The term human development was first reported in 1990
as a new approach for advancing human flourishing
And while the expression “human development” is widely
used, it is understood in different ways around the world.
Human development grew out of global discussions on the
links between economic growth and development during
the second half of the 20th Century.
By the early 1960s there were increasingly loud calls to
“dethrone” GDP: economic growth had emerged as both a
leading objective, and indicator, of national progress in
i. i, even though GDP was never intended to be used as a measure
ii. ii. In the 1970s and 80s development debate considered using
alternative focuses to go beyond GDP, including putting greater
emphasis on employment, followed by redistribution with
growth, and then whether people had their basic needs met.
These ideas helped pave the way for the human development
approach, which is about expanding the richness of human
life, rather than simply the richness of the economy in which
human beings live.
It is an approach that is focused on creating fair opportunities
and choices for all people.
So how do these ideas come together in the human
People: the human development approach focuses on
improving the lives people lead rather than assuming that
economic growth will lead, automatically, to greater
opportunities for all. Income growth is an important means to
development, rather than an end in itself.
Opportunities: human development is about giving people
more freedom and opportunities to live lives they value. In
effect this means developing people’s abilities and giving
them a chance to use them.
For example, educating a girl would build her skills, but it is
of little use if she is denied access to jobs, or does not have
the skills for the local labour market.
Choices: human development is, fundamentally, about more
choice. It is about providing people with opportunities, not
insisting that they make use of them. No one can guarantee
human happiness, and the choices people make are their own
concern. The process of development – human development -
should at least create an environment for people, individually
and collectively, to develop to their full potential and to have a
reasonable chance of leading productive and creative lives that
The human development approach, developed by the economist
Mahbub Ul Haq, is anchored in Amartya Sen’s work on human
capabilities, often framed in terms of whether people are able to
“be” and “do” desirable things in life
Beings: well fed, sheltered, healthy
Doings: work, education, voting, participating in community life.
Freedom of choice is central: someone choosing to be hungry
(during a religious fast say) is quite different to someone who is
hungry because they cannot afford to buy food.
Human development (HD) is defined as the
process of enlarging people’s freedoms and
opportunities and improving their well being.
Human development is about the real freedom
ordinary people have to decide who to be, what
to be, and how to live.
True development has to be people oriented
When development is defined in terms of human
welfare it means that people are put first
This people oriented view of development is to
be called human development.
The highest development is human resources
In traditional development economics,
development meant growth of per capita real
Later on a wider definition of development came
to be assigned that focussed on distributional
Economic development in other words, came to
be refined in terms of reduction or elimination of
poverty and inequality.
To understand the dynamics of development, the
UNDP developed the human development index
(HDI) in 1990s.
This index brought in revolutionary changes not
only in development but also in the policy
environment in which the government was
assigned a major role instead of market forces.
Economic development now refers to expanding
According to Amartya Sen, the basic objective of
development is ‘the expansion of human capabilities’.
The capability of a person reflects the various combinations
of ‘doings’ and ‘beings’ that one can achieve.
It then reflects that the people are capable doing or being.
Capability thus describes a person’s freedom to choose
between different ways of living.
Can people read and write?
Are food staffs distributed among people in a universal
Do poor students get midday meal in school?
Do poor children get adequately nourishing diets at home?
No one would doubt that an illiterate poor person can not
have the same capabilities a rich literate one gets. Thus
capability failure leads to poverty and deprivation.
That is why development economists put greater emphasis
on education and health.
The noted Pakistani economist Mahub Ul haq
considered four essential pillars of human
development. These are:
III. Productivity and
These will be discussed in detaile
If development is viewed in terms of enhancing peoples
basic capabilities, people must enjoy equitable access
Such may be called equality-related capabilities
To ensure equality related capability or access to
opportunities, what is essential is that the societal
institutional structure needs to be more favourable or
Unfavourable asset distribution like land, can be made
more farmer friendly through land reform and
redistribution measures. Political equalities also...
