-1 can be either intra-LATA (local) which costs roughly $300-$700 per month, or inter-LATA (long distance) which can cost thousands of dollars per month. A customer may also be able to order a ¼ T-1 or a ½ T-1.
  35. 35. 35 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 T-1 Service A T-1constantly transmits frames (8000 frames per second). Each frame consists of one byte from each of the 24 channels, plus 1 sync bit (8 * 24 + 1 = 193 bits). 8000 frames per second * 193 bits per frame = 1.544 Mbps. If a channel is used for voice, each byte is one byte of PCM- encoded voice. If a channel is used for data, each byte contains 7 bits of data and 1 bit of control information (7 * 8000 = 56 Kbps).
  36. 36. 36 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) ISDN is another leased service that provides a digital telephone or data connection into a home or business. With ISDN you can have a digital telephone line and a 64 Kbps data line, or one 128 Kbps data line. The basic rate interface (BRI) is the service for homes and small businesses, while the primary rate interface (PRI) is the service for larger businesses.
  37. 37. 37 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 ISDN BRI ISDN consists of two B channels and one D channel. A B channel can carry 64 Kbps of data or PCM-encoded voice. The D channel is 16 Kbps and carries signaling information. The B channels are dialable, and the D channel can be always on. Many users combine both B channels for a 128 Kbps data channel.
  38. 38. 38 ISDN PRI ISDN is used by larger businesses and contains 23 B channels and one 64 Kbps D channel. PRI ISDN is essentially equivalent to a T-1, but with ISDN the 23 channels are dialable! The appropriate ISDN modems / multiplexors are necessary to support this service. What could you use an always-on D channel for?
  39. 39. 39 Frame Relay Frame relay – packet switching Frame relay is the leased service that can provide a high- speed connection for data transfer between two points either locally or over long distances. A business only has to connect itself to the local frame relay port. Hopefully this connection is a local telephone call. Once the data reaches the local frame relay port, the frame relay network, or cloud, transmits the data to the other side.
  40. 40. 40 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12
  41. 41. 41 Frame Relay A connection between two endpoints is called a permanent virtual circuit (PVC). PVCs are created by the provider of the frame relay service. The user uses a high-speed telephone line to connect its company to a port, which is the entryway to the frame relay network. The high-speed line, the port, and the PVC should all be chosen to support a desired transmission speed.
  42. 42. 42 Frame Relay Connection between Chicago and Orlando showing Access Lines, Ports and Permanent Virtual Circuit
  43. 43. 43 Frame Relay - installation Consider a company that has four office locations and currently has six leased lines interconnecting the four locations. To install frame relay, the company would ask for six PVCs in place of the six leased lines. The company would also need four high speed telephone lines and four ports connecting the four locations to the frame relay cloud.
  44. 44. 44 Interconnection diagram showing six leased lines used to interconnect a company’s four locations.
  45. 45. 45 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12
  46. 46. 46 Frame Relay and CIR The user and frame relay service would agree upon a committed information rate (CIR). The CIR states that if the customer stays within a specified data rate (standard rate plus a burst rate) the frame relay provider will guarantee delivery of 99.99% of the frames. The burst rate cannot be exceeded for longer than 2 seconds.
  47. 47. 47 Frame Relay and CIR For example: If a company agrees to a CIR of 512 Kbps with a burst rate of 256 Kbps, the company must stay at or below 512 Kbps, with an occasional burst up to 768 Kbps, as long as the burst does not last longer than 2 seconds. If the company maintains their end of the agreement, the carrier will provide something like 99.99% throughput and a network delay of no longer than 20 milleseconds. If the customer exceeds its CIR, and the network becomes congested, the customer’s frames may be discarded.
  48. 48. 48 Frame Relay vs. the Internet Frame relay has many advantages over the Internet, including guaranteed throughput and minimum delay, and better security. Internet has the advantage of being practically everywhere, cheaper, and simpler to create connections (no PVCs necessary).
  49. 49. 49 Voice over Frame Relay Frame relay is now capable of supporting voice communications. The high transfer speeds of frame relay adequately support the needs of interactive voice. If a company requires multiple voice circuits, frame relay is an interesting solution.
  50. 50. 50 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12 Switched Virtual Circuits Frame relay can now also provide switched virtual circuits (SVC). An SVC can be created dynamically by the customer. Good for short-term connections.
  51. 51. 51 Asynchronous Transfer Mode Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a very high speed packet delivery service, similar in a number of ways to frame relay. Both send packets of data over high speed lines. Both require a user to create a circuit with a provider. One noticeable difference between ATM and frame relay is speed - ATM is capable of speeds up to 622 Mbps while frame relay’s maximum is typically 45 Mbps.
  52. 52. 52 Asynchronous Transfer Mode Similar to frame relay, data travels over a connection called a virtual channel connection (VCC). To better manage VCCs, a VCC must travel over a virtual path connection (VPC). One of ATM’s strengths (besides its high speeds) is its ability to offer various classes of service. If a company requires a high-speed, continuous connection, they might consider a constant bit rate service.
  53. 53. 53 Asynchronous Transfer Mode A less demanding service is variable bit rate (VBR). VBR can also support real time applications, as well as non- real time applications, but do not demand a constant bit stream. Available bit rate (ABR) is used for bursty traffic that does not need to be transmitted immediately. ABR traffic may be held up until a transmission opening is available. Unspecified bit rate (UBR) is for lower rate traffic that may get held up, and may even be discarded part way through transmission if congestion occurs.
