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Electrical equipments used in hospitals

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Electrical equipments used in hospitals

  1. 1. Purpose of visit I visited the Unihospital as I had been assigned a case study on the topic “VARIOUS ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS USED IN HOSPITALS.” As a student of COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING , I felt very excited and found a wonderful opportunity which helped me in doing a lot of research and I came to know about a lot of new things.
  2. 2. INDEX • * INTRODUCTION • * ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY • * X-RAY • * BLOOD GAS ANALYSER • * SPHYGMOMANOMETER • * ULTRASOUND • * CONCLUSION
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS : They are nothing but anything that can be operated by applying electricity • MEDICAL EQUIPMENTS : They are designed to aid in the diagnosis , monitoring or treatment of medical conditions . • Science and Technology invented the equipments in medical fields which are operated by ELECTRICITY.
  4. 4. ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY • Electrocardiography is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time. • Working • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • **Electrical impulse (wave of depolarization) picked up by placing electrodes on patient. • **The voltage change is sensed by measuring the current change across 2 electrodes – a positive electrode and a negative electrode. • ** If the electrical impulse travels towards the positive electrodes this results in a positive deflection. • ** If the impulse travels away from the positive electrode this results in a negative deflection.
  5. 5. X-RAY • A photographic or digital image of internal composition of something , especially a part of the body ,produced by X-Rays being passed through it and being absorbed to different degrees by different materials . • WORKING: • ** Filament heats up by mA-electrons are produced. • **Peak kilovoltage (kVp) is applied to anode . • ** Negative electrons are attracted across the tube to the positive anode. • **Electrons slow down. • **Electron beam is focused by the focusing cup.
  6. 6. BLOOD GAS ANALYSER • ** It is used to calculate the pressure of the chemical elements like carbon monoxide , nitrogen, oxygen in blood. • **Blood collected from the person is introduced within chemical strip that has particle selective electrodes. • **Result is going to be shown in a digital manner with ADC(analog to digital converter ) for microcontroller. • ** The output is displayed in digital module in terms of millimeter mercury(mm Hg), kilo pascals(kpa). • **Typical values for CO and CO2 is 34 to 36 mmHg , oxygen is in between 80 to 90 mmHg.
  7. 7. Sphygmomanometer A sphygmomanometer (blood pressure gauge) is a device used to measure blood pressure . • WORKING: • **Blood pressure gauge is based on the oscillometric method . This method takes advantage of the pressure pulsations taken during measurements . • ** An oscillating cuff is placed on the left arm and is connected to an air pump and a pressure sensor . • **Cuff is inflated until a pressure greater than the typical systolic value is reached , then the cuff is slowly deflated . As the cuff deflates , when systolic pressure value approaches , pulsations start to appear. • **These pulsations represent the pressure changes due to heart ventricle contraction and can be used to calculate the heartbeat rate . • **Pulsations grow in amplitude until Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) is reached , then decrease until they disappear.
  8. 8. ULTRASOUND • A non invasive technique involving the formation of two dimensional image used for the examination and measurement of internal body structures and the detection of bodily abnormalities- called also sonography. • ** Ultrasound pictures are made from sound waves which are too high pitched to be heard by the human ear. • ** The sound waves travel through the skin and are focused on a certain part of the body by a scanning device “transducer”. • **It picks up the sound waves as they bounce back from organs inside the body. • **By measuring these echo waves , it is possible to detect changes in appearance of organs , tissues ,vessels or detect abnormal masses , such as tumors.
  9. 9. CONCLUSION • In conclusion , I want to say that the electrical type of equipments have changed the previous state of medical sciences . These instruments have increased the comfort level of patients as well as the doctors who are taking care of them. These instruments have reduced the time which is required for getting results . • ELECTRICITY PLAYS A PIVOTAL ROLE IN THE FIELDS OF MEDICINE AND ENGINEERING.

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