Uneven income distribution may be addressed through
various tax- expenditure (fiscal) policies
Other economic or legislative measures that interferes
with market exchanges may enable people to enlarge
their capabilities and hence, well being
Sustainability means keep going or last long.
The concept of sustainable development focuses
on the need to maintain the long term protective
capacity of the biosphere
This then suggests the growth can not go on
indefinitely. There are of course ‘limits to growth’
Here the environment is an essential factor of
Sustainable development is meeting current
generation needs with out compromising the
ability of future generation meet their basic
Productivity is that requires investment in people
This is also called investment in human capital
Investment in human capital in addition to
physical capital can add more productivity
The improvement in the quality of human
resource raises the productivity of existing
The decisive factor of production in improving
the welfare poor people are not space, energy
and crop land; the decisive factor is the
improvement in population quality.
An empirical evidence from many East Asian
countries corroborate this view.
Refers to empowerment of people particularly
women is another component of HD
In other words genuine HD requires
empowerment in all aspects of life.
Empowerment implies a political democracy
in which people themselves make the
decisions about their lives
Empowerment refers to decentralization of
power, so that the benefits of governance are
reaped by all peoples
It also focuses on grassroots participation
which promotes democracy by encouraging
Decentralization and participation empower
people especially the women and the poor.
It the breaks the ‘deprivation traps’
“if people can exercise their choices in the
political, social and economic spheres, it is a
good prospect that growth will be strong,
democratic, participatory and durable.”
Mahbub ul Haq
How could we achieve gender equality?
What are the methods to improve human
What are the means of empowering people
Why girls education very critical in gender
What has to be done for achieving sustainable
Approaches to HD
Focuses of HD
Sustainable human development
Barriers to HD
Human development & Sustainable
Economic growth and SDH
Governance of SHD
There are four distinct approached to human
I. Income approach,
II. Welfare approach,
III. Basic needs approach, and
IV. Capabilities approach these will be
discussed as follows
The income approach to human development
is one of the oldest approaches
The income approach is built around the
belief that development is linked to income.
Therefore, the level of income a person has
influences their level of freedom
The welfare approach to human development
considers human beings as the beneficiaries
and not development participants.
The welfare approach to development argues
for higher government expenditure in the
sectors like health, education and amenities
Under this approach the government is solely
responsible for increasing the standard of
living and promoting development by
increasing expenditure on welfare.
The basic needs approach to human
development was proposed by the
international labor organization
The six necessities identified under this
approach are housing, water supply,
sanitation, health, food and education.
It ignores questions of human choices
The capability approach to human
development is associated with acclaimed
Indian economist Amartya Sen
Under the capability approach the key to
human development is building human
capability in education, health and
accessibility of resources
The three focuses of HD are People, opportunites
and choices: These will be discussed as follows:
1. People: Human development focuses on improving
the lives of people lead rather than assuming the
economic growth will lead, automatically to greater
wellbeing for all.
Income growth is seen as a means to development
rather than an end in itself.
2. Opportunities: human development is about giving
people more freedom to live lives the value. In effect
this means developing peoples abilities and giving
them a chance to use them.
For example educating a girl would build her skills
but it is off little use if she is denied access to jobs or
does not have the right skills for the local labour
Three fundamentals for human development
are to live long healthy and creative life, to be
knowledgeable and to have access to
resources needed for a decent standard of
Many other things are important too,
especially I n helping to create the right
conditions for human development.
Once the basics of human development are
achieved they open up opportunities for
progress in other aspects of life
3. Choices: human development is about fundamentally
about more choice.
It is about providing people with opportunities not
insisting that they make use of them
No one can guarantee human happiness and the
choices people make are their own concern
The process of development – human development
should at least create an environment for people
individually and collectively to develop to their full
potential and to have a reasonable chanced of leading
productive and creative lives that they value
As international community moves toward
implementing and monitoring the 2030 Agenda
(Sustainable Development Goals) the human
development approach remain useful to articulating
the objectives of development and improving peoples
wellbeing by ensuring an equitable, sustainable and
Sustainable human development means the
creation of the same opportunities for next
generations who are the same need as their
parents for dignified life.
