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Presented by:
HINA KAYNAT
Ph.D. Scholar
Overview
 Define ethnographic research
 When to conduct an ethnography
 Development of ethnographic research
 Types of...
Ethnography
Ethnography:
 Discovers and describes the cultural characteristics of group.
Culture is shared attitudes, values, norms, ...
Development of Ethnography
Research
Ethnographic Research is…
“An attempt to attain as holistic a picture as possible of a particular
society, group, institut...
What are Ethnographers
Looking For?
 Shared Patterns – Individuals who interact on regular basis
and over a period of tim...
Why do you conduct an
Ethnographic Design ?
Aim of Ethnographic research “builds theories of cultures – or
explanations of...
Data sources
 People – their behaviors, communications, beliefs, styles
 Places – settings, their locations and design
...
Ethnographic Research in
Education
 Ethnographic study in education helps in addressing the
problems of education of a pa...
Types Of Ethnographies:
THREE COMMEN TYPES OF
ETHNOGRAPHIC DESIGNS
1. The realist ethnography
2. The case study
3. The critical ethnography
Realist ethnography:
Definition
• A realist ethnography is an objective account of the situation, typically
written in the...
Case Study Ethnography
Definition
• A case study is an in-depth exploration of a bounded system (e.g., activity,
event, pr...
The Critical Ethnography
Definition
• Critical ethnographies are a type of ethnographic research in which the author
is in...
Key characteristics of an
ethnographic design
 Exploring the shared culture theme
 A culture-sharing group
 Examination...
Key characteristics: Doing
fieldwork
 Fieldwork researcher gathers data in the setting
where the participants are located...
STEPS IN CONDUCTING AN
ETHNOGRAPHY
STEP 1
Identify Intent and
the type of Design
and relate intent to
your research
proble...
Procedure of Ethnographic
research in Education:
1). Identification of the Phenomenon to be Studied
2). Identification of ...
Example :
What are the factors that affect adolescent
drugs use in high schools/ colleges of
Northern cities of Pakistan?
Examples of ethnographic
studies
 Research on the smokers community – Bumming
cigarettes
 Research on education – Studyi...
Collect Data Using Appropriate
Methods
 Realist Ethnography
 Interviews, Artifacts, Drawings, Relics
 Data should lead ...
Popular forms of data collected:
Write Final Report Consistent
with Your Design
 Realist Ethnography
 Report should be an objective study
 The researche...
Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths
 Comprehensive perspective
 Observe behavior in its natural
setting
 Works when results cannot be
quantified
...
Weaknesses
 Dependent on researcher’s
observations
 No or little numerical data,
therefore hard to check validity
 Impo...
HOW DO WE EVALUATE AN
ETHNOGRAPHY?
 Identify a cultural issue to study
 Select a group to observe or interview over time...
Ethical Issues Conducting
Ethnography
Primarily come up when doing fieldwork because of issues collecting data
Negotiatin...
References
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Ethnographic Designs. Educational research: planning,
conducting, and evaluating quant...
Ethnographic studies by hina kaynat
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Ethnographic studies by hina kaynat

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Ethnographic studies by hina kaynat

