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Intellectual disability

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Intellectual disability

  1. 1. Menchie M. Garachico Freddie C. Santos Jr. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY
  2. 2. *―An intellectual disability, formerly referred to as ―mental retardation‖ is characterized by a combination of deficits in both cognitive functioning and adaptive behavior. *The severity of the intellectual disability is determined by the discrepancy between the individual's capabilities in learning and in and the expectations of the social environment. (Project IDEAL, 2008) The Nature of Intellectual Disability
  3. 3. *―Mental retardation / intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills such as communicating, taking care of himself/herself and social skills. *These limitations cause a child to learn and develop more slowly than a typical child. (J.F. Smith Library, 2005, as cited by Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2007) The Nature of Intellectual Disability
  4. 4. Mental Retardation/ Intellectual Disability in DSM – IV – TR is an Axis II Disorder criteria that includes: * Intelligence Test Scores * Adaptive Functioning * Age of Onset (DSM-IV-TR, 2000) The Nature of Intellectual Disability
  5. 5. “Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.‖ IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) Definitions for Intellectual Disability
  6. 6. ―Characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. The disability originates before the age of 18.‖ AAIDD (American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) Definitions for Intellectual Disability
  7. 7. *Conceptual skills—language and literacy; money, time, and number concepts; and self-direction. *Social skills—interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem, gullibility, naïveté (i.e., wariness), social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules/obey laws and to avoid being victimized. *Practical skills—activities of daily living (personal care), occupational skills, healthcare, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, safety, use of money, use of the telephone.
  8. 8. *Mild IQ = 55 – 69 *Moderate IQ = 40 – 54 *Severe IQ = 25 – 39 *Profound IQ = below 25 Severity of ID based on the levels of intellectual functioning
  9. 9. Intellectual disability is the most common developmental disability. Approximately 6.5 million people in the United States have an intellectual disability. (IDEA) In the Philippines, intellectual disability comprises 7.02% of the total population of persons with disabilities. (2000 National Statistics Office Census) Prevalence of Intellectual Disability
  10. 10. PRENATAL CAUSES PERINATAL CAUSES POSTNATAL CAUSES 1. Chromosomal Disorders 2. Inborn Errors of Metabolism 3. Developmental Disorders of Brain Formation 4. Environmental Influences 1. Anoxia (complete deprivation of oxygen) 2. Low birth weight (LBW) 3. Syphilis and herpes simplex 1. Biological 2. Psychosocial 3. Child Abuse and Neglect Etiology and Classifications of Intellectual Disability
  12. 12. *Congenital intellectual disability *Involves heart defects, hearing loss, and abnormalities of fingers and hands. *Manifest self-injurious behavior (Pierangelo & Giuliani,2007) PRENATAL CAUSES Cornelia de Lange Syndrome
  13. 13. *Difficulty swallowing and sucking *Low birth weight and poor growth *Unusual facial features *Hyperactive, aggressive, and repetitive movements (Pierangelo & Giuliani,2007) PRENATAL CAUSES Cri-du-Chat Syndrome
  14. 14. *Also referred to as trisomy 21 *Usually not an inherited condition *The most common type of chromosomal disorder *It involves the anomaly at the 21st set of chromosomes. *People with DS exhibits unusual facial features and with broad hands with short fingers (Hallahan & Kauffman,2003) PRENATAL CAUSES Down’s Syndrome
  15. 15. *Sterility in men *Decreased IQ *Poor coordination *Skeletal abnormalities *Poor coordination (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2007) PRENATAL CAUSES Klinefelter’s Syndrome
  16. 16. *Inherited from father *Infants are lethargic and have difficulty eating but eventually becomes obsessed with food as they grow *The leading genetic cause of obesity. *People with Prader-Willi syndrome are at risk for a variety of other health problems such heart defects, kidney problems, scoliosis, etc. Prader-Willi Syndrome PRENATAL CAUSES (Hallahan & Kauffman,2003)
  17. 17. *Normally found in females *Persons with Turner’s syndrome has webbing of the neck, puffiness or swelling of the hands and feet *Associated with heart defects and kidney problems Turner’s Syndrome PRENATAL CAUSES (Pierangelo & Giuliani,2007)
  18. 18. *Caused by the absence of material on the seventh pair of chromosome. *People with William’s syndrome exhibit heart defects and “elfin” facial features. *Their unusual sensitivity to sound makes them competent in music and language despite of their low IQ level. William’s Syndrome PRENATAL CAUSES (Hallahan & Kauffman,2003) (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2007)
  19. 19. *Most common known hereditary cause of intellectual disability *Associated with X chromosome in the 23rd pair of chromosomes *Occurs less often in females *Persons with Fragile X Syndrome have behavior and emotional problems and poor socialization skills *They become anxious when routines are change *They have unusual facial features Fragile X Syndrome PRENATAL CAUSES (Hallahan & Kauffman,2003) (Piearangelo & Giuliani, 2007)
  21. 21. *Galactosemia - inability of the body to use simple sugar galactose *Hunter Syndrome – defective breakdown of chemical mucopolysaccharide. *Phenylketonuria (PKU) – inability of the body to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine) *Tay-Sachs Disease – absence of Hex-A enzyme. PRENATAL CAUSES (Piearangelo & Giuliani, 2007) Can be prevented through an early detection (e.g. newborn screening) and can be treated by providing a special diet program.