Sustainable development is the idea that their
needs without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs.
It aims to improve the world in the long term.
They are solutions to social and
They are the sources of conflict, migration, and
other problems that disable a dignified life and
have devastating long term consequences
Human development as a participatory and dynamic
process is a concept that perfectly matches the
description of sustainable development in the well-
known Brundtland Report.
Sustainable development was defined as ‘‘[…]
development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs’’ (World
Commission on Environment and Development, 1987,
In the word ‘ability’, there is the conceptual link to
the human development approach.
In the light of the pionering Brundtland Report, UNDP
has followed up this approach by widening the
theoretical framework of human development and
capabilities in order to represent a much more
comprehensive development strategy
Economic growth is a means to sustainable
human development – not an end in itself
There are five aspects to sustainable human
development – all affecting the lives of the
poor and vulnerable.
5. Security (UNDP, 1996)
Governance includes state, but transcends it to
Private sector and civil society. All three are central
to human development.
The state creates a conducive political and legal
The private sector generates jobs and income and
pay Taxa to the Government
Civil society facilitates political and social interaction
- mobilizing groups to participate in political, social
and economic activities
Because, each have weaknesses and strengths and
good governance ensures when there is an
interaction between all the three actors.
If Development is not
Engendered, it is
Equality means Business (UN
development fund for
Gender refers to socially constructed or
culturally determined characteristics of
women and men, and to the kind of relations
that women and men have.
Gender includes a discussion of what the
socio-cultural environment says about being
a woman or a man, and about their normative
relations in all levels of the societal structure
from the family, school, church,
organizations, and workplaces to global
political and economic structures.
Gender relations are dynamic and change
over time, and vary considerably within and
between societies and cultures (ILO, 2005)
Sex refers to biologically determined differences
between men and women that are universal.
They are established in nature.
They largely remain unchanged.
Gender refers to the social roles and relations
between women and men.
Unlike the sex of men or women that is biologically
determined, gender roles of women and men are
Such roles can change over time and vary according
to geographic location and social context.
Gender . . .
Refers to the economic, social, political, and cultural
attributes and opportunities associated with being
male or female.
The social definitions of what it means to be a woman
or a man vary among cultures and change over time.
Refers to the biological differences between males and
females. Sex differences are concerned with males’
and females’ physiology.
Absence of discrimination on the basis of a person's sex in
opportunities and the allocation of resources or benefits or
in access to services.
The state or condition that affords women and
men equal enjoyment of human rights, socially
valued goods, opportunities, and resources.
Fairness and justice in the distribution of benefits and
responsibilities between women and men.
Process of being fair to women and men,
including using measures to compensate for
historical and social disadvantages that
prevent men and women from operating on a
level playing field.
Equality is an ideal
When the principle
of equality is
applied to unequals,
Gender equality is a
Equity is an
provisions for the
equity is essential
to achieve gender
Refers to strategies applied in program
assessment, design, implementation, and
evaluation to take gender norms into
account and to compensate for gender-
The process of incorporating a gender
perspective into policies, strategies,
programs, project activities, and
administrative functions, as well as
institutional culture of an organization.
Men are Women are
Strong, arrogant, violent,
domineering, decisive, non-
Weak, modest, peaceful,
Gender roles are learned
behaviors in a given
society/community or other social
groups, that condition which
activities, tasks and
responsibilities are perceived as
male and female
Stitching - at home
Cooking - at home
Cleaning - at home
Healthcare - at home
outside + Money= Tailor
outside + Money= Cook
outside + Money =
outside + Money =
Productive – work at offices,
business, income generating
Reproductive -conceiving, delivery
Community – community nurturing,
That’s why affirmative action is
needed in short and long term in
order to bring gender equality
Practical Gender Needs: Facilitate in
managing effectively the current
roles more easily without changing
the position in society
Strategic needs are related to
changing the status quo over time
Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment
or perceptions of individuals based on their
It arises from differences in socially
constructed gender roles as well as
biologically through chromosomes, brain
structure, and hormonal differences.
