A project report on Foot Step Power Generation By Indrakumar R Padwani
A PROJECT REPORT
FOOT STEP POWER GENERATION
Rathod Sanjaybhai L.176188319006
Mochi Tusharbhai M.176180319020
Taviyad Bharatbhai G.166180319054
Submitted in the partial fulfillment for the award of
Diploma in Mechanical engineering
Guided by Mr.Indrakumar Padwani
GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC, GODHRA.
Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad
This is to certify that
NAME ENROLLMENT NO.
1 Rathod Sanjaybhai L. 176188319006
2 Mochi Tusharbhai M. 176180319020
3 Taviyad Bharatbhai G. 166180319054
from GOVERNMENT POLYTECHANIC,GODHRA college have completed project report having title
“FOOT STEP POWER GENERATION” in a group consist of 3 persons under the guidance of the
faculty Mr.Indrakumar Padwani
Guidedby: Head ofdepartment
Mr.Indrakumar Padwani MR.SHAILESH GANDHI
It is my pleasure to be indebted to various people. Who directly or indirectly contributed in the
development of this work and who influenced thinking, behaviour, and acts during the course of study.
I am thankful Mr.Indrakumar Padwani, project guide, for his support, cooperation, and
motivation to me, during the project and for continuous inspiration, presence andblessings.
Ialso extendmysincereappreciationtoMr.SHAILESH GANDHI,Headofdepartment,Faculty of
Mechanical Engineering who provided her valuable suggestion and precious time in accomplishing my
Lastly, I would like to thank the almighty and my parents for their moral support and my friends
with whom I shared my day-to-day experience and received lots of suggestion that improved my quality
Rathod Sanjaybhai L.
Mochi Tusharbhai M.
Taviyad Bharatbhai G.
In this project we are generating electrical power as non-conventional method by simply walking or running
on the footsteps. Non-conventional energy system is very essential at this time to our nation.
Nonconventional energy using foot step needs no fuel input power to generate the electrical power. In this
project the simple drive mechanism such as chain and sprocket assembly is used for generating power by
utilization of force which is obtained during the walking on steps is converted in to electrical energy with the
help of mechanical systems.this is used for activating the connected loads. This is one of the compact and
efficient systems for generating electricity which can be easily installed in many regions.
SR.NO. CHAPTER NAME PAGE NO.
1 Selection of project 8
2 Project planning 10
3 Introduction 12
4 Literature survey 18
Problem definition 20
6 Design of project 21
7 Working of project 22
8 Parts of project 23
9 Advantages and disadvantages 29
10 Appliction 30
11 Cost estimation
Future scope 33
LIST OF TABLES
Tables name Page no.
6.1 Component list 23
11.1 Costing Of Project 31
LIST OF FIGURE
Fig. No. Figure name. Page no.
3.1 Non-Renewable Energy 14
3.2 Renewable Energy 14
3.3 schematic representation of foot step 16
3.4 Arrangement Of Foot Step 16
6.1 Design of project 21
8.1 Spring 24
8.2 Chain drive 24
8.3 sprocket 25
8.4 shaft 25
8.5 Dynamo 26
8.6 pully 26
8.7 Ball bearing 27
8.8 stand 27
8.9 belt 28
SELECTION OF PROJECT
1.1 Introduction and Resources available
1.2 Details of the project
Before selection of the project, collection of the technical data market survey has to be carried out. We have
to see whether a similar product is available in market or not so. We can produce a product in the industry
with more features at reasonable price.
Also we have to consider the feasibility as well as suitability of the manufacturing with our available
1.1.1 Resources available
1. Location of study
2. Approach to site
4. Water available
5. Power available
6. Man power available
7. Financing arrangements
8. Capital cost
1.1.2Detail of the Project
We had discussed about various project from the selection of the project. After visiting rural area and
website, we had discussed following projects.
1. Multi directional hacksaw machine
2. Hydraulic Crane.
3. Pneumatic Lift.
4. Foot step power generation.
Finally we had discussed “Foot step power generation.” as power generation base project because we
thought parameters like economical in cost, simple in construction, easy in fabrication and it includes better
manufacturing process like machining, drilling, facing, boring etc.
