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BASIC RADIATION SAFETY
AWARENESS
S.GOKULAPRIYA,
RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER,
KING GEORGE HOSPITAL,
VISAKHAPATNAM, ANDHRA
PRAD...
OBJECTIVE
 To understand:
 What is radiation
 Effects of radiation
 Safe practices with radiation for worker, public a...
WHY SHOULD WE BE CONCERNED ABOUT
RADIATION EXPOSURE ?
 Can it hurt ?
Off Course Radiation Can Hurt
EFFECTS OF RADIATION
 Stochastic Effect
 Stochastic effect occur by a chance and which may occur
without a threshold dos...
EFFECTS OF RADIATION
 Deterministic Effect
 Determininstic effect describe a cause and effect relationship
between radia...
EFFECTS OF RADIATION
 It can burn ones skin
 It damages body cells and DNA causing mutations
and cancer
 It affects emb...
WHY RADIATION PROTECTION
 To reduce the probability of stochastic risk at an
acceptable level
 To prevent deterministic ...
 How to Protect Patients, Public And Staffs From
Radiation?
Protection Of Radiation Workers
ALARA PRINCIPLES
ALARA
 Alara is a philosophy, necessary to maintain personnel
exposure or the release of radioactivity to the environment...
TIME
 Less time = less radiation exposure
 Radiation workers should pre plan the procedure to
minimize the exposure
 Ra...
DISTANCE
 Effective and easy to follow
 More distance = less radiation exposure
SHIELDING
 Materials “absorb” radiation
 Proper shielding = less radiation exposure
TO SUM UP
 Exposure to X ray radiation is reduced if:
 Time exposed to source is less
 Distance from the source is more...
PREGNANCY AND THE RADIATION
 The embryo is sensitive to lethal effects of x rays and
doses much higher than 50mSv can lea...
RADIATION EFFECTS ON EMBRYO AND
FETUS
 Effects on infants due to exposure of the embryo or fetus
to radiation (500 mSv)
...
SHIELDING THROUGH PROTECTIVE DEVICES
 Examples of protective devices
 Lead apron
 Lead flaps
 Gloves
 Masks
 Eye pro...
LEAD APRON USAGE
 Lead aprons are shielding apparel recommended for use by
radiation workers.
 These are classified as s...
CORRECT WAY TO STORE APRONS
 When not in use
 All protective apparels should be hung properly designed
racks
 Protectiv...
TLD BADGES FOR RADIATION WORKERS
TLD BADGE – PERSONNEL MONITORING
DEVICE
 It is the responsibility of individuals to follow safe
practice measures
 If yo...
TLD BADGE
 Tld should be worn at chest level or waist level
 If a protective apron is worn the badge should be worn
unde...
RADIATION AREAS AT KGH
 Radiotherapy
 Radiology
 Nuclear medicine
 Cath lab
 Ot
 Dental
 Mamography
 Orthopaedics
...
SIGNAGE
 When you see this sign or the trifoil symbol at the
center of this sign, it is your notification that a radiatio...
RADIATION AREA - SIGNAGE
 Indicates the presence of a x ray machines
 Indicated the source is radioactive material
 Reporting Mechanism In Case Of Over Exposure
EMERGENCY RESPONSE
 Unsafe radiological conditions should be promptly
reported to the RSO.
 Report emergencies such as p...
ICRP RECOMMENDATIONS : INDIVIDUAL
DOSE LIMITS
Radiation Protection For Patients
MAXIMIZE THE TUBE DISTANCE AND
MINIMIZE DISTANCE FROM THE PATIENT
Radiation Protection For Public
RADIOTHERAPY AND THE PUBLIC
 Public:
 People living around a radiotherapy facility
 Visitors to the department
 Relati...
…PUBLIC COULD ALSO BE:
 Staff from other departments/divisions
 Contractors
 electricians
 painters
 plumbers
CONTROLLED AREA
 A controlled area is an area where procedural controls
are required in order to restrict radiation expos...
MEANS TO PREVENT PUBLIC EXPOSURE
 Access restriction
 Shielding
 Warning signs
 Lights
 Interlocks (e.g. door)
 Writ...
TAKE HOME MESSAGE
 MRI area is not a radiation hazard
 However, all staff members are requested to ensure the
metallic o...
TAKE HOME MESSAGE
 Be aware of radiation application/radiation warning
symbol
 Follow the basic principles of radiation ...
BASIC RADIATION SAFETY AWARENESS
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BASIC RADIATION SAFETY AWARENESS

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BASIC RADIATION SAFETY AWARENESS