  54. 54. 54 Asynchronous Transfer Mode Advantages of ATM include very high speeds and the different classes of service. Disadvantages include potentially high costs (both equipment and support) and a high level of complexity. Future? Being pushed out of core networks Legacy systems will still exist
  55. 55. 55 Digital Subscriber Line Digital subscriber line (DSL) is a relative newcomer to the field of leased line services. DSL can provide very high data transfer rates over standard telephone lines. Unfortunately, less than half the telephone lines in the U.S. are incapable of supporting DSL. And there has to be a DSL provider in your region.
  56. 56. 56 Digital Subscriber Line DSL, depending on the type of service, is capable of transmission speeds from 100s of kilobits into single-digit megabits. Because DSL is highly dependent upon noise levels, a subscriber cannot be any more than 5.5 kilometers (2-3 miles) from the DSL central office. A DSL service can be symmetric, in which the downstream and upstream speeds are identical, or asymmetric in which the downstream speed is faster than the upstream speed.
  57. 57. 57 Digital Subscriber Line A DSL service often connects a user to the Internet. A DSL service can also provide a regular telephone service (POTS). The DSL provider uses a DSL access multiplexer (DSLAM) to split off the individual DSL lines into homes and businesses. A user than needs a splitter to separate the POTS line from the DSL line, and then a DSL modem to convert the DSL signals into a form recognized by the computer.
  58. 58. 58 Four Necessary Components of a DSL Connection DSL splitter DSL modem DSLAM (multiplexer) High Speed connection
  59. 59. 59 Digital Subscriber Line A DSL service comes in many different forms: • ADSL - Asymmetric DSL • CDSL - Consumer DSL (trademarked version by Rockwell) • DSL.Lite - Slower form than ADSL. • HDSL - High-bit rate DSL • RADSL - Rate adaptive DSL (speed varies depending on noise level)
  60. 60. 60 Comparison of different WAN connection technologies
  61. 61. 61 Computer Telephony Integration Computer telephony integration (CTI) is the emerging field that combines more traditional voice networks with modern computer networks. Consider a system in which a customer calls a customer support number. The customer’s telephone number appears on the customer support rep’s terminal and immediately pulls up the customer’s data. The rep answers the phone by clicking on an icon on the screen and helps the customer. The rep transfers the call by clicking on another icon on the computer screen.
  62. 62. 62 Computer Telephony Integration CTI can also integrate voice cabling with data cabling. The company PBX talks directly to the LAN server. The PBX can direct the LAN server to provide a telephone operation to the user through the user’s computer. The telephones may still be connected to the PBX or they may be connected to the LAN via the LAN wiring.
  63. 63. 63 Possible CTI Apps • Unified messaging • Interactive voice response • Integrated voice recognition and response • Fax processing and fax-back • Text-to-speech and speech-to-text conversions •Third party call control • PBX Graphic User Interface • Call filtering • Customized menuing systems
  64. 64. 64 Computer Telephony Integration A passing fad or new area in networking and telecommunications?
  65. 65. 65 Telecommunication Systems In Action – A Company Makes a Service Choice Better Box Corporation has offices in Seattle, San Francisco, and Dallas, with headquarters in Chicago. Better Box wants to connect Chicago to each of the other three offices. Better Box needs to download 400 Kbyte files in 20 seconds. This requires a transmission speed of 160,000 bps. Better Box could use three separate T-1 lines, use a frame relay service, or use asynchronous transfer mode.
  66. 66. 66 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12
  67. 67. 67 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12
  68. 68. 68 Telecommunication Systems In Action – A Company Makes a Service Choice Better Box Corporation might also consider dial-up access lines, ISDN BRI service, and leased 56K lines. Dial-up, ISDN BRI, and leased 56K lines will not meet the company’s requirements for a 160 Kbps download. Typical various prices for these services are shown on the next table.
  69. 69. 69 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 12
  70. 70. 70 Telecommunication Systems In Action – A Company Makes a Service Choice To provide T-1 service to all four offices: Seattle to Chicago: $6325 ($1200 + $2.50 per mile) San Francisco to Chicago: $6625 Dallas to Chicago: $3500 Total interLATA T-1 costs = $16,450 / month
  71. 71. 71 To provide frame relay service: Three ports at 256K = 3 x $495 One port at 768K = $1240 Three 256K PVCs = 3 x $230 Four intraLATA T-1s = 4 x $350 Total charge = $4815 / month Telecommunication Systems In Action – A Company Makes a Service Choice
  72. 72. 72 To provide asynchronous transfer mode service: Four ports at 1.544 Mbps ABR = 4 x $1750 Three channels = 3 x $250 Three paths = $2 per mile x 5140 miles = $10,280 Four intraLATA T-1s = 4 x $350 Total ATM charges = $19,430 / month Telecommunication Systems In Action – A Company Makes a Service Choice
  73. 73. 73 What would you do? T1 Frame Relay ATM Telecommunication Systems In Action – A Company Makes a Service Choice
  74. 74. 74 What we covered • POTS • Technologies for WAN access • What we did not cover – Digital Wireless