To start of this project, a meeting with supervisor in the first week is done tomanage the schedule of weekly
meetings. The purpose is to inform the supervisor on theprogress of the project and guided by the supervisor
to solve difficulty.
Briefing based on the introduction and next task of the project is given bysupervisor. Make research of
literature review with the means of the internet, books,available published articles and materials that is
related to the title.
Designing phase start of by sketching few model models using manual sketch onpapers. Do it comparison
for choose the best concept. Software applications aredownloaded from internet to design the model based
on the sketches. Software cad Work helps to draw the better dimension.The preparation of mid-presentation
of the project is next. Before presenting, thesupervisor will see through the slide presentations and comment
on corrections to bemade. Then, presentation on the knowledge attained and instilled in the design phase
ispresented to a panel of three judges.Following up, is the fabrication of make some method for this project.
Choosethe material, make some list for the material and dimension. Do it planning offa fabrication process
for this project.
After that, start the fabrication process. It would take seven weeks to get thisdesign and fabrication process
alteration done. Make some analysis and testing for theproject. Do it correction for error this project. Finish
the fabrication process withpainting process.
After that, the final report writing and final presentation will be the last task to beaccomplished. The
supervisor will review the final presentation and revise mistakes tobe amended. The final presentation then
again will be presented to three panels. A draftreport would then be submitted to the supervisor to be point
out the flaws. Correctionsare done and the real final report is handed over as a completion of the final year
Steps of Project Planning:
1. Selection of project
2. Market survey
3. Production capacity
4. Investment decision
5. Design and drawing
6. Selection of material
7. Selection machines, tools and equipments required.
8. Resource labor, transportations, loss of manufacturing.
9. Including material required process
10. Inventory planning
11. Process planning
13. Testing of project
14. Market response of project.
Man has needed and used energy at an increasing rate for his sustenance and well being ever since he came
on the earth a few million years ago. Primitive man required energy primarily in the form of food. He
derived this by eating plants or animals, which he hunted. Subsequently he discovered fire and his energy
needs increased as he started to make use of wood and other bio mass to supply the energy needs for
cooking as well as for keeping himself warm. With the passage of time, man started to cultivate land for
agriculture. He added a new dimension to the use of energy by domesticating and training animals to work
for him. With further demand for energy, man began to use the wind for sailing ships and for driving
windmills, and the force of falling water to turn water for sailing ships and for driving windmills, and the
force of falling water to turn water wheels. Till this time, it would not be wrong to say that the sun was
supplying all the energy needs of man either directly or indirectly and that man was using only renewable
sources of energy.
3.2 Need For Non-Conventional Energy
Fuel deposit in the world will soon deplete by the end of 2020. Fuel security will be maximum. Country
using petroleum will not have the chance to use petroleum products. Keeping this dangerous situation in
mind, we tried to make use of non-pollutant natural resource of solar energy.
The creation of new source of perennial is environmental acceptable. Low cost electrical energy as
replacement for energy from rapidly depleting resources of fossil fuels is the fundamental need for the
survival of mankind.
We have oil resources for about 25 Yr. And coal reserves for about 75-100 Yr. Resort to measure the
beginning of coal in thermal electric. Power station to service the population would result in global
elementary change in leading to worldwide draught and desertification. The hazards of nuclear electric
power station are more & huge.
Now electric power beamed directly by microwave for orbiting statuette. Solar power stations (s.p.s) provide
a cost effective solution every through many certain have extensively proceed work on solar photo voltaic
and solar thermal electric energy resources.
Earth based solar power station suffer certain basic limitation. It is not possible to consider such system and
meeting continuous uninterrupted concentrated base load electric power requirement.
Today, wind energy is the most mature of the renewable energy technologies apart from hydro. This wind
technology is much safer than other renewable energy source. In the wind mill a wind turbine is used where
wind turbines - capture the air flow by converting it into a rotational movement, which subsequently drives a
conventional generator for electricity.
In this project we are generating electrical power as non-conventional method by simply running on the train
in the foot step. Non-conventional energy system is very essential at this time to our nation. Non-
conventional energy using foot step needs no fuel input power to generate the output of the electrical power.