  1. 1. Presented by: HINA KAYNAT Ph.D. Scholar
  2. 2. Overview  Define ethnographic research  When to conduct an ethnography  Development of ethnographic research  Types of Ethnographic Designs  Key characteristics of ethnographic research  Steps in conducting an ethnography  Evaluating an ethnography
  3. 3. Ethnography
  4. 4. Ethnography:  Discovers and describes the cultural characteristics of group. Culture is shared attitudes, values, norms, practices, language, and material things of a group of people. Can study micro cultures (classroom) and macro cultures (Pakistanis)
  5. 5. Development of Ethnography Research
  6. 6. Ethnographic Research is… “An attempt to attain as holistic a picture as possible of a particular society, group, institution, or situation. The emphasis in ethnographic research is on documenting or portraying the everyday experiences of individuals by observing and interviewing them and relevant others.”(Frankel & Wallen, 2006) “Ethnographic designs are qualitative research procedures for describing, analyzing, and interpreting a culture-sharing group’s shared patterns of behavior, beliefs, and language that develop over time.”(Gay L, Mills G, Airasian P, 2009)
  7. 7. What are Ethnographers Looking For?  Shared Patterns – Individuals who interact on regular basis and over a period of time.  Behaviors  Beliefs  Language
  8. 8. Why do you conduct an Ethnographic Design ? Aim of Ethnographic research “builds theories of cultures – or explanations of how people think, believe, and behave – that are situated in local time and space” Purpose: To understand a bigger issue by closely studying a culture- sharing group. Want a day-to-day picture Long-term access to culture-sharing group Interest in adding knowledge and studying cultural themes
  9. 9. Data sources  People – their behaviors, communications, beliefs, styles  Places – settings, their locations and design  Things – objects or artifacts that have meaning or significance
  10. 10. Ethnographic Research in Education  Ethnographic study in education helps in addressing the problems of education of a particular group (e.g. students, teachers, principals, professors, administrators, planners, etc) with respect to their culture.  In the educational research, problems like the following have been dealt with:  school and community  schools;  personnel;  curriculums;  and educational processes
  11. 11. Types Of Ethnographies:
  12. 12. THREE COMMEN TYPES OF ETHNOGRAPHIC DESIGNS 1. The realist ethnography 2. The case study 3. The critical ethnography
  13. 13. Realist ethnography: Definition • A realist ethnography is an objective account of the situation, typically written in the third-person point of view, reporting objectively on the information learned from participants at a field site. Characteris tics and Roles of Researcher In this ethnographic design: • It is an objective, scientifically written ethnography • Narrates the study in the third person voice reporting what is observed (facts) • Research reports objective data free from personal bias, judgement, and/or goals • Researcher produces the participants’ views through closely edited quotes and has final word on interpretation Example Wolcott (1974, 1994) used a realist approach to ethnography to study the activities of a committee appointed to select a principal. This study addressed the process a school selection committee experienced as they interviewed candidates.
  14. 14. Case Study Ethnography Definition • A case study is an in-depth exploration of a bounded system (e.g., activity, event, process, or individuals) based on extensive data collection (Creswell, 2007). Characterist ics and Roles of Researcher In this ethnographic design: • a single individual, several individuals separately or in a group, a program, events, or activities • be selected because it’s unusual • represent a process consisting of a series of steps that form a sequence of activities • Researcher develops understanding of the case by collecting multiple forms of data • Researcher locates the “case” or “cases” within their larger context Example An example of a case study is the research by Kos (1991) of four middle school students who have reading disabilities. The study examined what factors contributed to the development of reading disabilities in adolescents.
  15. 15. The Critical Ethnography Definition • Critical ethnographies are a type of ethnographic research in which the author is interested in advocating for the freedom of groups marginalized in our society (Thomas, 1993). Characterist ics and Roles of Researcher In this ethnographic design: • studies involve social issues of power, empowerment, inequality, inequity, dominance, repression, hegemony, and victimization. • Used to advocate for the emancipation of marginalized groups • Seeks to advocate for change to help transform society • Critical ethnographers are self-conscious, reflexive, and self-aware • Critical ethnographers actively collaborate, participate, negotiate with participants Example The critical ethnographic study of one principal in an “inclusive” elementary school (Keyes, Hanley-Maxwell, & Capper, 1999) illustrated many of these features. The overall purpose was to describe and define the role of administrative leadership in an inclusive school for students with a high incidence of disability classifications (e.g., cognitive, emotional, learning, speech, and language)
  16. 16. Key characteristics of an ethnographic design  Exploring the shared culture theme  A culture-sharing group  Examination of shared patterns of behavior, belief, and language  Data collection through fieldwork  Description, themes, interpretation  Group context or setting  Researcher reflexivity
  17. 17. Key characteristics: Doing fieldwork  Fieldwork researcher gathers data in the setting where the participants are located and where their shared patterns can be studied  Types of data  Emic data (data supplied by the participants)  Etic data (ethnographer’s interpretation of participant’s perspectives)  Negotiation data (information participants and researcher agree to use in a study)  Forms of data: Observations, Interviews, Documents review
  18. 18. STEPS IN CONDUCTING AN ETHNOGRAPHY STEP 1 Identify Intent and the type of Design and relate intent to your research problem STEP 2 Discuss how you plan to receive approval and gain access to study sites and participants STEP 3 Collect appropriate data, emphasizing time in the field, multiple sources of information, and collaboration STEP 5 Write and report your research consistent with your design STEP 4 Analyze and interpret your data within a design
  19. 19. Procedure of Ethnographic research in Education: 1). Identification of the Phenomenon to be Studied 2). Identification of Subjects 3). Hypotheses Generation 4). Data Collection 5). Preparing Field Notes 6). Reviewing other Sources 7). Triangulation 8). Analysis and Interpretation 9). Description 10). Drawing Conclusions
  20. 20. Example : What are the factors that affect adolescent drugs use in high schools/ colleges of Northern cities of Pakistan?
  21. 21. Examples of ethnographic studies  Research on the smokers community – Bumming cigarettes  Research on education – Studying abroad  An Ethnographic Researcher carries out a study on- How the students in a particular class respond to substitute teacher.  A Study on ‘Poverty affects on schooling of children’
  22. 22. Collect Data Using Appropriate Methods  Realist Ethnography  Interviews, Artifacts, Drawings, Relics  Data should lead to an in-depth understanding of culture  Case Studies  Interviews, Observations, Video/Audio Recordings  Data should be extensive and varied  Critical Ethnography  Collaborate with the participants to collect data that they provide  Participants should participate in collection and analysis
  23. 23. Popular forms of data collected:
  24. 24. Write Final Report Consistent with Your Design  Realist Ethnography  Report should be an objective study  The researcher should remain in the background  Case Study  Report should focus on the case  Researcher can choose to be objective or subjective  Critical Ethnography  Report should be a call to action on the critical issue  A specific plan of action should be included
  25. 25. Strengths and Weaknesses
  26. 26. Strengths  Comprehensive perspective  Observe behavior in its natural setting  Works when results cannot be quantified  Good for observing behavior over an extensive period of time
  27. 27. Weaknesses  Dependent on researcher’s observations  No or little numerical data, therefore hard to check validity  Impossible to eliminate observer bias  Participants might not act naturally when they know they are being observed.  This method is time-consuming and may require several exposures to get the best findings
  28. 28. HOW DO WE EVALUATE AN ETHNOGRAPHY?  Identify a cultural issue to study  Select a group to observe or interview over time  Noting shared patterns of behavior, language, and beliefs that the group has developed over time  Need to describe both the group and themes  Provide evidence of being reflexive
  29. 29. Ethical Issues Conducting Ethnography Primarily come up when doing fieldwork because of issues collecting data Negotiating how to get access to the people and sites being studied How long to stay in the field How to interact with the participants respectfully Open and transparent about gathering data Respect towards causing no harm, preserving dignity, and ensuring privacy Negotiate limits related to these factors
  30. 30. References Creswell, J. W. (2012). Ethnographic Designs. Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed., pp. 461-500). Boston: Pearson. Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. (2011). Ethnographic Research. How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed., pp. 506-533). New York: McGraw- Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2009). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications, student value edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. Best, J. W., & Kahn, J. V. (2016). Research in education. Pearson Education India. Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage.

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