Gender inequality stems from distinctions,
whether empirically grounded or socially
constructed (Janet: 2010).
The following are areas of gender inequalities:
1. Income Disparity Related to Job
2. Professional Education and Careers
3. Structural Marginalization (institutional
conceptions of gender differences)
4. Gender stereotypes - Cultural stereotypes
are engrained in both men and women and
these stereotypes are a possible
explanation for gender inequality and the
resulting gendered wage disparity.
5. Disparity in household work
To progress towards gender equality depending on
the income level of a society is not sufficient but also
it needs more on political will so;
◦ the government,
◦ the civil society,
◦ private sector,
◦ Religious institutions,
◦ Traditional organizations like Gada system,
◦ and national and international organizations are
central actors to meet the challenges and to
contribute for speeding up of gender equality in the
history of human kind.
What are the causes of Gender inequality in Ethiopia?
One of the most important economic factors is access to
These resources include land, housing, credit, agricultural
extension, and training services. The access to these
resources indicates the economic wellbeing of women in a
Eg. Only 10% of world wealth is in the hands of women,
while men possess 90% (UN Women, 2015).
It is important to distinguish between access to resources
and control over them
Access is to mean that to have the opportunity to use
resources without having the authority to decide about the
produce/output and the exploitation methods.
Control is to mean that a person has a power to make
decisions about who uses the resources or to dispose of
World political participation of women is 30%
From 200 countries in January 2023 only 34
women head of states
What do we mean by sustainable
Sustainable development is concerned with
the needs of present and future generation
It is meeting current generation needs
without compromising capabilities of creating
needs for future generation
The concept contains within it two key points:
The concept of needs, in particular the
essential needs of the world's poor, to which
overriding priority should be given; and
The idea of limitations imposed by the state
of technology and social organization on the
environment's ability to meet present and
Sustainable development aims at the continuous
improvement of the quality of life on earth of
both current and future generations.
It is about safeguarding the earth’s capacity to
support life in all its diversity.
It is based on the principles of democracy and
the rule of law and respect for fundamental
rights including freedom and equal opportunities
It brings about solidarity within and between
It seeks to promote a dynamic economy with a
high level of employment and education, of
health protection, of social and territorial
cohesion and of environmental protection in a
peaceful and secure world, respecting cultural
The 2030 Agenda for sustainable development developed
by UNDP and adopted by United Nations member states in
There were 17 sustainable development goals, which are
urgent call for action by all in partnership including
government, NGOs, Churches, and other social
They recognized that ending poverty and other
deprivations must go hand in hand with strategies that
improve health, education, reduce inequality and spur
economic growth – all while tackling climate change and
working to preserve our environment, oceans and forests.
SDGs are the continuation of millennium development
goals (MDGs) implemented from 2000 to 2015.
They are discussed as follows:
What is human resource/human capital(s)?
What is human resource development?
What do we mean by psychology?
What is the role of leader in human resource
How Christian psychology shapes the leaders
Human capital/resource is one of the livelihood
assets/resources, one of the factor of production
The most important resource needed for
Human Capital includes Health, knowledge,
skills, information, physical capability and ability
to labor/ work/ constitutes human capital.
These elements of human capital are important
for the successful pursuit of different livelihood
HRD is the cultivation of an organizations
It entails providing workers with skills and
relevant knowledge that may help them to grow
in the workplace.
This makes human resources development an
integral part of human resource management
HRD aims to improve learning and performance
on both individual and organization levels while
human resource management focuses only on
human resources learning and performance.
HRD begins with clear vision for employee
development and it achieved this through
organization wide activities and continuous
The effective functioning of organization requires its employees
learn to perform their jobs at a satisfactory level of proficiency.