This project using simple drive mechanism such as rock and pinion assemble and chain drive mechanism.
For this project the conversion of the force energy in to electrical energy. The control mechanism carries the
rack & pinion, D.C generator, battery and inverter control. We have discussed the various applications and
further extension also. So this project is implemented to all foot step, the power generation is very high. The
initial cost of this arrangement is high.
3.3 TYPES OF ENERGY RESOURCES
- conventional energy sources
- Alternative energy sources
3.1.1 CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
Primary energy sources can be defined as sources which provide a net supply of energy coal, oil, uranium
etc., are example of this type as shown in fig. The energy required to obtain these fuel is much less than
what they can produce by combustion or nuclear reaction. The supply primary fuel is limited .It becomes
very essential to use these fuel sparingly. Example: Coal, natural gas, oil and nuclear energy.
Fig 3.1 Non-Renewable Energy
3.1.2 ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES
It is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. These alternatives are intended to address
concerns about such fossil fuels as shown in fig. The nature of what constitutes an alternative energy source
has changed considerably over time, as have controversies regarding energy use. Today, because of the
variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as "alternative"
is highly controversial.
In a general sense, alternative energy as it is currently conceived, is that which is produced or
recovered without the undesirable consequences inherent in fossil fuel use, particularly high carbon dioxide
emissions, an important factor in global warming.
Fig 3.2 Renewable Energy
Question that every time comes before every country i.e. the need of non-conventional energy sources or
systems. Why we need these systems and the answers are the growing consumption of energy has resulted in
the country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil & gas. Rising prices of oil and
gases and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future,
which has serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy. The main factor is increasing use of
fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems.
Hence there is primary need to use renewable energy sources like solar, wind, tidal, bio-mass and
energy from waste material.
For an alternate method to generate electricity there are number of methods by which electricity can be
produced, out if such methods footstep energy generation can be an effective method to generate electricity.
Walking is the most common activity in human life. When a person walks, he loses energy to the road
surface in the form of impact, vibration, sound etc, due to the transfer of his weight on to the road surface,
through foot falls on the ground during every step. This energy can be tapped and converted in the usable
form such as in electrical form. This device, if embedded in the footpath, can convert foot impact energy
into electrical form.
Human-powered transport has been in existence since time immemorial in the form of walking, running and
swimming. However modern technology has led to machines to enhance the use of human-power in more
efficient manner. In this context, pedal power is an excellent source of energy and has been in use since the
nineteenth century making use of the most powerful muscles in the body. Ninety-five percent of the exertion
put into pedal power is converted into energy. Pedal power can be applied to a wide range of jobs and is a
simple, cheap, and convenient source of energy. However, human kinetic energy can be useful in a number
of ways but it can also be used to generate electricity based on different approaches and many organizations
are already implementing human powered technologies to generate electricity to power small electronic
Now let us come to its some working principle, this device if embedded in footsteps of railway
platforms, city malls, city footpaths etc. can convert the weight impact of people into electrical energy.
When a pedestrian will step on the top plate of this device, the plate will go down and this downward motion
results in rotation of the shaft of the alternator which produces electrical energy. After removal of force the
top plate returns to its original position due to springs.
The footstep arrangement is used to generate the electric power. Now a day’s power demand is
increased, so the footstep arrangement is used to generate the electrical power in order to compensate
the electric power demand. In this arrangement the mechanical energy is converted into electrical
Fig 3.3 schematic representation of foot step
The basic working principle of this project is based on the footstep. To implement this we adjust the wooden
plates above and below the sensors and moveable springs. Non-conventional energy using foot step is
converting mechanical energy into the electrical energy. When the pressure is applied, the rack and pinion
will convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. This electrical energy will be storing in the 12v
rechargeable battery connected to inverter. We are using conventional battery charging unit also for giving
supply to the circuitry.
Fig 3.4 Arrangement Of Foot Step
In this project we are converting Mechanical energy into Electrical energy. We are trying to utilize the
wasted energy in a useful way. By using Rack and Pinion arrangement we are converting to and fro motion
of the steps into rotational motion of the dynamo.