  23. 23. *The intellectual disability usually ranges from severe to profound. *There is no specific treatment and life expectancy is low. Microcephalus PRENATAL CAUSES (Hallahan & Kauffman,2003)
  24. 24. *Results from an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside or outside the brain. *The degree of intellectual disability depends on how early the condition is diagnosed and treated. Hydrocephalus PRENATAL CAUSES (Hallahan & Kauffman,2003)
  26. 26. *Maternal Malnutrition and Infection *Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) *Lead exposure *Illicit drug exposure *Exposure to Radiation *Rubella (German measles) PRENATAL CAUSES (Hallahan & Kauffman,2003) (Piearangelo & Giuliani, 2007)
  28. 28. *Anoxia (deprivation of oxygen) *Low birth weight (LBW) *Syphilis and herpes simplex PERINATAL CAUSES (Hallahan & Kauffman,2003)
  29. 29. POSTNATAL CAUSES Environmental and Psychosocial Problems
  30. 30. *Nutritional Problems *Adverse living conditions *Inadequate health care *Lack of early cognitive stimulation POSTNATAL CAUSES Environmental and Psychosocial Problems (Pierangelo & Giuliani,2007)
  31. 31. *Child abuse and neglect *Traumatic Brain Injury *Meningitis or Encephalitis *Lead Poisoning POSTNATAL CAUSES Environmental and Psychosocial Problems (Pierangelo & Giuliani,2007)
  32. 32. PLACEMENT PROGRAMS for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities
  33. 33. *For children with mild intellectual disability, readiness and functional academic skills are present and thus can be placed into Inclusion Programs. *Educational placement programs for children with moderate to severe intellectual disability can be more tedious. Curriculum and materials for these children should be age-appropriate, which should help develop independent behavior within the child. *Individualized Education Program (IEP) is designed to cater the special educational needs of special children. This is a useful and common vehicle to develop skills and educate children with intelletual disabilities who are in more severe cases. *Behavior Therapy Programs may also be employed, as they are very useful in altering behavior by lessening distruptive or inappropriate actions of a particular child. *Alternative Programs can also be incorporated in a child’s special education process. Such programs would include vocational training, physical education, theatre, music, etc.
  34. 34. *Unlike preschool programs for children at risk, in which the goal is to prevent intellectual disability from occurring, programs for infants and preschoolers who are already identified with intellectual disability are designed to help them achieve as high a cognitive level as possible (Hallahan & Kauffman, 2003). PLACEMENT PROGRAMS Early Childhood
  35. 35. *These programs gives more emphasis on conceptual and language development and usually involves speech and physical therapists most specially when children have multiple disabilities. PLACEMENT PROGRAMS Early Childhood
  36. 36. *Most authorities agree that although the degree of emphasis on transition programming should be greater for older than for younger students, such programming should begin in the elementary years (Hallahan & Kauffman, 2003). PLACEMENT PROGRAMS Transition to Adulthood
  37. 37. *Transition programming for individuals involves two related areas; first, community adjustment to acquire a number of self-help skills and second, employment to lead to a meaningful job. PLACEMENT PROGRAMS Transition to Adulthood
  38. 38. Current Researches about Intellectual Disability
  39. 39. Cerrero, M. E. (2009) Academic engagement of learners with moderate mental retardation through pictorial self-management and video self-modeling , Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of the Philippines – Diliman Clark, L.L. and Griffiths, P. (2008) Learning Disability and other Intellectual Impairments, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Davidson, P.W., Janicki, M.P. and Prasher, V.P. (2003) Mental Health, Intellectual Disabilities and Aging Process, Blackwell Publishing Definition of Intellectual Disability, AAIDD (2006) retrieved from: http://www.aaidd.org/content_100.cfm Drew, C.J. and Hardman, M.L. (2007) Intellectual Disabilities Across the Life Span, 9th edition, Pearson Education, Inc. Friend, M. (2011) Special Education: Contemporary Perspectives for School Professionals, 3rd edition, Pearson Education, Inc. Hallahan, D.P. and Kauffman, J. M. (2003) Exceptional Learners: Introduction to Special Education, 9th edition, Pearson Education, Inc. REFERENCES
  40. 40. Heward, L.W. (2006) Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education, 8th edition, Pearson Education, Inc. Intellectual Disability, Project IDEAL (2008) retrieved from: http://www.projectidealonline.org/intellectualDisabilities.php Koa, K.S. (2009) Young Adults with Mental Retardations:Their Response to Death, Grief and Bereavement, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, University of the Philippines – Diliman Oliver-Africano, P., Murphy, D., & Tyrer, P. (2009). Aggressive behaviour in adults with intellectual disability. CNS Drugs,23(11), 903-13. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11310930-000000000-00000 Pierangelo, R. & Giuliani G. (2007) The Educator’s Diagnostic Manual of Disabilities and Disorders, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Pownall, J. D., Jahoda, A., & Hastings, R. P. (2012). Sexuality and sex education of adolescents with intellectual disability: Mothers' attitudes, experiences, and support needs. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 50(2), 140-54. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/1022483830?accountid=141440 Salvador-Curalla, L., & Bertelli, M. (2007). 'Mental retardation' or 'intellectual disability': Time for a conceptual change.Psychopathology, 41(1), 10-6. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/233349678?accountid=141440