The effective organization is the one wish to have amongst its rank
individuals who are qualified to accept increasing responsibilities.
Thus the organizations need to provide opportunities for the
continuous development of employees in their present jobs.
The organization should develop their capabilities for other jobs for
which they might later be considered.
Subsequently the effectiveness of career planning in an organization
system is largely depending on the training and development
opportunities available in the respective organization.
Ultimately the employees should realize that their growth potential
and how to make contributions to achieve the organizational
objectives are pertinent in achieving their career goal.
The integration of organizational goals with individual goals and
their aspirations can be achieved through training and development.
Hence training and development is augmented as a most important
Training is concerned with formal procedures
which an organization utilizes to facilitate learning
so that the resultant behavior contributes to the
organization’s goals and objectives.
Training can be defined as the systematic
acquisition of attitudes, knowledge, skills and
abilities (KSAs) that results in improved
performance at work (Goldstein, 1991).
Training is necessary to keep abreast with rapid
economic, organizational and technological change
and the need to compete in the world market.
So, training involves investment in workers
Training and development activities have
the potential to benefit individual
employees, organizations and society as a
1.As a result of training, employees can
develop various skills, enhance their
promotion opportunities, take part in more
challenging work, and move more easily
between jobs and organizations.
2. Increased productivity, safer work
environments, improved employee well-
being and lower levels of absenteeism and
employee turn over.
Investment in training and development is
important for society because the economic
competitiveness of a nation is related to its
Training becomes necessary as a result of
Training can help reduce some of the
negative effects of technological change.
Training can also orient or socialize new
employees into the organization’s culture,
What are some of the importance of
orientation programmes in organisation
Psychology is the study of behaviours
Developmental psychology is scientific study
of how and why humans grow, change and
adapt across a course of their lives
These includes physical, cognitive and socio-
There are various stages of human
development from birth to death
The study of human development offers a wealth of value for
personal and professional growth and understanding. Common
benefits include the following:
To gain a better understanding of one’s own life experiences. This
can help people personally reach an understanding of what
childhood events shaped their adulthood.
To gain knowledge of how social context impacts development.
This knowledge can be invaluable for professionals like teachers as
they gain a deeper understanding of their students.
To help others understand and contextualize the ups and downs of
life. This helps therapists and psychologists better aid their clients
To understand how societal change can support growth and
development. This understanding helps decision-makers in schools
change the educational culture for the better.
To become a more effective research, teacher, or leader in many
different industries. It has many professional benefits that can lead
to greater insight.
To support the physical and mental health of
individuals throughout their life span. Professionals like doctors,
nurses, and therapists must understand human growth and
development to better support their clients.
Leaders possess certain leaders attributes for
which followers are following them
Most of these attributes were learned and
possessed through practices; since practice
makes people perfect
Most of this attributes were the results of
either biblical or social teachings
We will see how Christian leadership works in
influencing their followers spiritually as well
“the ability of an individual to influence,
motivate, and enable others to contribute
toward the effectiveness and success of the
Leaders are persons with followers (Drucker)
“the process of influencing an
organized group toward
accomplishing its goals” (Roach
embodying values, and creating
the environment within which
things can be accomplished”
(Richards & Engle)
Lang Creation Majesty
Sanctuary Legal Family
Focus Life Authority
Spirit of truth
Obeying law Maturity Serving God Following
Lang Creation Majesty
Sanctuary Legal Family
Focus Life Authority
Grace/purity Law Love
on behalf of
in truth; develops
people free to
Role Means Jesus Leader
Son, obedient to,
like the Father
Led and fed his
Teacher; human Instructs and
guides in truth
Role Means Jesus Leader
Without sin, high
Authority of God,
and just decision
cast out demons
Leader as CONDUIT between God and
Leadership is always PLURAL
VISION comes from WITHIN the organization
MANY GIFTS, ONE BODY: Dominant structure
for Third Millennium church leadership
THINK Biblically, theologically, globally,