In first foot step we are using rack and pinion arrangement directly to rotate the dynamo. But in second step
we are using chain drive mechanism to obtain better efficiency.
Through Dynamo the rotational energy is converted into electrical energy. This electrical energy output will
be shown by glowing the LEDs. The output power is expected to be 3 to 4V in prototype.
The main objectives of this project are:
To generate the electricity through the human foot
To provide electricity in rural area
To promote the non-conventional energy source
To save conventional energy sources
To store the electricity for further use
To produce electricity when rack move in upward direction
To combine two method for more output from one system
 Ramesh Raja R, Sherin Mathew, “Power Generation from Staircase” We are using the non-renewable
energy sources such as petroleum as well as renewable sources like solar, wind, tidal power etc., but still we
couldn’t overcome our power needs. So we have to generate electricity through each and every possible
ways. Power can be generated through we are stepping on the stairs; the generated power will bestored and
can be used for domestic purposes. This system can be installed at homes, colleges, railway stations, where
the people move around the clock. The utilization of waste energy of human foot power is very much
relevant and important for populated countries like India and China. A special mechanical arrangement such
as crankshaft mechanism is employed on the stair case. This arrangement will convert the foot power
applied on stairs, as a rotary motion. This rotary motion will be used to generate efficient electricity. It’s an
eco-friendly; easily accessible and non-conventional power generation system when compared to existing
 Mrs. Krupal Dhimar, Miss. Krishna Patel,, Miss. Zeel Patel, Miss. Nisha Pindiwala,“FOOTSTEP
POWER GENERATION SYSTEM” in that Power crisis is being one of the serious topics to be discussed.
There for possible solution for this to provide sufficient amount of power using renewable energy. Among
these resources, human population is the only far and away and all weather resource that has not been
utilized .we can use proper method required amount of power can be obtain from this resource. We have
thought the idea to utilize human walking power to produce electricity and also we have designed a method
named foot step power generation platform, when people walk on the platform, electricity is generated in
this system uses the pressure due to weight of the person walking on the platform and stored using batteries.
For batter result cascade H bridge inverter used. A 5-level three-phase cascaded hybrid multilevel inverter
that consists of a standard 3-leg (one leg for each phase) and H-bridge in series with each inverter leg with
separate DC voltage sources, 24V and 48V. The control signals for this hybrid multilevel inverter are
implemented by a using SPWM signal modulated technique and digital technique.
 Sabarish.R , Alok Kumar “DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF FOOT STEP POWER
GENTRATION”in this paper In this project we are generating electrical power as non-conventional
method by simply walking or running on the footsteps. Non-conventional energy system is very essential at
this time to our nation. Nonconventional energy using foot step needs no fuel input power to generate the
electrical power. In this project the simple drive mechanism such as rack and pinion assembly and chain
drive mechanism is used for generating power by utilization of force which is obtained during the walking
on steps is converted in to electrical energy with the help of mechanical systems. The generated power is
stored by means of battery and this is used for activating the connected loads. This is one of the compact and
efficient systems for generating electricity which can be easily installed in many regions.
Abhishek N.,Shivasharana Yalagi. “POWER GENERATION BY FOOT STEPS USING RACK
AND PINION ARRANGEMENT”in that Now a day’s energy and power are the one of the basic
necessities regarding this modern world. In this project we are generating electrical power as non-
conventional method by walking on the footsteps. Non-conventional energy system is very essential at this
time to developing nations like India, China etc. Non-conventional energy using footsteps needs no fuel
input power to generate the output. In this project the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy
is done by using simple drive mechanisms such as rack and pinion assembly and chain drive mechanism.
 Ajinkya V. Gothane, Akshay R. Gosavi, Prof. P. V. Raut, “FOOT STEP POWER GENERATION” in
that In this paper, we are generated power by simply walking on floor for power applications. Today the
basic need of human is electricity. The energy obtain from floor is one of the non-conventional energy. In
India mostly energy is generated by using conventional energy sources and they are very much limited. On
the other hand by using such resources may cause global warming and serious pollution. Hence it is
necessary to use non-conventional energy to generate power which is eco-friendly and clean in nature. This
system harvest electricity using the pressure energy from movement of human through the floor. It is
electro-mechanical system. This mechanism contains the rack and pinion, gears, bearing, chain, ratchet
mechanism, sprockets, dynamo and battery. The main aim of this system is the harvesting large amount of
power from overcrowded places which can be utilize during load shedding and we are trying to reduce the
problem of electricity in our country significantly.