  1. 1. BASIC RADIATION SAFETY AWARENESS S.GOKULAPRIYA, RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER, KING GEORGE HOSPITAL, VISAKHAPATNAM, ANDHRA PRADESH
  2. 2. OBJECTIVE  To understand:  What is radiation  Effects of radiation  Safe practices with radiation for worker, public and patients  Reporting mechanism incase of over exposure
  3. 3. WHY SHOULD WE BE CONCERNED ABOUT RADIATION EXPOSURE ?  Can it hurt ?
  4. 4. Off Course Radiation Can Hurt
  5. 5. EFFECTS OF RADIATION  Stochastic Effect  Stochastic effect occur by a chance and which may occur without a threshold dose  As the dose to an individual increases the probability of cancer or genetic effect will occur also increases
  6. 6. EFFECTS OF RADIATION  Deterministic Effect  Determininstic effect describe a cause and effect relationship between radiation and certain side effects  Determisnistic effect have a threshold dose and below which the effects does not occur
  7. 7. EFFECTS OF RADIATION  It can burn ones skin  It damages body cells and DNA causing mutations and cancer  It affects embryo and fetus
  8. 8. WHY RADIATION PROTECTION  To reduce the probability of stochastic risk at an acceptable level  To prevent deterministic effects
  9. 9.  How to Protect Patients, Public And Staffs From Radiation?
  10. 10. Protection Of Radiation Workers
  11. 11. ALARA PRINCIPLES
  12. 12. ALARA  Alara is a philosophy, necessary to maintain personnel exposure or the release of radioactivity to the environment well below applicable limits by means of a good radiation protection plan, through education, administrative controls and safe lab practices.
  13. 13. TIME  Less time = less radiation exposure  Radiation workers should pre plan the procedure to minimize the exposure  Radiation workers should do dry runs (without radioactive material) to practice
  14. 14. DISTANCE  Effective and easy to follow  More distance = less radiation exposure
  15. 15. SHIELDING  Materials “absorb” radiation  Proper shielding = less radiation exposure
  16. 16. TO SUM UP  Exposure to X ray radiation is reduced if:  Time exposed to source is less  Distance from the source is more  Shielding from the source is more
  17. 17. PREGNANCY AND THE RADIATION  The embryo is sensitive to lethal effects of x rays and doses much higher than 50mSv can lead to miscarriage  An exposure of 1mSv is safe for fetus
  18. 18. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EMBRYO AND FETUS  Effects on infants due to exposure of the embryo or fetus to radiation (500 mSv)  Severe mental retardation and congenital malformation (deterministic effect)  Likelihood of leukemia (stochastic effect)
  19. 19. SHIELDING THROUGH PROTECTIVE DEVICES  Examples of protective devices  Lead apron  Lead flaps  Gloves  Masks  Eye protector  Mobile lead barrier  thyroid collar
  20. 20. LEAD APRON USAGE  Lead aprons are shielding apparel recommended for use by radiation workers.  These are classified as secondary barriers to effects the of ionizing radiation
  21. 21. CORRECT WAY TO STORE APRONS  When not in use  All protective apparels should be hung properly designed racks  Protective apparel should also be radiographed for defects such as internal cracks and tears at least once a year
  22. 22. TLD BADGES FOR RADIATION WORKERS
  23. 23. TLD BADGE – PERSONNEL MONITORING DEVICE  It is the responsibility of individuals to follow safe practice measures  If you are a radiation worker and have not applied for TLD badge then please contact your HOD/RSO to fill the TLD application form
  24. 24. TLD BADGE  Tld should be worn at chest level or waist level  If a protective apron is worn the badge should be worn under the apron  Do not store badges in a place in radiation area  Tld badge is changed every 3 months
  25. 25. RADIATION AREAS AT KGH  Radiotherapy  Radiology  Nuclear medicine  Cath lab  Ot  Dental  Mamography  Orthopaedics  Gastro Entrology
  26. 26. SIGNAGE  When you see this sign or the trifoil symbol at the center of this sign, it is your notification that a radiation hazard is present.  All containers with regulated radioactive material will be labelled
  27. 27. RADIATION AREA - SIGNAGE  Indicates the presence of a x ray machines  Indicated the source is radioactive material
  28. 28.  Reporting Mechanism In Case Of Over Exposure
  29. 29. EMERGENCY RESPONSE  Unsafe radiological conditions should be promptly reported to the RSO.  Report emergencies such as personnel contamination, radioactive spills, lost or stolen radioactive material (including waste) or other potentially hazardous conditions  Loss or accidental exposure to the TLD badges should be immediately reported to the RSO  An accident involving medical emergencies, shall take priority over the concern for radioactivity
  30. 30. ICRP RECOMMENDATIONS : INDIVIDUAL DOSE LIMITS
  31. 31. Radiation Protection For Patients
  32. 32. MAXIMIZE THE TUBE DISTANCE AND MINIMIZE DISTANCE FROM THE PATIENT
  33. 33. Radiation Protection For Public
  34. 34. RADIOTHERAPY AND THE PUBLIC  Public:  People living around a radiotherapy facility  Visitors to the department  Relatives, friends and other persons who may be in contact with patients  Not necessarily: Partners and non-occupational persons who are involved in care or comforting the patient - this is “Medical Exposure”
  35. 35. …PUBLIC COULD ALSO BE:  Staff from other departments/divisions  Contractors  electricians  painters  plumbers
  36. 36. CONTROLLED AREA  A controlled area is an area where procedural controls are required in order to restrict radiation exposures. Restriction of Access
  37. 37. MEANS TO PREVENT PUBLIC EXPOSURE  Access restriction  Shielding  Warning signs  Lights  Interlocks (e.g. door)  Written information
  38. 38. TAKE HOME MESSAGE  MRI area is not a radiation hazard  However, all staff members are requested to ensure the metallic objects are left outside the MRI room
  39. 39. TAKE HOME MESSAGE  Be aware of radiation application/radiation warning symbol  Follow the basic principles of radiation safety  Intimate your Supervision/HOD/RSO if you are pregnant and working in the radiation zone  Use TLD properly  Any radiation emergency contact RSO

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