Patel Kamlesh, Pandya Krunal , Patel Ronak , Prajapati Jaydeep, Mr. Sorathiya Mehul “Design of Foot
Step Power Generation System” in that As the demand of energy is increasing day by day, so the ultimate
solution to deal with these sorts of problems is just to implement the renewable sources of energy Humans
are using the renewable energy which are solar, wind etc. but we still could not satisfy our power needs,
because of that we have to generate electricity through each and every possible ways. The objective of this
work is to produce power through footsteps as a source of renewable energy that we can obtained while
walking or standing on to the certain arrangements like footpaths, stairs, plate forms and these systems can
be install specially in the more populated areas. In this project the force energy is produced by human foot
step and force energy is converted into mechanical energy by the rack and pinion mechanism. electricity is
produced by DC generator. We are suppose to study existing methods of foot step power generation that are
rack and pinion arrangement and piezoelectric crystals and supposed to modified the existing system.
Today the basic need of human is electricity. The energy obtain from floor is one of the non-conventional
energy. In India mostly energy is generated by using conventional energy sources and they are very much
limited. On the other hand by using such resources may cause global warming and serious pollution. Hence
it is necessary to use non-conventional energy to generate power which is eco-friendly and clean in nature.
DESIGN OF PROJECT
Fig. 6.1 Design of foot step power generation.
1.spring 2.Chain 3.sprocket 4.bearing 5.pully
6. belt 7.shaft 8.dynamo
WORKING OF PROJECT
This system contains pully,springs, chain, sprockets, dynamo etc. which are fixed below the floor. spring are
used at each end which is use to regain the original position when pressure is released. The chain is fixed
with floor and coupled with sprocket.Chain and spocket is use to convert linear motion into rotational
motion. When force applied on floor the rotational motion from the chain sprocket to the pully which is
attached with the same shaft.the big pully connected with the dynamo pully and The rotational motion is
given to the dynamo which generates power and power use for various applications.
PARTS OF FOOT STEP POWER GENERATION
Main components of machine
Sr. No. Components Material
1 INTERNAL STAND M.S.
2 PLATE FOR TOP SURFACE. M.S.
3 SPRING M.S.
4 BEARING S.S
5 SPROCKET HIGH CARBON
6 CHAIN DRIVE S.S
7 PULLY C.I
8 DYNAMO -
9 SHAFT M.S.
10 LED GLASS
11 BELT RUBBER
Table 8.1 component list
Fig. 8.1 Spring
spring are open-coil helical springs wound or constructed to oppose compression along the axis of wind.
Helical compression springs are the most common metal spring configuration. Generally, these coil springs
are either placed over a rod or fitted inside a hole. When you put a load on a compressing coil, springs,
making it shorter, it pushes back against the load and tries to get back to its original length. Compression
springs offer resistance to liner compressing forced (push), and are in fact one of the most efficient energy
storage devices available.
It is defined as an elastic body whose function is to distort when loaded and to recover its original shape
when load is removed. It absorbs or control energy either due to shocks or due to vibrations.
8.2 Chain drive
Fig. 8.2Chain drive
Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another. It is often used to convey
power to the wheels of a vehicle, particularly bicycles and motorcycles. It is also used in a wide variety of
machines besides vehicles. Most often, the power is conveyed by a roller chain, known as the drive chain or
transmission chain, passing over a sprocket gear, with the teeth of the gear meshing with the holes in the
links of the chain. The gear is turned, and this pulls the chain putting mechanical force into the system.
Chain drive is used for transmitting mechanical power from one place to another place. It is often used to
convey power to the wheel of vehicle. The power is transmitted by roller chain, known as the chain drive.
A sprocket or sprocket-wheel is a profiled wheel with teeth or cogs that mesh with a chain, track or other
perforated or indented material. The name "sprocket" applies generally to any wheel upon which are radial
projections that engage a chain passing over it. It is distinguished from a gear in that sprockets are never
meshed together directly, and differs from a pulley in that sprockets have teeth and pulleys are smooth.
Sprocket are used in bicycles, motorcycles, cars, tracked vehicles and other machinery to transmit rotary
motion between two shafts where gears are unsuitable or to a track. They can be run at high speed and some
forms of chain are so contracted as to be noiseless even at high speed.
A shaft is a rotating machine element which is used transfer power from one place to another. The shaft
clamped between the iron frame works and the freewheeling type bearing attached to the shaft. The
freewheeling bearing rotates only in on direction.
F ig. 8.5Dynamo
Dynamo is device which is used to convert the rotational energy into electrical energy. The current produced
by dynamo is DC. It is primary form of power generation due to its reliability and efficiency of the system.
A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a
taut cable or belt, or transfer of power between the shaft and cable or belt. A pulley may have a groove or
grooves between flanges around its circumference to locate the cable or belt. The drive element of a pulley
system can be a rope, cable, belt, or chain.Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift loads, apply forces,
and to transmit power. In nautical contexts, the assembly of wheel, axle, and supporting shell is referred to
as a "block."
8.7 Ball bearing
Fig. 8.7 Ball bearing
A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the
bearing races. The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial
8.8 Main stand
Fig 8.8Main stand
It is used to support the whole structure.
A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically, most often
parallel. Belts may be used as a source of motion, to transmit power efficiently or to track relative
movement. Belts are looped over pulleys and may have a twist between the pulleys, and the shafts need not
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Produces electricity efficiently. .
It does not pollute the environment.
Simple construction, mature technology.
No manual work necessary during generation.
Energy available all year round.
No fuel transportation problem.
Reliable, Economical, Eco-Friendly.
No need of fuel input.
This is a non-conventional system.
● Only applicable for the particular place.
● Mechanical moving parts is high
● Initial cost of this arrangement is high.
● Care should be taken for batteries
Power generation using foot step can be used in most of
the places such as
● cinema theatres,
● Shopping complex and Many other buildings roads, railway stations, bus stands, temples, etc.
No. Components Cost Rs.
1 INTERNAL STAND 1800 /-
2 PLATE FOR TOP SURFACE. 600 /-
3 BEARING 160/-
4 SPROCKET 150/-
5 CHAIN DRIVE 120/-
6 PULLY 200/-
7 DYNAMO 250/-
8 SHAFT 300/-
9 BELT 400/-
10 LED 10/-
In modern world the demand of renewable energy is increasing rapidly. Power generating slab doesn’tneed
any fuel to produce power. It just uses the energy that is lost by a human during walking. These slabs canbe
helpful in reducing power crisis. If these slabs are produced industrially and further research is done
onmaterials and the design, the efficiency will be a lot better. Then these slabs can be viewed as a next
promisingsource of generating power, especially in a country like India, where we have a lot of power crisis,
andpopulation explosion. Spreading this technology on large scale would be much cheaper and efficient than
anyother renewable sources of energy, and it should be highly recommended. This technology is
completelyharmless to life of any sort, and the environment, and highly beneficial, especially in our
As for the future scope, we can use this principle in the speed breakers in highways where there is a lot
of rush, thus the input torque and ultimate output of generator can be increased. If this technology is
implemented in the stairs of a very busy building ,a lot of efficient electrical power can be harnessed to run
theloads in the building. The approach for the utilization of waste energy by human locomotion is very
relevant inhighly populated countries like India and China where the roads, railway stations, bus stands,
temples, etc. areall over crowded. This whole human locomotive energy being wasted, if can be made
possible for utilization itwill be a great invention and the crowd energy farms will be very useful energy
sources in crowded countries. Alarge amount of electrical energy can be harnessed by such a technique and
can be implemented to runnecessary loads.It can be easily modified into automation base so electricity
1. Theory of Machines book by R.S.Khurmi.
2. Non Conventional Energy Sources book by R.S.Khurmi.
3. Theory of Machine, S. Chand Publication
4. Machine Design, S. Chand Publication
6. www.wikipedia .com
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